2013ASLA :High Line, Section 2 / James Corner Field Operations, NYC

The greatness of a great city lies in the ground.

Project Specs

以前gooood曾在James Corner Field Operations授权下从另外的图文报道过高线公园二期。更多关于他们:James Corner Field Operations on gooood
James Corner Field Operations once authorized gooood to report High Line, Section 2 with text and images from other sources

“This is a great thing for the city. It continues the big idea of the first phase of the High Line, but they did experiment with some things. The rigor is there, but they are continuing with the inventiveness. This project touches people. It enhances human health, controls stormwater, and restores natural habitats.” —2013 Professional Awards Jury

“这是纽约的一项盛事。高线公园二期工程延续一期工程总体设计概念的同时加入了新的元素,严格中体现创新。二期工程更贴近公众,进一步实现了关注人类健康、控制雨水和保护自然生存环境的目标。”
—2013专业奖评审委员会

High Line, Section 2 by James Corner Field Operations, New York City :

纽约高线公园是由一条废弃高架铁路改造的城市公共空间。公园将各街区联系起来,为城市绿化树立了新的标杆。它创造了一种审视城市的新视角,是创新设计和可持续设计的代表性图标,对其他城市的景观设计具有启示性意义。它向人们证明景观能对城市生活的质量带来巨大改变。

The High Line is an elevated railroad reclaimed as an extraordinary public space, a connector of neighborhoods and a new model for the “greening”of the urban environment. It is creating a new way of seeing the city, is recognized as an icon for innovative design and sustainability and is an inspiration to other cities – proof of the dramatic change that landscape architecture can have on the quality of life in cities.

▼总平面:高线是由位于曼哈顿西侧街道上方的历史货运铁路线改造的公园。该公园从Gansevoort 延伸至西30街,目前长度为1英里。
Site Plan: The High Line is a public park built on an historic freight rail line elevated above the streets on Manhattan’s West Side. Running between Gansevoort and West 30th Streets, the High Line is now one mile in length.

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项目描述

项目基地及文脉
纽约高线公园位于曼哈顿西侧,跨越23个街区,其中与肉类加工区、西切尔西区及地狱厨房/克林顿区三个重要区域相连。高线公园原是建于20世纪30年代的空中货运铁道线。该轨道曾是西部开发项目的一部分,远离地面街道的铁路有效地保障了路面交通安全。20世纪80年代,弃用的高架铁路变成了城市的不和谐音符,面临着被拆毁的危险。当时,机会主义景观概念开始兴起,这让一小部分纽约人催生了将废弃铁道变成公园的想法。1999年,“高线之友”组织成立,该组织致力于挽救高线,提倡将高线转变为公共公园。现在高线公园的设想已经变为现实,公园归纽约政府所有,由“高线之友”负责维护和运营。高线公园一期工程从Gansevoort街跨越至20街(共九个街区),已于2009年6月向公众开放。2011年6月对外开放的二期工程从20街延伸至30街(共十个街区),其宽度增加了一倍,达到1m。一期工程出人意料的受欢迎程度为二期工程带来了巨大的挑战。新工程必须满足公众的高期待,并在已有模式和成就的基础上创造出新的刺激点。二期项目从北部西切尔西区的20街跨越到位于30街的西侧火车调度场的起始位置,该路段本身便具备了不一样的特点。与一期路段比较起来,二期路段更为狭窄、笔直。道路两旁历史仓库、住宅楼和新开发项目混杂分布。该路段更具亲和感,布局更为紧凑也更具隐秘性。置身其中会产生一种远离大城市,深入街区的感觉。

可持续性
作为宏伟的城市改造项目,高线工程的核心是“保护”和“再利用”。同时作为政治、生态、历史、社会和经济可持续项目,高线具有十分重要的意义。政治上,高线是检验社区行动力的试金石;生态上,高线是位于城市中央的6英亩绿色屋顶;历史上,高线作为改造项目将废弃铁道变为新公共空间;社会性上,高线是地方社区也是世界级公园,家庭、游客和社区民众在此会面和交流;经济上,作为企业参与的项目,高线展示了公共空间促进税收,招商和刺激当地经济增长的能力。二期工程将半英里的基础设施区域改造成草地,降低了热岛效应并创造了意义非凡的生态环境。300种精心挑选的植物在当地的环境条件下形成了特色的本土景观。绿色屋顶及开放的拼接路面增强了持水性、排水性和通风效果,减少了灌溉需求。此外还大量回收利用废弃木材、钢材和来自当地的混凝土骨料等。公园采用节能的LED照明系统;货摊上出售当地的可持续生长食物;各类免费教育项目向社区民众开放。

为什么“高线”是独特的?
高线与城市的紧密联系是促使该项目强大而独特的原因。它以毫不间断的姿态横向切入多变的城市景观中。不同建筑类型的混合及其与高线的联系方式,以及将视线导向哈德逊河、街区街道和标志性城市纪念碑的道路设计为人们带来真实的纽约体验,这是高线为何如此吸引人的原因之一。高线不仅仅是一片普通的区域,更是一段旅程。在这段旅程中,“漫步”的理念重新融入城市公园体验中。高出地面30英尺的空中步道带来了独特的城市体验,人们在深入城市的同时也在远离城市。高线的设计将城市作为灵感激发点和交流媒介,与起初“逃离”城市的构想截然相反。很多对周围环境早已了然于心的纽约人也不禁走上高线,以一种全新的视角一睹城市风采,往往能够收获意想不到的惊喜。

设计意图
我们始终坚持尊重高线固有特点的立场不变;将已存在元素作为重点,在旧作的基础上增添新内容。“简单、野性、慢、静”是贯穿整个设计始终的八字准则。高线公园没有精心设计的干预措施,只是简单地强化原有肌理。我们希望设计为大众带来一段沉浸式体验、悠闲的徜徉小道和嵌入城市中的超现实旅程。该项目通过适应性再利用已有结构将“保护”和“创新”结合起来,打造了全新的、迷人的、独一无二的娱乐设施和公共走道。

材料
设计通过使用结实的工业材料(如混凝土、耐候钢、回收木材)反映了高线曾经的铁路线身份,并打造出废弃景观的荒凉感;选择的草类和多年生植物及其布局营造了动态的野生景观;铁轨和道岔等旧元素被重新置入;特殊地点、入口和十字路口的原结构被保留并显露出来。站在新公园内观察,上述几点构成了对该项目区域的全新诠释。高线的植被、装饰、路面、灯光和公共设施都属于同一综合系统,系统中的各个元素在有限的宽度和长度内发挥各自的功能,共同构成了令人神往的公园景观。路面采用创新科技,适合步行。单独混凝土板构成的路面中留有接缝;道路边缘特意设计成锥形;路旁的土地上铺就了植被和轨道;这样雨水可以自由流入栽种植物的土壤层,从而减少灌溉需求。特制的长椅伸出路面,形成优雅的悬臂结构。这些长椅或用于观赏风景,或用于聊天交流。二期工程中采用的材料和基本设计元素延续了一期工程的简洁特点,同时在此基础上带来了一些微妙的惊喜元素,如直接将铁轨嵌入路面系统、公园中仅设一处草坪等。

公园人行道
二期沿线一系列特色鲜明的空间进一步强调了项目区域的独特性,如灌木丛、阶梯式坐席+草坪、“林地立交桥”+观景台、野花种植区、径向长椅和缺口区域。灌木丛区域位于20街和22街之间,密集的开花灌木和小树暗示着高线公园第二阶段的开端,成为通往西切尔西区住宅区的分界点和门户。位于22街的“阶梯式坐席”区可用于即兴表演、家庭野餐、浪漫的室外聚餐、艺术课堂和日光浴等各类活动。位于23街、占地面积4900平方英尺的草坪高于街面,将人们往上“抬升”几英尺,并带来清晰的河流视野。在25街和26街之间的“林地立交桥”区域有一条高于高线路面8英尺的金属走道,植物在高架桥下方肆意生长,同时又将人们带入树冠深处。眺望台构成了主道的枝丫。26街的观景台提供了极佳的城市视野,同时让人回忆起曾经的广告牌。顽强的抗旱草和在不同季节开花的多年生植物主宰了位于26街至29街之间的“野花种植区”。始自29街的长长的柔和弧线伸向哈德逊河,道路边缘长达一个街区的“径向长椅”与之呼应。在二期工程的北部终点处,路面缓缓升起,其下方的混凝土板被移除,暴露出原有的结构。一座观景平台悬空于该“缺口区域”之上,人们可以透过下方的结构看到30街流动的交通,带来了超现实主义的体验。

意义和启发
作为复兴曼哈顿西部地区的重要一环,高线已经成为该区域的标志性特色,并成为刺激投资的有力催化剂。2005年,该市对高线周围的区域进行了重新划分以更好地促进发展和保护原有的街区特点。重新分区措施和高线公园的成功帮助该区域成为纽约发展最快、最具活力的街区。在过去的十年中人口增长率超过60%。自2006年起,高线周围新许可的建筑项目成倍增长,至少已经开启了29个重要发展项目(其中19个已经建成,其余10个正在建设当中)。这些项目带来了超过20亿美元的私人投资和12000个就业机会。惠特尼美国艺术博物馆位于市中心的新馆项目已经启动,该新馆将成为高线南端的重要文化据点。高线公园采用形象化的设计,并与当地的具体条件相契合—这种坚持本真的态度吸引了一批忠实的拥护者和支持者,并启发其他城市探索复制该模式的可行性。

▼鸟瞰图(南向):高线一期于2009年6月开放,二期于2011年6月开放。公园开放时正值夏天,30街迎来了一座临时啤酒花园和溜冰场。
Aerial View Looking South: The first section of the High Line opened in June of 2009, the second section in June of 2011. That summer, a temporarybeer garden and roller rink anchored the ground level on 30th Street.

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▼切尔西灌木丛:人们从切尔西草地的草原式景观向北行走会来到由开花灌木和小树构成的茂密植被区,这是高线公园二期工程的起始段(位于20街和22街中间)。
Chelsea Thicket: As visitors move north from the Chelsea Grasslands’ prairie-like landscape, a dense planting of flowering shrubs and small trees indicates the beginning of a new section of the park, between West 20th and West 22nd Streets.

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▼径向长椅:高线在29街开始形成一条向哈德逊河延伸的柔和的长弧线,成为公园与西侧铁路站场之间的过渡区域。道路沿线设有一排长长的木质长凳。
Radial Bench: At West 29th Street, the High Line begins a long, gentle curve toward the Hudson River, signifying a transition to the West Side Rail
Yards. A long wooden bench sweeps westward along the edge of the pathway.

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▼23街草坪:高线公园北端的高架草坪将人们往上“抬升”几英尺,东部可以看到布鲁克林区,西部可以看到哈德逊河及新泽西的景观。
23rd Street Lawn: At its northern end, the Lawn “peels up,” lifting visitors several feet into the air and offering views of Brooklyn to the east, and the Hudson River and New Jersey to the west.

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▼公共艺术空间:2009年成立的高线艺术组织呈现了一系列了艺术元素,如展览、表演、影视、广告牌植入等。图片展示的是Sarah Sze创作的艺术装置“静物与风景”(生境模型)。
Space for Public Art: Founded in 2009, High Line Art presents a wide array of artwork including site-specific commissions, exhibitions, performances, video programs, and a series of billboard interventions. Shown here is Sarah Sze’s Still Life with Landscape (Model for a Habitat).

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▼林地立交桥:沿线各眺望点构成道路的枝丫,引人驻足停留,欣赏下方的绿色植物和远方的城市。
The Woodland Flyover: At various points, overlooks branch off the walkway, creating opportunities to pause and enjoy views of the plantings below and the city beyond.

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▼林地立交桥鸟瞰图:一条金属走道高于高线公园路面八英尺,地被植物如地毯般铺在下方起伏的地面上,同时参观者登上高高的走道与漆树和玉兰树的树冠亲密接触。
Aerial View of The Woodland Flyover: A metal walkway rises eight feet above the High Line, allowing groundcover plants to blanket the undulating terrain below, and carrying visitors upward, into a canopy of sumac and magnolia trees.

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▼26街观景台:位于26街的观景台带来开阔的城市视野,同时唤起人们对于高线公园旁广告牌的记忆。
26th Street Viewing Spur: At West 26th Street, the Viewing Spur’s frame enhances views of the city while recalling the billboards that were once attached to the High Line.

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▼切尔西草地:受到铁路停运之后路面野生植物景观的启发,高线设计团队在切尔西草地区域栽种了野草和生命力强的野花,为四季增添色彩和纹理。
Chelsea Grasslands: Inspired by the self-sown landscape that grew on the High Line when the trains stopped running, the High Line design team filled the Chelsea Grasslands with wild grasses and vibrant wildflowers that add color and texture throughout four seasons.

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▼野花种植区:在简洁的直线步道沿线,野花在原铁路轨道的缝隙中肆意生长;人们可以享受伸向城市的绿色轴线的天然之美。
Wildflower Field: The simplicity of the straight walkway, running alongside the wildflowers interspersed between the original railroad tracks, allows visitors to appreciate the green axis of the High Line, as it moves through the city.

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▼23街草坪和阶梯式坐席:该区域两侧多出的面积被用来打造紧凑的空间;用再生柚木制成的阶梯式坐席锚固在4900平方英尺草坪的南端。
23rd Street Lawn and Seating Steps: The extra width in this area was used to create a gathering space, with Seating Steps made of reclaimed teak anchoring the southern end of a 4,900-square-foot lawn.

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▼林地立交桥:一条金属走道高于高线公园路面八英尺,地被植物如地毯般铺在下方起伏的地面上,同时参观者登上高高的走道与漆树和玉兰树的树冠亲密接触。
The Woodland Flyover: A metal walkway rises eight feet above the High Line, allowing groundcover plants to blanket the undulating terrain below, and carrying visitors upward, into a canopy of trees.

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▼30街缺口区域和观景平台:靠近二期工程北部终点处的混凝土甲板被移除,露出了牢固的高线钢筋构架。
30th Street Cut-Out and Viewing Platform: Near the northern terminus of Section 2 the concrete decking has been removed, showcasing the strength of the High Line’s steel frame.

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▼立交桥下的绿植景观:高架沿线的植物图景不断变幻。不同季节呈现出的丰富色彩、纹理变化酬谢每一位多次来此参观的人们。
Planting View Under the Flyover: The High Line has a continually changing palette of plants. It rewards repeat visits in all seasons with its huge range of colors, textures and relationships.

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▼绿植:轨道缝隙中野花在不同的时节盛开(从一月下旬持续到十一月中旬),带来了变化多端的景致。高线公园沿线种植了种类繁多的植物,为昆虫和鸟类创造了理想的栖息地,并为参观者带来丰富的体验。
Planting: The plantings emphasize diversity in bloom times, with plants blooming from late January to mid-November. The High Line has an extraordinary number and diversity of plants, which create a rich habitat for insects and birds and a rich experience for visitors.

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Project Narrative

Site and Context
The High Line spans over twenty-three city blocks on Manhattan’s West Side, connecting and interacting with 3 distinctive neighborhoods: the Meatpacking District, West Chelsea, and Hell’s Kitchen/Clinton. It was built in the 1930’s as part of the West Side Improvement Project to lift freight traffic in the air, removing dangerous trains from the streets below. Left unused since 1980, the line was considered an eyesore in the neighborhood and was under threat of demolition. During that time an opportunistic landscape began to grow, capturing the imagination of a few New Yorkers and triggering the idea for its conversion into a park. In 1999, the Friends of the High Line formed with the mission to save the High Line and transform it into an extraordinary public park. The High Line Park is now built, owned by the City of New York, and maintained and operated by Friends of the High Line. Section 1 opened in June of 2009, from Gansevoort Street to 20th Street (9 blocks). Section 2 opened in June of 2011, from 20th Street to 30th Street (10 blocks), doubling the length of the park to 1 mile in length. The popularity of the first section far exceeded everyone’s expectations, so a challenge for Section 2 was to live up to this promise, build upon its identity and success and create something new and exciting. The site itself provided the inspiration. Section 2 has its own distinct identity as it moves north from 20th Street in West Chelsea to the beginning of the West Side Rail Yards at 30th Street. It is narrower and straighter, bounded on both sides by an eclectic mix of historic warehouses, residential buildings and new development. The scale is much more intimate, intense, even voyeuristic, creating a feeling of being more removed from the big city and more immersed in the neighborhood.

Truly Sustainable
As an ambitious urban reclamation project, the High Line’s very essence is born out of the desire to preserve and recycle. It is significant and meaningful as a project that is politically, ecologically, historically, socially, and economically sustainable. Politically as a testament to community activism, saved by 2 neighborhood residents; Ecologically as a 6-acre green roof in the middle of the city; Historically as a retrofit project, transforming an abandoned rail line into a new public space; Socially as both a neighborhood and world-class park, where families, tourists, and the community meet and socialize; and Economically as an entrepreneurial effort that has demonstrated the ability of public spaces to generate revenue, attract businesses, and stimulate local economic growth. Section 2 transforms half a mile of infrastructure into parkland, reducing the heat island effect and creating significant habitat. Over 300 species were carefully selected to produce a primarily native landscape working with specific environmental conditions. Green-roof technologies along with open joint pavement enhance water retention, drainage and aeration and minimize irrigation requirements. Recycled materials are promoted including reclaimed wood, recycled steel and local aggregate for precast concrete. The park is lit with energy-efficient LED lighting, local and sustainably grown food is promoted at concession stands and a variety of freeeducational programs are offered to the community.

Why the High Line Is Unique
The High Line’s relationship to the City is what makes it so powerful and unique. It is a consistent transect through a varied city landscape. The mix of building types and how they meet the High Line, along with the intimate choreography of the pathways directed towards views of the Hudson River, neighborhood streets and iconic city monuments is an authentic New York experience and part of what makes it so appealing. It is a journey, in addition to a place, and has thus reintroduced the notion of ‘promenading’ back into the urban park experience. Elevated 30 feet above the ground, the High Line provides a unique urban experience; where one is both a part of the City and removed from the City at the same time. Incontrast to being envisioned primarily as an ‘escape’ from the City, the High Line design uses the City for inspiration and exchange. Even New Yorkers familiar with their surroundings, come up onto the High Line and see their city in a new and unexpected way.

Design Intent
It has always been our position to respect the innate character of the High Line itself; to capitalize on what is already there and to “grow” something new out of something old. The mantra throughout the design process was’Keep it Simple, Keep it Wild, Keep it Slow, and Keep it Quiet’. The intent was not to overdesign the park with elaborate interventions, but rather intensify the existing context and design it as an immersive experience, episodic walk and surreal journey in the City. In this project, preservation and innovation come together through the adaptive reuse of the existing structure as a new, compelling, one-of-a kind recreational amenity and public promenade.

Materials
The High Line’s past as both a working railroad and abandoned landscape are reflected in the design through the use of industrial and robust materials (concrete, weathered steel, reclaimed wood); the selection and arrangement of grasses and perennials to further define a wild and dynamic landscape; the integration of historical artifacts such as reinstalled rail tracks and switches; and the preservation and exposure of the existing structure at features, access points and cross streets. When observed in the context of the new park, these features allow for a fresh interpretation of the site. Designed as an integrated system, the High Line’s plantings, furnishing, paving, lighting and utilities were conceived and built as one system, working together within the limited width and depth of the structure itself. The signature paving is an innovative technology in as much as it is a walking surface; built from individual concrete planks with open joints and specially tapered edges and seams that integrate planting and rail tracks, permit the free flow of water, direct water to planting beds and minimize irrigation requirements. The custom designed ‘peel-up’ bench grows out of the paving, rising to form an elegant cantilevered bench oriented towards particular views or arranged for increased sociability. In Section 2, the simplicity in design material and basic design elements remain consistent with Section 1, with some subtle surprises that expand upon the High Line ‘DNA’, such as embedding the rail tracks directly into the paving system or introducing the only lawn in the park.

A Walk in the Park
Unique site conditions are further emphasized through a sequence of distinctive rooms along Section 2, including the Thicket, the Seating Steps + Lawn, the Woodland Flyover + Viewing Spur, the Wildflower Field, the Radial Bench and the Cut-out. In the ‘Thicket’, between 20th and 22nd Streets, a dense planting of flowering shrubs and small trees indicates the beginning of a new section of the park, creating an enclosure and gateway into the residential neighborhood of West Chelsea. At 22nd Street, the ‘Seating Steps’ are used for a range of activities including impromptu performances, family picnics, romantic outdoor dinners, art classes and sunbathing. A 4,900-square-foot lawn “peels up” over 23rd Street, lifting visitors several feet into the air and offering views from river to river. In the ‘Woodland Flyover,’ between 25th and 26th Streets, a metal walkway rises 8 feet above the High Line, allowing plants to grow underneath while carrying visitors into a canopy of trees. Overlooks branch off the walkway, including the 26th Street Viewing Spur whose frame enhances views of the city while recalling the billboards that were once there. The ‘Wildflower Field’ between 26th and 29th Streets, is dominated by hardy, drought-resistance grasses and perennials with variation in blooms throughout the year. At 29th Street, the High Line begins a long, gentle curve toward the Hudson River, echoed by a nearly 1-block long ‘Radial Bench’. At the northern terminus of Section 2, the pathway slowly rises above an area where the concrete decking has been removed, showcasing the existing structure. A viewing platform hovers above this ‘Cut-Out’, creating a surreal moment where visitors can peer down through the structure to the traffic below on 30th Street.

Impact and Inspiration
Recognized as a significant contributor in the revitalization of Manhattan’s West Side, the High Line has become a defining feature in its neighborhood and a powerful catalyst for investment. In 2005, the City rezoned the area around the High Line to encourage development while protecting the neighborhood character. The combination of the rezoning and the success of the park have helped to create one of the fastest growing and most vibrant neighborhoods in NYC, with a population increase of more than 60 percent in the last 10 years. Since 2006, new building permits around the High Line doubled and at least 29 major development projects have been initiated (19 completed, 10 underway) accounting for more than $2 billion in private investment including 12,000 new jobs. Construction has begun on a new downtown home for theWhitney Museum of American Art, which will serve as a major cultural anchor at the southern end of the High Line. The design of the park is iconic and specific to its place – this authenticity has generated a loyal group of supporters and devoted fans and has inspired other cities to investigate the feasibility of replicating it in their cities. (VIA: ASLA)

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