“Shared and governed” public Spaces for The town of Chengkou county

The collective memory of a village

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非常感谢 赵金祥 予gooood分享以下内容。Appreciations towards Zhao Jinxiang for providing the following description:

“久不唱歌忘了歌,久不行船忘了河,久不归家忘了路”——一位老人用山歌为我们讲述了被淹在湖中老家的故事。

 

村庄的集体记忆

城口县巴山镇地处川陕渝三省交界处,巴山镇的坪上村是一个背靠大巴山面朝巴山湖的移民新村,村庄沿道路呈线形分布建在山腰处,村民是库区移民时从周边集中安置此处,呈现小聚居大分散布局,因库区湖岸坡度大导致适宜建设的公共空间缺乏以及新村民之间的陌生感等原因,村民公共活动空间受限,在乡村旅游旺季还要面对游客停车疏散与垃圾治理等问题。由此,为村民和游客打造一系列满足生产生活需要,且有助于乡村旅游发展的“共享共治”式公共空间,成为迫切需求。

The town of Chengkou county is located in the junction of Sichuan, Shanxi and Chongqing provinces. PingShang village of Bashan town is a back facing Daba Mountain Lake immigrant village, village along the road in a linear distribution built on the mountain. The villagers are placed when the reservoir migrants from the surrounding concentrated here, present small enclaves scattered layout, the villagers are migrants when centralized resettlement here from the surrounding land, because of the limitations caused by the lack of public space and the village people strangeness and other reasons, etc. Therefore, it has become an urgent need to create a series of “Shared and governed” public Spaces for villagers and tourists to meet the needs of production and life and contribute to the development of rural tourism.

▼从村庄看大巴山和巴山湖,facing Daba Mountain Lake

 

重建联系

一个村庄的集体记忆对人居环境生成的作用是影响深远的,同时这种记忆一旦形成信念也会为人居环境注入精神与魅力。我们在坪上村通过调研走访与村民大会的形式得知了村民对淹在湖下的黄溪老家记忆深刻。经与村民讨论,我们试图让村口空间与 “老家”的记忆发生联系。

The collective memory of a village has a profound influence on the generation of human living environment. At the same time, once the belief is formed, such memory will inject spirit and charm into the living environment. In pingshang village, we learned that the villagers have a deep memory of huangxi’s hometown under the lake through investigation, visit and villagers’ meeting. After discussing with the villagers, we tried to connect the murakou space with the memory of the “hometown”.

针对村民的方案交流是这个设计开放框架的重要环节,这是一个激发乡建主体性的过程。当我们在村委办公室为村民介绍村口公共空间与黄溪老街发生关联的设计想法时,方言的隔阂被打破了,喧闹的村委变得安静。他们理解这个想法并产生了共鸣,设计师与村民之间的信任得以建立,并在今后的工作中保持下去。

The program exchange for villagers is an important part of the open framework of the design, which is a process to stimulate the subjectivity of rural construction. When we were in the village committee office to introduce the villagers to the design idea of the link between the village public space and huangxi old street, the gap between dialects was broken and the noisy village committee became quiet. They understood and sympathized with this idea, and the trust between the designer and the villagers was established and maintained in the future work.

▼村标建成照片,Village sign completion photo.

 

材料

村口场地是一个局促的陡坡,村标设计利用湖边村民熟悉的船型观景台,通过竖向与悬挑让空间延伸至山水之间。采用当地的石板瓦与山石结合垛木结构,回应当地传统;采用锈板作为字体与图案的底板,使砖红色的标识与当地的块石相映衬,加强了与村庄环境的联系;增加村民熟悉的构件元素,引起共鸣。

The village entrance site is a narrow steep slope. The village logo design USES the familiar boat observation platform of the villagers by the lake to extend the space between the mountains and waters through vertical direction and overhanging. The local SLATE and rocks are combined with the stack wood structure to respond to local traditions. The rust plate is used as the base plate of font and pattern, making the brick red mark set off against the local block stone, strengthening the connection with the village environment. Add familiar component elements to create resonance

▼村标及其结构轴侧图,Village sign&Axonometric drawing

  

 

乡愁的渡口

场地动线设计是基于人与场所的对话关系展开的,希望人们了解这个新村庄与湖的那段历史。首先人穿过由塔型村标构筑的一种仪式化的平台空间入口,看到有关黄溪老街的介绍;接着远眺黄溪老街的水下遗址。此时,人与老街产生了空间上与心理上的联系。我们将设计理解为一种开放的框架。

The site moving line design is based on the dialogue between people and places, hoping that people can understand the history of the new village and the lake. First, people walk through a ritualized platform space entrance constructed by the tower village logo and see the introduction of huangxi old street. Then overlooking the huangxi old street underwater ruins. At this time, people and the old street produced a spatial and psychological connection. We understand design as an open framework.

通常乡村建设是从建筑入手,而坪上村公共空间资源匮乏,我们以乡村公共空间景观设计介入整体改造建设,激活村庄公共生活与集体回忆,重新凝聚人心。村标建成后,我们看见年轻人将这里作为新的公共场所,或者说这里是连接新旧之地通往乡愁的渡口。

Usually from the construction of rural construction, resource scarcity and ping village public space, we according to the construction of rural public space landscape design in the overall transform, activate the village public life and collective memory, reuniting the heart. When the village was built, we saw young people using it as a new public place, or as a ferry that connects old and new places to old ones.

▼乡愁的渡口,a ferry that connects old and new

 

“共治”式景观设计探索:

在探索村庄与旅游的关系时,我们遵循了环境教育与垃圾治理小闭环结合设计的原则,村庄聚居点距离巴山湖湖面有上百米的高差,下湖沿途垃圾的管理与搜集非常困难,设计希望将村庄小学改造与滨湖游线上一系列公共空间结合起来,让校园的环境教育课程可在滨湖的公共空间展开,增加沿途村民和游客环境教育参与感,激发村民与游客共同维护沿途环境的主体性,形成可以“共享共治”的乡村公共环境。

Exploring the relationship between village and travel, we follow the environmental education combined with small garbage management closed loop design principle, the village settlements from bashan lake, the lake is hundreds of meters elevation difference, the waste management and is very difficult to gather along the lake, design wants to renovation and lakeside village primary school online combining a series of public space, make the campus environment education courses available in the public space of lakeside, increase along the villagers and tourists feel a sense of environmental education, to inspire the subjectivity of the villagers and tourists jointly maintain the environment along the way, can form “sharing power-sharing between rural public environment.

▼村庄小学与与周边公共空间模型鸟瞰图 ,Aerial view of village primary school and surrounding public space model

设计依据乡建院社区营造团队制定的垃圾分类方法和培训动线,选在下湖主路结合村民广场及停车场的位置设计了以垃圾分类回收和雨水搜集花园等主题为主的景观节点。社造团队对小学生进行垃圾分类课程指导,同时希望通过一系列环境教育主题景观空间营造,引导游客在欣赏村庄与湖区的如画风景中参与到村庄湖区小闭环的垃圾治理中。

Design according to the township to build school community construction team of garbage classification method and training line, choose the lake and the location of the parking lot was designed in combination with the villagers of the main square in garbage classification and recycling rainwater collecting topics such as garden landscape nodes. Club team garbage classification for elementary school curriculum guide, at the same time hope that through a series of environmental education theme landscape space construction, guide the visitor in villages and to participate in the village in the picturesque scenery of the lake area small loop of waste management in.

▼垃圾分类方法和培训动线的起点,the starting point of garbage classification method and training line

 

重识乡村垃圾

在乡村,垃圾是放错了地方的资源。从乡村垃圾的源头看,可用来堆肥的餐厨和焚烧的其他垃圾占大多数。当乡村旅游发展起来后,一是游客本身会带来大量的不可回收垃圾,二是村民为满足游客需求会过度消耗在地资源从而带来的过剩垃圾,这给当地乡村环境整体带来了极大的生态环境压力,而坪上村又是全国水源保护地与国家级湿地公园,设计选择通过垃圾治理生态小环境闭环式的景观设计处理乡村旅游与生态保护的关系。

In the countryside, garbage is a misplaced resource. From the source of rural waste, compost kitchens and other waste incinerators account for the majority. After the rural tourism development, is one of tourists itself can bring a lot of recycling, the second is the villagers to meet the demand of tourists would be excessive consumption in garbage resources resulting in excess, it brings to the local rural environment as a whole the huge ecological environment pressure, and ping village is the national water source protected area and the national wetland park, design choices by small garbage governance ecology environment landscape design of closed loop type deal with the relationship between rural tourism and ecological protection.

▼用砖、水泥砌块、废弃酒瓶设计的垃圾分类回收场地,Garbage sorting and recycling site designed with brick, cement block and discarded wine bottle

利用垃圾分类原则,因地制宜,将废弃物分流处理,利用现有生产制造垃圾,回收利用回收品,如乡村自生产可堆肥垃圾等,填埋处置暂时无法利用的无用垃圾,并利用设计将垃圾分类中心的标识以不同颜色进行区分,以设计达到视觉冲击感,从而调动起当地村民的垃圾分类处理的自觉性,垃圾分类场地由乡建院社工团队组织村子内外的小朋友进行垃圾分类课堂体验,小朋友们通过担任课堂体验游戏中的“分拣员”角色学习一些简单的有机肥处理方式,学会了垃圾分类的小朋友们也逐渐担任起村庄的垃圾监督员的角色,这一系列行动让村民重新认识了垃圾。

Using garbage classification principles, adjust measures to local conditions, will be treated as waste diversion and use of the existing manufacturing waste, recycling recycling products, such as rural compostable waste from the production, useless garbage landfill temporarily unable to use, and use the logo design will be garbage sorting center according to the different colors to distinguish, in order to design achieve visual impact feeling, so as to mobilize the local villagers garbage classification processing of self-consciousness, garbage sorting area built by township hospital social work team organize the inside and outside of the village children classroom experience they sort the garbage, Children through classroom “sorting” experience the game roles learn some simple organic manure treatment, children learned to garbage classification also gradually became village garbage supervisor role, this a series of actions to the villagers to the garbage.

▼垃圾分类体验课,Garbage classification Experience Class

环境教育:设计希望通过可参与的环境教育主题化景观设计串联村民广场、雨水花园、垃圾分类回收中心、誓言台等节点,力图表达湖泊环境于乡村的不同意义体验。这种体验设计策略首先是通过对湖景山林运用框景、对景手法来强化村庄自然要素(比如村民儿时栽种的树木)与景观设施的共生关系,其次是以满足日常垃圾分类回收及环境教育的场地需求进行景观化的处理来体现;最后将这些景观片段的体验感在一个象征新的集体记忆的誓言台处进行升华。誓言台设计利用镀锌钢板材质对周边环境的反射效果营造一个冥想之地,并由上部分的透明材质和下部分的非透明材质相结合,通过以不透明材质高差起伏的变化,打造了一个山脉的缩影图,再通过地面的趣味导视说明提示游客将不能带下湖的垃圾(不可腐烂类垃圾)集中到垃圾分类回收池,实现以设计带动体验者共享共治的目的。

Environmental education: design hopes to participate in environmental education theme square landscape design series villagers, rain garden, garbage sorting recycling center, the stage of oath nodes, attempted to convey a different meaning of lake environment in rural experience. The experience design strategy, first of all, by using of jingshan lake forest, framing and techniques of places, to strengthen the village natural elements (such as the villagers childhood) of trees and landscape facilities of symbiosis, the second is to meet daily garbage sorting recycling and environmental education of landscape is reflected to the processing of space requirements; Finally, the experience of these landscape fragments is sublimated in an oath stand symbolizing a new collective memory. Oath platform design use galvanized steel material reflection effects to the periphery environment of build a place for meditation, and on the part of the transparent material and the lower part of the opaque material combination, through changing with opaque material of ups and downs, create a microcosm of a mountain range chart, again through the ground of interest advertising that prompts visitors will not be taken down lake rubbish rot (spam) on the garbage sorting recycling pool, implementation to design driving experience sharing the purpose of the work.

▼村民广场的誓言台,The vows of the villager’s Square

 

废旧材料与低技术营造

设计考虑到当地乡村工人施工水平和施工条件等因素选择以低技术的建造结合当地材料为主,建造材料主要由便于加工的预制水泥块、砖木和废弃酒瓶为主。预制水泥块让村里的小孩子搜集了附近主要树种树叶拓印在水泥块后,将其安装在垃圾分类池内增加环保趣味,木构廊架采用钢构件连接地面较为节约基础建造成本,废弃酒瓶结合普通红砖为主要铺地设置在游客休息的主要亭廊处,希望通过废旧材料运用与低技术施工营造出一系列教育体验式公共空间,引导游客与村民逐步建立一种“共享共治”式的“场所体验”。

Design considering the factors such as local construction level and construction conditions of rural workers to choose is given priority to with construction of the low technology combined with local materials, building materials mainly by facilitating processing of precast concrete, brick, and discarded bottles to give priority to. Precast concrete let the children gathered in the village near the main tree species leaves after rubbing in concrete, install it in the garbage classification pool to increase environmental interest, wooden corridor ground connected by steel members are more economical foundation construction costs, waste bottle combined with common red brick as the main floor set at the main pavilion gallery visitors to rest, hope to use waste materials with low technology builds a series of education experience in public space construction, guide the tourists and the villagers gradually establish a “Shared work” “place to experience”.

▼废旧材料运用与低技术施工营造的雨水花园及周边公共空间,Rain Water Garden and its surrounding Public Space by using waste materials with low technology

▼景观廊架实景图,Landscape gallery frame view

  

结语:我们发现坪上村外部公共空间的设计与实施过程是个村民主体性重建和村庄文化自信恢复的过程。这是一个动态的过程,设计师可以选择作为协作者利用这种规律协助村庄通过召开村民大会征集意见、与村民调研访谈、参与建造营建等方式加快进程,将“外人”指手画脚的村庄规划建设变为村民协力互助的自主建设成果,营造出一个能让大家共同爱护并融入集体记忆的“共享共治”式乡村公共空间。

Conclusion: we find that the design and implementation of public space outside pingshang village is a process of subjective reconstruction of villagers and the restoration of village cultural confidence. This is a dynamic process, the designer can be selected as collaborators use this law to assist the village villagers conference by soliciting opinions, and villagers interviews, participate in building construction and other ways to speed up the process, will be “outsiders” finger-pointing village planning and construction to the villagers together mutual independent construction achievements, create a can let people cherish and integrated into the collective memory of “sharing power-sharing between rural public space.

▼“共享共治”式乡村公共空间融入了集体记忆,the collective memory of “sharing power-sharing between rural public space.

主创设计师:赵金祥
Designer: Zhao Jingxing
团队:粟淋、张小康、陈鹏、何宏权、张杰、傅国华
Team: SuLin、Zhang Xiaokang、Chengpeng、HeHongquan、ZhangJie、Fu Guohua
设计单位:中国乡建院
Company: China Research Institute for rural construction
建造时间:2017.01-2018.02
Project Year:2017.01-2018.02
项目位置:重庆市城口县巴山镇
Location: Bashan village, Chengkou province, Chongqing
客户名称:重庆市城口县巴山镇人民政府
Customer name:The people’s Government of Bashan Town, Chengkou County, Chongqing
邮箱:zhaojinxiang@cnrpd.com
E-mail: zhaojinxiang@cnrpd126.com
致谢:感谢城口县巴山镇党委政府的大力支持,坪上村村两委及施工队伍的全力配合,特别感谢乡建院驻巴山镇社工傅艳吉、贾林闯为提升村庄公共空间使用效率所做的努力

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