THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION PAVILION AT THE VENICE GIARDINI by Kovaleva and Sato Architects

100-year-old building transformed into the stage for contemporary art

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位于威尼斯绿城花园(Giardini)的俄罗斯联邦馆由建筑师Alexey Schusev设计,于1914年向公众开放。一个多世纪以来,它一直是威尼斯双年展上的俄罗斯文化之家。改造项目由今年年初开始,成功地平衡了实际空间改造与线上展览的关系。如今的俄罗斯馆以全新的面貌展现在大众眼前,以“关怀”与“包容”的姿态揭示了建筑环境和数字环境、人与生态系统之间的共生关系。

The Russian Federation Pavilion at the Venice Giardini, designed by the architect Alexey Schusev, opened its doors to the public in 1914 and has been a home to Russian culture at the Venice Bienniales for more than a century. The transformation project began this year by devising a new spatial contract that navigates the tension between the physical renovation of the pavilion and the creation of its online counterpart. Today the venue for the renewed institution of the Russian Federation Pavilion draws on ‘care’ and ‘inclusivity’ as a model in order to establish more empathetic and meaningful connections between built and digital environments, people and ecosystems.

▼俄罗斯馆外观,exterior appearance of the pavilion © Marco Cappelletti

展览空间与周围环境之间的相互渗透是原俄罗斯馆最为核心的设计特点。反映出这一理念的建筑特征包括:俯瞰泻湖的露台、沿花园主干道排布的豪华楼梯、一系列面向周围环境开放的出入口,以及展馆标志性的大天窗。此外,展馆最初的外立面为绿色,旨在进一步将建筑与周围的树木以及绿色植被融为一体。第二次世界大战之后,外立面才被漆成赭红色。随着时间的推移,展馆的外立面经历了几次翻修,这导致其大部分的门窗被完全封闭,最终形成一个内向的盒子空间。同时,在建筑内部,中央和北部房间的楼层被抬高,以增加一层额外的展览空间。此外,多年来遗留下来的一系列结构问题也使人们不得不在使用建筑的过程中做出妥协。

▼历史照片(左)2017年改造前照片(右),Historical photo (left) 2017 photo before renovation (right) © KASA _ Kovaleva and Sato Architects

The original architecture of the Pavilion was defined by the deliberate porosity between its exhibition spaces and their surroundings – with a terrace overlooking the Lagoon, a lavish staircase along one of the main avenues of the Giardini, several outward openings on all sides towards the surrounding environment, and the large skylights that constitute defining features of the building. Another original element of the Pavillion was its green façade, originally intended to blend in with the trees and greenery of its setting, and then changed to ochre after World War II. Over time, several modifications to the envelope of the building have led to most of its windows and doors being closed off entirely, resulting in an introverted box. Meanwhile, on the inside, the floors of the central and northern rooms were raised to expand the exhibition spaces on the ground floor. Additionally, a series of structural issues have led to compromises in its usage over the years.

▼标志性的玻璃顶,The iconic glass roof © Marco Cappelletti

展馆的改造设计继承了建筑师Schusev的理念与建筑的原始精神,旨在恢复并加强建筑的通透性与开放性,诠释出建筑中根深蒂固的历史痕迹。如今,上部的楼层已经恢复了本来面貌,包括:白色的墙壁和硬木地板。而建筑的底层则被改造成一个更为朴素、更具实验性的展览空间。所有的窗户被重新打开,门被改造成玻璃材质,外立面也被复原成最初的绿色。

The renovation project revives the original spirit of Schusev’s architecture, forging a character that speaks once again of openness and transparency, interpreting the historical traces ingrained in the building. The upper floor has now been restored to its original appearance, with its white walls and durmast flooring, while the ground floor is conceived as a rough, experimental space. Windows have been reopened, doors transformed into glazed surfaces, and the façade restored to its former colour.

▼分析图,diagram © KASA _ Kovaleva and Sato Architects

通过在北部区域内增设电梯与新楼梯,室内的可达性和流通性得到了改善。设计强调了地板的原始高度,并恢复了原始露台与泻湖的景观视野。最初建于20世纪60年代末、与花园地面同高的几扇大门也被重新打开,这种设置逆转了单向的参观流线,使人们能够直接从室外进入底层展览空间。改造后的北部区域成为俄罗斯馆的新特色。双层通高的开放式空间十分适宜大型装置的展出。临时地板安装在一系列沿着新楼梯的阳台延伸出的横梁上,将这里转变成一个能够根据策展需求而灵活变化的多功能空间。

Accessibility and circulation are improved by the addition of an elevator and new stairs in the northern room, designed to underline the original height of the floor and recover the view of the terrace and of the Lagoon beyond it. The re-opening of several doors, originally built at the end of the 1960s on a level with the Giardini, introduces the possibility of reversing the circulation path of the building, opening up exhibition spaces directly on the ground level. The northern room, hosting a new feature of the renovation project, is now suitable for large-scale installations, with the option of turning it into a double-height space: a temporary floor is installed on a series of beams that roll along the balcony of the new staircase, devising a space that may be adapted to various curatorial needs.

▼北区增设了电梯与楼梯,elevator and new stairs in the northern room © Marco Cappelletti

▼双层通高的开放式空间适宜大型装置展出,double-height space is now suitable for large-scale installations © Marco Cappelletti

▼开放的展览空间,exhibition area © Marco Cappelletti

▼白色墙面与硬木地板还原了建筑历史风貌,The white walls and hardwood floors reflect the building’s history © Marco Cappelletti

▼俯瞰泻湖景观的露台,the terrace overlooking the lagoon © Marco Cappelletti

2016年引入的中央旋转楼梯如今也被拆除,这种设置为在中央空间中加设一个额外楼层留出了空间。拆除楼梯后的井道宛如一个超大尺度的“检修孔”,可以根据艺术家的不同需求开启或关闭,为跨层展出艺术作品提供了条件。

The removal of a spiral staircase introduced in the central room in 2016 leaves space for another operable floor located in the centre of the space: acting as an oversize manhole, this device too allows the two levels to be connected or disconnected on the basis of varying artistic needs.

▼楼梯拆除后形成了全新的展览空间,The staircase was removed to create a new exhibition space © Marco Cappelletti

▼多媒体艺术展览形式,Multimedia art exhibition format © Marco Cappelletti

▼由拆除后的楼梯井仰视屋顶,viewing the glass roof through the well of removed staircase © Marco Cappelletti

建筑的底层则被改造成一个极具渗透性的多孔型空间。一系列新增的入口与通道,将每个房间、浴室以及露台下的新画廊连接起来,室内空间首次变得如此通达,从而进一步拓展了展览空间的种类与可能的策展形式。

The ground floor is instead transformed into a porous space, generated by the introduction of a series of portals that connect each room, a bathroom and a new gallery under the terrace made accessible for the first time, thus further expanding the repertoire of exhibition spaces and available curatorial formats.

▼建筑的底层则被改造成一个极具渗透性的多孔型空间,The ground floor is instead transformed into a porous space © Marco Cappelletti

▼底层空间细部,detail of the ground floor © Marco Cappelletti

俄罗斯馆,这座拥有超过100年历史的俄罗斯文化家园,如今经过改造后已经变身成当代艺术的舞台。全新的空间联系赋予空间巨大的潜力,使俄罗斯馆展示出更多创作与展览的可能性。本案重新定义了文化机构的意义,引导游客切身体会人与建筑、环境,甚至整个生态系统之间复杂多样的关系。

With its history as a home for Russian culture for over 100 years, the architecture of the renewed Russian Federation Pavilion today becomes a theatrical device for contemporary arts. It establishes new spatial connections as well as alternative possibilities for producing and exhibiting. This enables visitors to redefine the meaning of cultural institutions, engaging with various models of care towards architecture, people and whole ecosystems.

▼改造施工过程中的建筑细部,Building details during renovation construction © Marco Cappelletti

▼水彩手绘,Watercolor hand-drawing © KASA _ Kovaleva and Sato Architects

▼区位图,location © KASA _ Kovaleva and Sato Architects

▼改造设计分析,analyze of the renovation © KASA _ Kovaleva and Sato Architects

▼底层平面图,ground floor plan © KASA _ Kovaleva and Sato Architects

▼二层平面图,1F plan © KASA _ Kovaleva and Sato Architects

▼剖面图,section © KASA _ Kovaleva and Sato Architects

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