The First Active Houses in the Netherlands:Renovation of Houses in Montfoort

The sunlight light up the attic floor through the roof window.

Project Specs

Design:
Location:
Materials:

非常感谢 威卢克斯天窗 将以下内容授权gooood发行。更多关于他们:VELUX on gooood.
Appreciation towards VELUX for providing the following description:

 

改造背景

在1945~1975年间,荷兰修建了250万间住宅,其中有130万间是排房。如今,绝大多数都在等待翻新,以满足21世纪的需求。

Approximately half the current European building stock dates from between 1945 and 1980. A large number of these buildings are now worn out and are lagging behind new constructions in terms of comfort and indoor climate. Buildings in the Netherlands are no exception. In the next ten years, at least two million of the country’s two and a half million social housing homes will be in need of renovation. This presents a tremendous challenge. But it also makes the Netherlands an excellent case for rethinking renovation.

▼ 小镇中的建筑,Building in Montfoort

001-The First Active Houses in the Netherlands:Renovation of Houses in Montfoort

蒙特福德小镇(Montfoort)的普尔特街(Poorterstraat)与荷兰其他排房成群的街道看起来并无二样。成排列于街道两侧的二层楼房修建于1976年,有着平瓦屋顶、砖块立面和已褪色的浅蓝色木制外墙,以及颇引人注目的不对称屋顶结构。在入口处,一间间几乎无窗的房间(包括衣帽间、卫生间和储存间)一直延伸到路面上。从花园一侧观望,平平的屋顶几乎占据了建筑物一半的高度。

相比如今的新建房屋,这些排房的面积更大,这是住户们所感受到的唯一优点。但是其通风和采光效果却很差,屋顶又矮又斜,丝毫无益于改善室内光线;阁楼仅仅作为储藏空间使用。不仅如此,临街一侧的延伸部分遮挡了入口外立面的阳光。最重要的是,住户对普尔特街的名声都不大满意。

De Poorters van Montfoort is a refurbishment initiative based on the Active House principles using the solar solution. It involves a range of partners from the building industry and housing sector. (read more about the solar solution on p. 10). Their vision was realised in the Dutch town of Montfoort, but it is relevant everywhere − existing buildings are in need of change: renovation is not just about maintaining the past – it is a chance to prepare for the future.

The Poorterstraat district of Montfoort is an area with social housing. The 92 single- family houses have provided affordable homes for local families since the 1970s. However, after almost 40 years, the houses had become worn and uncomfortable by the standards of the 21st century. When the residents had their say, they came up with a list of shortcomings: draughty, gloomy, soaring energy costs and a general lack of space.

▼ 建筑外观,external view

008-The First Active Houses in the Netherlands:Renovation of Houses in Montfoort

而在最近的几个月里,蒙特福德普尔特街29~47号排房被改造成为荷兰首批“主动式住宅”,这10座排房通过翻新,获得了新的未来。这些房屋的屋顶通过发电、供热和提供光源3种方式对太阳能加以利用,显著提高了这些又大又深的空间的舒适度。

这10所主动式住宅只是诸多排房中的一小部分,它们的业主是GroenWest住宅基金会。它们的改造引发了社会对GroenWest住宅基金会的关注,正如前主席彼得·科泽利厄斯(Peter Korzelius)所说,“这里所有街道已成为新的旗帜项目,这真是件好事。普尔特街与邻街住宅的最大不同在于它们拓展了房顶阳台,使每一平方厘米的空间都能享受到阳光”。

The owner, housing association GroenWest, decided to embark on a major renovation and teamed up with the VELUX Group.
The renovation involved all houses, but ten homes were chosen for a sustainable transformation of greater scope. They were turned into buildings that produce energy, offer excellent living conditions and provide maximum daylight. In other words: Active Houses.

▼ 建筑外观,external view

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社会保障住宅的重点:材料的选择

房屋结构和外立面几乎完全翻新了,不仅实现了良好的通风,窗户还能够尽可能多地吸收太阳辐射,通过最有效的方式实现了能源目标。

房屋立面和屋顶的材料选择是另一个重要的问题。这10座房屋属于社会保障性住宅,而在荷兰有一条不成文的规定:社会性42住宅从外观上看不能有别于其他房屋。因此,项目的外立面采用了新的砖砌面层和粉饰黑色护墙板。从远处看,这种材料使人想起改造前的样子(图13)。但是,新的砖墙厚度只有过去的一半,这就意味着在无需增加基座厚度的前提下,墙身空腔(热绝缘空间)就已经变宽了。地板槽隙50cm下方处安装了外部保温材料,确保地板底部供暖。

At De Poorters van Montfoort, all parts of the building envelope were newly insulated. An entirely new roof was added; the existing facades received new insulation and a new brick facing, and the old, poorly insulated windows with their thin, aluminium frames were replaced with new, triple-glazed models with timber frames. The existing floor was replaced with a new highly insulated concrete floor.

▼ 建筑与其相邻建筑相差无几,the project’s facade is similar to the nearby building

005-The First Active Houses in the Netherlands:Renovation of Houses in Montfoort

 

改造理念:斜+立组合窗获取更多阳光

建筑师的改造策略在于打开房子的中部,让更多的阳光从顶部射入建筑物内。以前,房屋的阁楼只作为储藏空间,通过折叠楼梯进入。如今,阁楼被明显扩大,改造为起居室,通过永久性楼梯直达一楼。

空间的延伸还表现在建筑外立面——最引人注意的是阁楼上的三角墙。建筑师将三角墙设计成了阳光放大器,在现有非对称屋顶上安装了斜面加立面组合天窗、太阳能板和彩钢瓦。这种屋顶延伸方法使得阳光可从两侧射入到阁楼中。因此,如果住户将卧室安置在这一层,那么在清晨,他们将被东面屋顶平台射入的阳光所唤醒;傍晚,他们还能享受西侧高位屋顶天窗射入的太阳余晖。这缕余晖将通过房内的白色泥墙反射到对面的屋顶上。开放式新楼梯使更多的阳光直射到屋内地面和周边空间内,使室内明亮了许多。原先一层环绕楼梯的木头和玻璃隔板被低矮的栏杆所替代,使太阳光线自然泻入临近的走廊中。

The remodelling of the Poorterstraat houses has revitalised the design and upgraded the appearance of the buildings. But, most importantly, it has changed the lives of the residents. Edwin Hamelink is one of them. After living in Poorterstraat for 18 years with his wife and four children, he has experienced both the shortcomings of the past and the new possibilities of the future: “It would be fair to say that comfort was very bad before the remodelling. That has changed now,” he says. He especially appreciates how the remodelling has improved the daily life of his family. “We are amazed by the extra space in the attic.

Thanks to this extension, we now have four bedrooms. That is great for a family with four children,” explains Edwin Hamelink. The transformation has left him looking forward to living in Poorterstraat for a long time: “It is truly a brand new start that will hopefully go on for many years.”

The Active House renovated buildings in Poorterstraat have attained energy label A++. The renovation is expected to reduce the energy costs per house by around 130 euro a month, which is more than the rent increase needed to pay for the renovation.

▼ 阁楼上的三角墙,The triangle garble wall

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010-The First Active Houses in the Netherlands:Renovation of Houses in Montfoort

▼ 设计理念,concept

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房屋一、二层和立面窗户的大小并未作出改动。但是,设计师们将隔热效果差的老旧铝框窗户替换为了木框3层玻璃窗。

房屋的一楼为开放式厨房或者是餐厅和起居室,面积约为45m2,从入口侧一直延伸到花园。为了保障这一空间的开放型,楼梯只由踏板构成。因此,进入建筑物时,人们可以直接看到里面。过去,房屋墙面是老旧的吸光石膏灰泥,粗糙灰泥墙和墙面覆盖层阻碍了很多的阳光。如今被光滑的白色墙面和天花板所代替,可反射从窗户射入的太阳光。楼梯的旁边增设了一堵白墙,将日光反射到卧室。

Architect company BouwhulpGroep was given the task of implementing the Active House principles in the construction of the Poorterstraat houses. They decided to add extra space and light by making use of the houses’ unutilised attics. Every attic was enlarged and became an entity on its own, resulting in a new room and a rooftop terrace.

The ground floor, first floor and staircase were also remodelled to ensure that the daylight and air from above would benefit the entire house. Thanks to the abundant amounts of daylight, the rather narrow and deep buildings now feel light and spacious.

▼ 一层空间,first floor

015-The First Active Houses in the Netherlands:Renovation of Houses in Montfoort

016-The First Active Houses in the Netherlands:Renovation of Houses in Montfoort

一楼和阁楼的通透性会影响房屋的自然通风效果。顶楼新开的几扇屋顶天窗在楼梯井边起到了烟囱的作用,使一、二层的废气向上流通,最后从顶楼排出户外,保障了房屋在夏季的通风。冬季,配置CO2传感器的机械通风系统使温暖空气流通,舒适而健康。

Good ventilation in De Poorters van Montfoort is ensured in several ways: facade and automatically operated roof windows are strategically positioned on
all floors of the building, from ground level right up to the roof ridge. On the one hand, they provide horizontal cross-ventilation on the different floors; on the other, opening the roof windows on the top floor creates a (vertical) chimney effect around the open stairwell that channels the stale air up from both the floors below, and allows it to escape through the roof in to the open.

▼ 二层通往阁楼楼梯,staircase to the attic floor

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▼ 阁楼空间,the attic floor

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021-The First Active Houses in the Netherlands:Renovation of Houses in Montfoort

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023-The First Active Houses in the Netherlands:Renovation of Houses in Montfoort

 

能源:全方位太阳能解决方案

新房屋是依照威卢克斯(VELUX)和丹佛斯(Danfoss)一体化“太阳能解决方案”建造的,这是本项目能源理念的关键。这一元素集空间扩展、日光补给、通风和太阳能发电等多种功能于一身。

房子的朝向决定了屋顶能够“汲取”的阳光是多少。在西向的入口一侧,每个屋顶都安装有21m2的光伏板。东边屋脊处安装了一排太阳能板,用于供应热水。入口一侧安装的这两个系统有利于改善能源平衡。

Solar solution is a concept for the renovation of terraced houses and townhouses. Applying the Active House principles in existing buildings requires a different approach from that used in new build houses. In cooperation with Danfoss, the VELUX Group has developed the award-winning solar solution concept. Already implemented in a number of residential areas, solar solution inspired the refurbishment of the Poorterstraat houses.

Solar solution combines roof windows, solar-generated heat and electricity, ventilation, heat pumps and geothermal heating, with every aspect under full control. Well-proven technology makes it easy to monitor and manage indoor climate and energy consumption.

When it comes to remodelling existing houses, one size does not fit all. But solar solution can be adapted to almost every need.

▼ 光伏板与太阳能板,Photovoltaic panel and solar panel

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012-The First Active Houses in the Netherlands:Renovation of Houses in Montfoort

据建筑师推算,与改造前相比,房屋大约能够节省80%~90%的能量。除此之外,建筑物被改造为“全电力”的房子,无需燃气锅炉或烟囱。供热则通过地缘热泵和两个地缘热探针实现(每个屋子1个)。热泵的能源来自屋顶的光伏模块。所有重要的技术设备,例如热泵、热水箱和光伏系统逆变器等,都集中在临街一侧的杂物房内。改造后,排屋的能源利用等级达到A++。

An Active House is energy efficient and supplied by renewable energy sources integrated in the building or from the nearby collective energy system and electricity grid.

The design and orientation of an Active House, as well as the building components used in it, are therefore optimised to use as little energy as possible and to utilise renewable energy sources.

▼ 改造前后能效雷达图与对比,The Active House radar and energy performance

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改造效果:节省开支、节约空间和提升形象

在荷兰等国家,燃气价格很低,因此将老旧的燃气锅炉替换为可再生能源独立系统是一项大胆而富有前瞻性的举措。客户和建筑师们希望看到的是:随着矿物燃料价格的上涨,这一举措将被证明是值得的。根据Bouwhulp Groep建筑公司的计算,改造完后每月房租约上涨115欧元,但住户每月能够节省的能源费用约为130欧元。这样算来,相当于住房空间扩大了17 m2。

房租收入将帮助GroenWest住宅基金会偿还改造房子的成本——每户约13万欧元。在所有成本中,主动式住宅技术仅占了一小部分——绝大多数花费在了标准维护和翻新上。而作为一项研究和发展性投资,它将帮助公司在未来改造其他数千座房屋。正如GroenWest前主席彼得·科泽利厄斯在工程开工前所说的:“我们面临着这样一种情况,那就是我们必须改造1/3的公租房——也就是说,在未来的5~7年内,我们需要改造4000户住宅。这是一项庞大的工程。通过这项工程,我们希望了解在技术上如何能够最大限度地利用阳光并尽可能地减少能源消耗。”

对于租户而言,改造不仅意味着开支减少了,更重要的是,他们自己和邻居的居住环境都将大为改善。普尔特街曾经是蒙特福德最贫穷的地方,然而,现在它却成为蒙特福德的新地标,这里的住户因为他们能够居住上荷兰最特别的社会性住宅感到无比幸运。

Active House is a vision of buildings that create healthier and more comfortable lives for their occupants without impacting negatively on the climate – moving us towards a cleaner, healthier and safer world.

The Active House vision defines highly ambitious long-term goals for the future building stock. The purpose of the vision is to unite interested parties based on a balanced and holistic approach to building design and performance, and to facilitate cooperation on such activities as building projects, product development, research initiatives and performance targets that can move us further towards the vision.

The Active House principles propose
a target framework for how to design and renovate buildings that contribute positively to human health and well-being by focusing on the indoor and outdoor environment and the use of renewable energy. An Active House is evaluated on the basis of the interaction between energy consumption, indoor climate conditions and impact on the environment.

▼ 建筑改造后,After renovation / 建筑改造前,Before renovation

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结语

改造后的蒙特福小镇排房的能源消耗仅占荷兰新建房屋正常能源消耗一小部分,更重要的是,这些房屋的日光、新鲜空气、室内环境和健康材料应用都达到了很高的水平。

“主动式住宅”的理念核心在于设计适合住户的建筑物。在蒙特福德,设计师们将这一理念归纳为阳光、空气和空间。这3个方面是所有设计的关键——无论是在屋顶平台的延伸、楼梯光线设计或是室内空气质量方面。 “以人为本”的理念使蒙特福德的项目在其他节能翻新项目(包括 “被动式住宅”翻新)中脱颖而出。在被动式住宅设计中,建筑物起着主导作用;然而,在主动式住宅中,用户则是建筑物设计的核心。因此,主动式住宅强调住户在住宅内的主动作用,主动式住宅理念只是项目执行的一个部分,而非全部目标。

An Active House is the result of efforts to actively integrate the three main principles of comfort, energy and environment in the design of a building and in the finished building.

De Poorters of Montfoort are the first houses in the Netherlands renovated according to the principles of Active House, using a sustainable renovation concept developed by the VELUX Group and Danfoss. In Montfoort for the first time ten houses are sustainably renovated with the focus on a comfortable indoor climate. The unique design based on the principles of Active House creates a good balance between energy design, indoor climate and environment, with the main focus on comfort and health of the residents.

▼ 平面图,plan

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027-3-The First Active Houses in the Netherlands:Renovation of Houses in Montfoort

▼ 剖面,section

027-The First Active Houses in the Netherlands:Renovation of Houses in Montfoort 1

项目信息
客户:Stichting GroenWest,荷兰武尔登市(Woerden, NL)
建筑师:BouwhulpGroep,荷兰埃因霍温市(Eindhoven, NL)
施工方:BAM Woningbouw,荷兰沃海恩市(Nieuwegein, NL)
合作伙伴:威卢克斯(VELUX)和丹弗斯(Danfoss)
项目地点:荷兰蒙特福德普尔特街第29~47号
摄影:Torben Eskerod

MORE:  威卢克斯天窗  VELUX ,更多关于他们:VELUX on gooood.

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