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项目介绍 | Project Description
Baota Mountain is the symbol of Yan’an, it is also Yan’an’s most prominent tourist attraction. The Baota Mountain was built in the Tang Dynasty; it is an important historical and cultural heritage in China. The essence and the status of Baota Mountain is manifested in the saying “Yan’an Baota is the spiritual symbol of the Chinese Revolution.” Today, it is our duty to protect, inherit, and carry forward the identity of the Chinese Revolution.
Baota Mountain is located in the center of Yan’an City. It is constrained by the unique landform, i.e. “the three mountains and two rivers,” which limit the city development. The original tourist area was inadequately planned; the countless cave dwellings built by the local residents have severely destroyed the mountain’s ecology. The boundary between the living space and the tourist attraction became blurred, the disordered layouts have impacted the cultural landscape and natural landform, exerting negative influences to the cultural place of revolution. In July 2013, Yan’an suffered from heavy rainfall; the situation escalated and had caused mass collapses of cave dwellings. The mountain area near the tourist attraction has shown severe potentiality for geological hazard, affecting the architecture heritage, life, and properties of people. To ensure the safety of People, and to protect the natural and cultural landscape of the area, Yan’an Municipal Party Committee and the Municipal Government planned to protect and improve the local conditions in the attraction area. A tourist center was then proposed to enhance the tourist experience by providin¬¬g consultation, exhibitions, IT centers and parking.
▼项目位于延安市中心，project is located in the center of Yan’an City
缝合山水，修复生态 | Integrating the Landscape and Restoring the Ecology
The design proposal seeks to retain and repair the valuable architecture within the site, with the aim to preserve its history and locality. The slopes, mountain plank path, loose rocks, and cave dwellings have been carefully preserved and secured with reinforcement. In order to prevent the geological disaster, the site is also equipped with floodwater discharge, soil, and water conservation measures to cope with potential disasters. The restoration and reconstruction of the fragmented mountain ecology have significantly improved the environmental quality of the tourist attraction area.
地景建筑，融入环境 | Landscape Architecture, blend into surroundings
▼外观夜景，facade night view
In the Baota Mountain, the mountain and the pagoda are the two most important symbols in the area. All the artificial environment is built to emphasize and highlight the mountain and the pagoda. The relationship between the Baota Mountain, the Nanchuan River, the city, and the people are crucial elements in design considerations. The architecture adopts landscape as the medium, integrating with the mountain and river, embedded the architecture among the vast landscape. The architecture is not an isolated building; the main body of the building is to hide away the roof space blends into the landscape, creating a ceremonial space facing the Baota Mountain from South to North. As the Architecture runs through the North and south, space progresses along the central axis, following the terrain step by step. Through the entrance plaza to an open space, a green courtyard, and a water installation, the spaces have created a sense of monumentality, a reflection of site spirit through the spatial layout. Such an arrangement has reinforced the monumental image of the pagoda as the place for the revolutionary spirit. The undulating roof space has expanded the greenery space and plaza, a node for tourists to pause, enjoy, and communicate. Such space design has enhanced the visiting experience through a ceremonial route.
▼建筑主体西侧面向城市道路，the west side of the main building faces the city road
▼采用层层退台的建筑手法，削弱建筑的体量感，a terraced architecture is adopted to reduce the heaviness of the massing
▼作为游客驻足、游览、交流、活动的重要场所，a node for tourists to pause, enjoy, and communicate
就地取材，延续文脉 | Apply Local Materials and Continue the Context
As a continuation of the local culture, the architecture has adopted the local style, repairing and conserving the existing caves, blended with new buildings. The west side of the main building faces the city road; a terraced architecture is adopted to reduce the heaviness of the massing and integrate the architecture with the natural environment. The design also echoes the cave dwellings in the north, creating the symbiosis of the old and the new.The primary construction materials are local yellow sandstone, constructed with the traditional methods and hand-crafted by the local craftsmen. Under the strong sunlight of Yan’an, the material reflects a rich and vivid glow, creating rich shadow, texture, and color changes. The construction process of the building has not only protected the local architecture craftsmanship but also provided employment opportunities for the local craftsmen, which helped to achieve positive social impacts.
▼保留并修复场地内的原有窑洞，与新的建筑融为一体，the architecture has adopted the local style, repairing and conserving the existing caves, blended with new buildings
城景交融、公共客厅 | Public space blending with city and landscape
▼广场鸟瞰图，aerial view of the plaza
Within the building, there are courtyards in two different scales; they are the elements that realize the mutual penetration of buildings and landscape, the transition of indoor and outdoor spaces. The building roof blends-in with the surrounding environment, featuring a water landscape and a green plaza that interacts with the visitors. The pagoda is reflected in the water, presenting different atmospheres and sights at different times of the day. Through platforms, plazas, and courtyards at different levels, the activity space for tourists is expanded, the interaction between buildings and people is enhanced. Besides, large-scale plaza space has expanded the public sphere, providing space for public activities, becoming a popular destination for both tourists and the residents.
▼与游客互动的静水景观和绿地广场，宝塔倒映在水中，featuring a water landscape and a green plaza that interacts with the visitors
▼在一天的不同时刻呈现出不同的氛围和景象，the pagoda is reflected in the water, presenting different atmospheres and sights at different times of the day
▼自南向北不断递进，依山就势，逐级而上，as the Architecture runs through the North and south, space progresses along the central axis, following the terrain step by step
▼通过入口广场、开放空间、绿化庭院及景观水系的设置，营造具有纪念性、瞻仰性特征的空间格局和场所精神，Through the entrance plaza to an open space, a green courtyard, and a water installation, the spaces have created a sense of monumentality, a reflection of site spirit through the spatial layout
▼突显宝塔山作为中国革命精神标识的崇高形象，reinforcing the monumental image of the pagoda as the place for the revolutionary spirit
完善功能、服务大众 | Enhancing Functionality and Public Service.
The visitor center has enhanced the service and management of the Baota Mountain. The center provides visitors with tourism consultation, exhibitions, resting lounge, book bar, and Café. Besides, the visitor center is also the central command for smart management, exhibitions, and emergency operation. Furthermore, the visitor center provides 400 parking spaces, which solves the problem of insufficient parking in the tourist attraction area.
▼室内呼应建筑外部保留的现状排窑，the interior echoes the cave dwellings in the north
结语 | Conclusion
The Baota Mountain is inscribed with history; the rolling water is telling a story. The unique cultural and historical background of the Baota Mountain has unified with the natural environment. Through the use of local materials and techniques, the architecture has created a dialogue between the old and new. The revolutionary and cultural heritage is preserved; the Mountains’ ecology is restored; the quality of the urban culture is preserved. The project is primarily to serve the people, who are the key to the glorious past and the bright future.
▼任何人工环境的营造都是为了更好地突出山和塔，all the artificial environment is built to emphasize and highlight the mountain and the pagoda
▼建筑采用地景化的处理，作为山水缝合的媒介，完整地镶嵌于山水之间，the architecture adopts landscape as the medium, integrating with the mountain and river, embedded the architecture among the vast landscape
▼建筑远景，view from distance
项目名称 / Project： 延安宝塔山 / Yan’an Baota Mountain Tourist Centre
项目地点 / Project Location： 延安 / Yanan
建成时间 / Completion Time：2019
设计时间 / Design Time：2017
用地面积 / Site Area：160000 m2
建筑面积 / GFA：36810 m2
主创建筑师 / Principal in Charge：庄惟敏
设计团队 / Design Team： 庄惟敏，唐鸿骏，李匡，盛文革，张翼，许腾飞，陈蓉子，丁浩，范娟娟，曾琳雯，常云峰，杜仕成 / ZHUANG Weimin, TANG Hongjun, LI Kuang, SHENG Wenge, ZHANG Yi, XU Tengfei, CHEN Rongzi, DING hao, FAN Juanjuan, ZENG Linwen, CHANG Yunfeng, DU Shicheng.
获奖情况 / Awards： UIA（国际建筑师协会）2019第四届巴库国际建筑大奖（A–旅游建筑的最佳实践三等奖）
Fourth International Baku Architecture Award, Best-implemented project in the architecture of tourist facilities, Third Prize, 2019