A Mother River Recovered: Qian’an Sanlihe Greenway

a great environmental strategy to clean up the water. It is beautiful work

Project Specs

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“The scale is impressive, the transformation is amazing, and the detail is wonderful. The sophistication of the planting shows a strong understanding of horticulture. This is a great environmental strategy to clean up the water. It is beautiful work.”
—2013 Professional Awards Jury

“规模让人印象深刻,结果转变惊人,细节美妙。植物种植的娴熟表明对园艺的深刻理解。伟大的净水环保策略。美丽的作品”
–2013年专业奖评审委员会

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Appreciation towards Turenscape for providing the following description:

 

迁安三里河绿道项目将截污治污、城市土地开发和生态环境建设有机结合在一起,它充分展现了一个曾经被忽视遗忘的景观如何发挥景观作为生态系统的综合生态服务功能进而蜕变成绿色生态基础设施和日常景观的。项目沿绿带建立了供通勤和休闲使用的步行和自行车系统,与城市慢行交通网络有机结合,其通过融合当地传统特色的艺术设计形式更复兴了民众的社会认同。该项目产生的生态效益及其对新美学阐释,促进了该地区的可持续城市发展。

The Qian’an Sanlihe Greenway is transformed from the former garbage dump and sewage drainage. It exemplifies how a neglected landscape can be recovered as an green infrastructure and everyday landscape with restored ecosystem providing multiple services. The combined pedestrian and cycle paths for both commuting and recreational use are integrated with art, revitalizing social identity by reflecting local traditions. Through the generation of ecological and aesthetic benefits, the project catalyzes sustainable urban development in the region.

▼生态走廊的3D模型及其改造过程:此工程利用滦河与城市之间的不同高度,创建了一个以水为中心的公共空间,整合了下暴雨时的雨水管理、植被恢复、再创造与艺术,刺激了城市发展。 A 滦河  B 水源   C  沿途的城市发展  D 三里河生态走廊   E 出口
3D model of the Greenway and its transforming process: making use of different altitudes between the Luan River bed and the city, the project creates a water-centered public space integrating stormwater management, habitat restoration, recreation and art, and catalysts urban development.

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迁安三里河绿道项目位于河北省迁安市东部的河东区三里河沿岸,该项目占地约135公顷,绵延全长13.4公里,宽度约100-300米,为一带状绿公园,上游由引滦河水贯穿城市之后,回归滦河。经过两年的设计和施工,一条遭遇严重工业污染、令迁安全市人民为之伤痛的“龙须沟”,俨然恢复了当年“苇荷相连接,鱼鳖丰厚,风光秀丽”的城市生态廊道。

迁安市位于河北省东北部,燕山南麓,滦河岸边,主城区虽西傍滦河,但由于地势整体低于滦河河床,高高的防洪大堤维系城市的安全,却被隔离在外,有水却不见水。三里河为迁安的母亲河,承载着迁安的悠远历史与寻常百姓许多记忆。它卵石河床,帮底坚固,因受滦河地下水补给,沿途泉水涌出,清澈见底,暑月清凉,严冬不冰。虽久经暴雨洪水冲刷和切割,但河床依然如故,从无旱涝之灾,素有“铜帮铁底”之称,为沿岸工农业生产提供了极为丰富的水利资源。1913年李显庭就在三里河创建了迁安第一座半机械化造纸厂,开北方造纸之先河。1917年兴建水利碾磨坊,1920年以后沿河各村先后建水磨坊8处。这种原始的水利碾磨在三里河上一直延用到上世纪60年代中期才为电力所代替。70年代以后,由于城关附近工业不断发展和城镇人口的增长,大量工业废水和生活污水排入河道,水质遭到严重污染。同时,随着区域水资源的减少,滦河水位严重下降,三里河干枯,河道成为排污沟,固体垃圾堰塞河道,昔日的母亲河成为城市肌体上化脓的疮疤,更是广大居民心中的剧痛。

▼这个索引图显示了本次介绍中选择的图像的位置。艺术被融进了这个生态复原景观:受当地著名的剪纸艺术的启发,一段800米长的折纸走廊贯穿于本工程的中心地带。
Key map shows locations of selected images in this presentation. Art is integrated into this ecologically recovered landscape: an 800-meter long Folding Paper corridor inspired by the well-known paper cutting folk art in the region, running through the middle section of the project.

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于是,迁安市政府决定彻底改变三里河河面及两岸面貌,全面实施三里河生态走廊工程。2007年初将项目委托给“土人设计”。工程包括污水截流,引水和生态重建等所有内容。工程分为三段:上游引水段、中部城市段、和下游湿地公园段。从2007年4月开工到2010年初,经两年的持续建设,除下游湿地公园仍然在建外,其他两段均告完成。“芦苇丛生、绿树成荫、雀鸟栖息”的优美环境已然重现这座北方钢城。

▼图中展现的是2006年时现场的情况。本工程把以前的垃圾场和污水排放处改造成了一处生态基础设施和日常景观。
Image shows site condition in 2006. This project transformed the former garbage dump and sewage drainage into an ecological infrastructure and everyday landscape.

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▼这是生态走廊上游地区的一幅典型的图片,主要特色是一条新建的、绿色植被茂密的小溪,它从滦河里引水,两边是人行道和自行车道。

A typical image of the upper section of the Greenway, featuring a newly created and lushly vegetated stream that diverts water from the Luan River, with pedestrian and cycling paths on both sides.

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生态廊道的设计充分利用自然高差,将被防洪堤隔离在外的滦河水从上游引入城市,源头处形成地下涌泉,进入城市并改善其生态条件后,又在下游归流入滦河;考虑到滦河水量的不确定性,三里河设计为串珠式的下洼式“绿河”,即使在没水的时候,也能保持串珠状的湿地,同时结合城市雨水收集和中水的生态净化和回用,使绿带具有雨洪调节功能,深浅不一、蜿蜒多变的拟自然河道设计,营造一个多样化的生物栖息地;场地中原有树木都保留, 从而形成众多树岛,令栈道穿越其间;整个工程倡导野草之美和低碳景观理念,大量应用低维护的乡土植被,水草繁茂,野花烂漫。沿绿带建立了一个步行和自行车系统,与城市慢行交通网络有机结合,向沿途社区完全开放,营造出一派人与自然和谐相处的新时代城市景象。

▼有弹性的绿色河流策略:河流现存的水泥水渠被取消了,在主水道的岸边建造了生态湿地,以便控制洪水、治理城市里的雨水径流,起到了“绿色海绵”的作用,创造了多样的野生生物栖息地。
Resilient green river strategy: the existing concrete channel of the river was removed, and bio-swales at the edge of the main water course are constructed to regulate floods and remediate urban stormwater runoff, acting as “green sponge” and creating diverse wildlife habitats.

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▼生态走廊的中段穿越了人口密集的社区,主要特色是那段800米长的折纸。这些中国红艺术品是由玻璃纤维制成的,曲曲折折地摆放于以前的河道边上早就存在的柳树下。

The middle section of the Greenway runs through the densely populated communities, featuring the 800-meters long Folding Paper. The Chinese-red art piece is made of fiberglass that zigzagging through the green canopy of the pre-existing willows along the former river channel.

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▼折纸使得遮盖物、座椅、木板路和照明成为一个整体,蜿蜒在现场已有的树木周围。

The Folding Paper integrates shelters, seats, boardwalk and lighting, winding around the existing trees on site.

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▼晨练:图中的两个男子正在吹唢呐,这是当地的一种木管乐器,背景就是折纸艺术品。周边是“杂乱”的当地植被,这只是你在生态走廊边看到的很多日常场景中的一幕。

Morning exercises: two men are playing the Suona Horn, a local woodwind instrument, with the Folding Paper as the backdrop. Surrounded by the “messy” native vegetation, this is just one of many everyday scenes one can see along the Greenway.

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▼作为北边人口稠密的社区和南边的一所小学与幼儿园的连接,折纸为青少年和他们的父母们创造了一种欢乐的体验:图中一位幼儿园老师和孩子们正漫步在与折纸交错重叠的木板路上。

As a linkage between the densely populated communities on north, and an elementary school and a kindergarten on south, the Folding Paper creates playful experience for youths and their parents: a kindergarten teacher and kids are wandering on the boardwalk intertwined with the Folding Paper.

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▼折纸沿着生态走廊“展开”,与黄色的野菊花形成鲜明的对比。野菊花是当地的一种多年生植物,它们不怎么需要维护,可以用来做中药。

The Folding Paper “unfolding” along the Greenway in contrast with the yellow blossoms of wild chrysanthemum, a native perennial that needs very little maintenance and can be harvested as Chinese medicine.

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▼折纸被放学后的孩子们所利用。这是受当地著名的剪纸这一民间艺术的启发而建造的。

The Folding Paper used by kids after school. It is inspired by the well-known local folk art of paper cutting of this region.

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▼折纸被学龄儿童用来当作做作业的椅子和桌子,成了孩子们放学后聚集的场所。

The Folding Paper is used by school kids as seats and tables to do homework, acting as a gathering place for kids during the after-school hours.

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▼人们很享受水中之路,把它当作日常体验的一部分。桥和木板路被设计进了河中,创造了通往“树岛”的通道。“树岛”是用来保护现场现存的树木的。

People enjoy the path-in-the-water as part of their day-to-day experience. Bridges and boardwalks are designed into the river creating access to “tree islands”, which are formed to preserve existing trees on the site.

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▼两个年轻女孩正淌水过河,复原的母亲河与她们的祖母们讲述的传奇故事现在听起来成了真的:这里是“芦苇和荷花茂盛、水里面满是鱼和甲鱼”的一个所在。
Two young girls wading across the stream, the mother river recovered and the legendary tale narrated by their grandmother now rings true: as a place “where reeds and lotuses flourish and water abundant with fish and soft-shelled turtles”.

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▼通过建造“树岛”,现场现存的树木被保留了下来,周围是流淌的溪水。在水边建造了平台,使得当地的社区能与大自然近距离接触。自从这个生态走廊建成以后,它立刻成了新发展的催化剂。
Existing trees are kept on site through the creation of “tree islands” with stream courses flowing around. Water platform are built, which enables close contact with nature for local communities. Since its completion, the Greenway immediately became a catalyst for new development.

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Here is more information form the Kongjian Yu: 

The greenway stretches 13.4 km in length and varies 100-300m in width across the city of Qian’an. It covers 135 hectares and benefits a population of approximately 700,000. Qian’an City is located at the south foot of Yanshan Mountain, at the bank of Luan River, in the northeast of Hebei Province. Although the main city lies near the Luan River to the west, one cannot see the water since the topography of Qian’an is situated below the riverbed with its high embankment blocking the river view. The river is notorious for its unpredictable flooding, and has thus been kept outside of the city for decades through this high embankment. Meanwhile, as the life source of Qian’an, Sanlihe River has shouldered the long history of the city and carried a collective memory of the inhabitants. Before 1973, the Sanlihe River had crystal clear water from the groundwater recharge of Luan River. Although frequently hit by storms and heavy rain, Sanlihe River never experienced disasters of drought and flood in its history, which also provides rich water resources for industries and agriculture nearby, as legendary records witness: “reeds flourish, trees shade, and birds inhabit.”

However, since the 1970s, the river has been badly polluted by sewage and waste, which has resulted from the region’s continuous industrial development and urban population growth. As a consequence, with the depletion of regional water sources, the Sanlihe River became subsequently dried up and its channel was blocked by solid waste. The life source of the city was suffering pains of urbanization, and the hearts and souls of local residents long for its spiritual landscape renaissance.

In 2006, the landscape architect was commissioned to recover this mother river. The scope of the task included sewage management (the redesign of sewage pipes that had previously discharged directly into the river with a passive natural infiltration system), as well as ecological restoration and the urban design along the Greenway (although this submission only focuses on the landscape planning and design of the Greenway itself).

The design strategies are comprehensive and developed across scales:
Clean the site: A sewage management system was planned to separate waste water from the urban storm water runoff. As well, organic garbage from the household was used as material to shape landforms, and industrial waste was cleaned up and properly treated.

A scenic water byway: the design for the Greenway took full advantage of the existing natural altitude difference between the Luan River bed and the city. A fountain was made through a pipe going under the high embankment, so that a constantly controlled amount of water will make its way through the city before running back to the Luan River at lower reach. This strategy turns the Sanlihe into a “scenic byway” of the larger Luan River and transforms the dangerous natural force into a pleasant amenity.

Resilient green river strategy: the existing concrete channel of the river was removed, and a multiple water course riparian wetland system was created (in order to keep the existing tree on site), including the creation of emerald-like wetland bubble chains at the edge of the main water course which regulates floods and collects and dissipates urban storm water runoff. When the river’s water level drops to its lowest point, pools of water remain in the emeralds as wetlands, creating a “Green River”. Furthermore, these wetlands work as an ecological purification buffer for urban storm water runoff from both sides. These meandering natural waterways, at various surface levels, becomes diverse habitats for wildlife.

Minimum intervention and tree islands: The existing trees on the site were saved and the riverbanks were transformed into a number of tree islands connected by boardwalks, creating a unique setting for daily activities of the residents nearby. By preserving all the exiting matured trees, the Greenway comes into shape immediately after the construction, while minimize the construction cost.

Pedestrian and cycling paths: Along the Greenway are the pedestrian and cycling routes fully accessible to communities along the channel.

Low maintenance: The project used low-maintenance native vegetation, lush wetland species, and self-reproductive wild flowers for the undercover. The resilient green river strategy allows the water table to naturally fluctuate over seasons. The contrast between “messy” nature and the minimum design of the boardwalk and waterfront platforms turns the big greenway project into an artful everyday landscape.

Integration of art: Art is integrated with the ecologically recovered landscape. One of the major pieces is an 800-meter long Folding Paper made of fiber glass and in Chinese red, which integrates shelters, seats, boardwalk and lighting. The Folding Paper is inspired by the well-known local folk art of paper cutting. Sitting right on the school route between a densely populated community and city’s major elementary schools and kindergartens, this red-colored installation runs through the green canopy of the pre-existing willows, enriches the landscape with planting of “messy” Chinese pennisetum and wild chrysanthemum, and becomes an artful and unforgettable daily experience for kids and their parents.

Landscape guides urbanism: The Greenway is used as catalyst for urban development. High density of residential development was envisioned at both sides of the Greenway. Immediately after the Greenway was built, an enormous amount of new housing development investment has been attracted and completely transformed the urban morphology of the city.

The Greenway can be characterized into three sections: the upper, the middle and the lower sections. The upper section runs through the city’s underdeveloped area and is featured with a newly created stream that diverts water from the Luan River integrated with pedestrian and cycling paths at both sides; The middle section runs through the densely populated communities and is most heavily used by people especially school kids, and the Folding Paper becomes the dominant feature. The concrete in the former river channel was removed, and the old channel was filled with the dirt from the excavation of the new river at the east side. In this way, the trees were saved and their roots on the steep old bank will not be exposed because of the removal of concrete; The lower section is in a less populated area and was most densely forested area, with pre-existing wetlands, where it is more featured with multiple stream courses, tree islands, wetlands and boardwalk networks which run across islands and cycling paths at both sides of the Greenway.

Only over three years’ design and construction, this project has transformed this heavily polluted landscape back to its previous splendor as a scenic urban ecological corridor and the legendary tale narrated by the grandmothers rings back true: as a place “where reeds and lotus flourish and water abundant with fish and soft-shelled turtles”. Moreover, the mother river has been artfully recovered by integrating art that give new cultural identity to the city.(Text By Turen & Peking University & gooood)

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