Bona Villa Lahao Stone Houses, China by UPA

A Rebirth of Traditional Settlements

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传统聚落的重生
A Rebirth of Traditional Settlements

凤凰古城,位于湖南省湘西土家族苗族自治州,是中国历史文化名城,曾被新西兰作家路易·艾黎称为中国最美丽的小城,享有“北平遥,南凤凰”之美誉。凤凰古城之外的苗乡,有鲜为人知的自然风光、美丽的苗族村寨、以及神秘厚重的民俗文化。整个村庄依山而建,村内石屋错落有致,青石板路蜿蜒伸展,加上周围树木森森,烟雨蒙蒙之际,袅袅炊烟之势,呈现出世外桃源般的宁静和闲适景象。

The Ancient Town of Fenghuang, located in Xiangxi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Hunan Province, is a famous historical and cultural city in China. It was once called the most beautiful town in China by New Zealand writer Rewi Alley. And it enjoys the same reputation in the south as the Ancient City of Pingyao in the north. Outside the Ancient Town of Fenghuang, there is little-known natural scenery, beautiful Miao villages, and mysterious folk culture with a long history in Miao Township. The whole village is built along the mountains, where stone houses scatter and the roads made of slab-stone wind and stretch. Surrounding trees flourish and the smoke from the kitchen curls upwards, presenting a tranquil and leisure scene like a paradise.

▼山水之间,between the mountain and the river ©直译建筑摄影/何炼

 

扶贫与公益
Poverty Alleviation and Public Welfare

百美村宿是中国扶贫基金会自2013年发起的美丽乡村旅游扶贫创新公益项目,该项目旨在探索全新的“乡村旅游扶贫+”模式,致力于搭建乡村和外部联结的平台,重估贫困村价值,创造以村为本的发展机会。目前在全国范围内,已经运营了20多个村落。凤凰拉毫村是百美村宿中的一站,由中国石化捐赠资金进行建设。

应中国扶贫基金会的邀请,我们介入了该项目的村庄选址、整体规划、建筑改造、室内和景观的全过程设计,前后历时两年多。在这过程中,我们不仅感受到乡村建设的困难和挑战,也经历了自身的实践对乡村环境带来的改善,更深刻体会到建筑师的社会责任感。

Bona Villa, an innovative public welfare project for poverty alleviation launched by China Foundation For Poverty Alleviation in 2013, is aimed at exploring a new “Rural Tourism Poverty Alleviation +” model, and is committed to building a platform for the connection between the countryside and the outside, and reassessing poverty villages’ value and creating village-oriented development opportunities. Currently, it has been carried out in more than 20 villages nationwide. Lahao Village in Fenghuang is one of Bona Villa projects and is constructed with funds donated by Sinopec.

At the invitation of China Foundation For Poverty Alleviation, we were involved in the whole process of the project, including the selection of village site, overall planning, architectural renovation, interior and landscape design, which lasted more than two years. In this process, we not only felt the difficulties and challenges of rural construction, but also experienced the improvement of the rural environment brought by our own practice, and deeply realized the social responsibility of architects.

▼建筑鸟瞰,project aerial view ©直译建筑摄影/何炼

 

聚落的重生
Rebirth of Traditional Settlements

拉毫石屋坐落在山坡之上,场地北高南低,高差约为30米。村落周边古树参天,群山怀抱。村落的聚落形态并不完整,有些房屋保存较为完整,有些房屋已经倒塌,还有几处村民见缝插针修建的砖混住宅,对村落肌理产生了极大的破坏。当我们进行踏勘选址的时候,拉毫村已经呈现“空心村”的状态,村里只有少量的老人和留守儿童在此居住。

Lahao Stone Houses are located on a hillside, which is high in the north and low in the south, with a relative altitude of about 30 meters. There are towering old trees and mountains around the village. The settlement pattern of the village is not complete. Some houses are well preserved, but some have collapsed. There are also several brick-and-concrete houses built by villagers in the gaps, which has caused great damage to the texture of the village. When we did the survey, Lahao Village was already in the state of a “hollow village”, with only a small number of elderly and left-behind children living here.

▼改造前现状,the site before renovation ©原榀建筑

▼改造前鸟瞰,aerial view before renovation ©原榀建筑

▼改造后鸟瞰,aerial view after renovation ©直译建筑摄影/何炼

通过详细的调研和分析,我们选择村落的北侧老房子较为完整的一片区域,作为民宿项目的主要建筑。我们一方面对村落进行了空间梳理,对公共区域、道路、停车场等基础设施进行重新整治,让民宿项目的结构清晰呈现;一方面选取了12栋房屋进行改造,这些房屋包含了公区和民宿等功能。值得一提的是,该民宿项目不设围墙,没有边界,与保留的房屋共存。村落如同自然生长一般,新与旧自然的融合在一起。

▼公共区域活动分析,public activity analysis ©原榀建筑

Through detailed investigation and analysis, we selected an area on the north side of the village where the old houses were relatively complete as the main building of the homestay project. On the one hand, we sorted out the space of the village, reorganized the public spaces, roads, parking lots and other infrastructure, so that the structure of the homestay was clearly presented; on the other hand, we selected twelve houses for renovation, which included public areas, homestay and other functions. It is worth mentioning that the homestay project has no walls or borders, so that it coexists with the reserved houses. The village grows like nature, and the new and the old merge together naturally.

▼公共步道,public promenade ©直译建筑摄影/何炼

 

方法与策略
Methods and Strategies

拉毫石屋的改造策略为保护原有生态景观,尊重原有场地,复原建筑肌理,最大程度减少对自然环境的破坏。首先在既有房屋的边界控制内,对主体房屋进行改造,仅拆除附属的厕所和鸡舍等。每一栋房屋形成一个院落,院落中原有的树木进行保留,保证私密性的同时形成最大化的的景观视野。房屋之间以石头小径相连,来访者拾级而上,有着曲折迂回、步移景异的体验。

The transformation strategies of the project are to protect the original ecological landscape, respect the original site, restore the architectural texture, and minimize the damage to the natural environment. First of all, within the boundary of the existing houses, the main house is transformed, and only the attached toilets and chicken coops are demolished. Each house forms a courtyard, and the original trees in the courtyard are retained to ensure privacy while forming a maximized view of the landscape. The houses are connected by stone paths, and visitors will climb up the stairs, which provides an experience of varying scenery with changing viewpoints.

▼高低错落,the layered roof scapes ©直译建筑摄影/何炼

根据民宿项目的本身诉求,我们每栋公共空间和客房的窗户位置,都经过了仔细的推敲,让其具有独特的景观视野。这些窗景或为参天古树,或者苍翠远山,提供了不同高度的不同风景。目前已实施的民宿共六栋,集中于村落的东侧,其余房屋改造则远期实施。

According to the requirements of the homestay itself, the window positions of public spaces and guest rooms are carefully considered to obtain a unique view of the landscape. These window scenes may be towering old trees or verdant mountains, providing different scenery at different heights. There are currently six homestays that have been implemented, concentrated on the east side of the village, and the rest of the house renovation will be implemented in the future.

▼窗景,view through the window ©直译建筑摄影/何炼

 

材料和建造
Material And Construction

拉毫村的石头墙体为湘西地区特有的做法,不采用任何砂浆砌筑,厚度达到55厘米。我们仅对南侧的石墙进行改造,让石匠按照传统的干砌法进行重砌,而对其他方位的石墙则予以保留。南侧的石墙重砌后,扩大了采光窗,极大了改善了原有的采光状况。

The stone wall in Lahao Village is unique in Xiangxi region. It does not use any mortar for masonry and has a thickness of 55 cm. We only modify the stone walls on the south side, allowing the stonemasons to rebuild it in accordance with the traditional dry-laying method, while retaining the stone walls on other sides. After the stone wall on the south sides are rebuilt, the lighting windows are enlarged, which greatly improves the original lighting conditions.

▼建筑外观,exterior view ©直译建筑摄影/何炼

在石墙内部,采取了钢结构体系置入的手段,并将屋顶抬升80cm,让屋顶漂浮在石墙上方。同时,在石墙上部设置了侧天窗,让更多的光线和山林景观进入室内。石墙内部采用钢结构体系,这是一种工业化的手段。一方面,可以应对场地运输的限制和乡村施工工艺的精度问题;另一方面,钢结构体系和石墙体系有机融合,满足了民宿项目的多样化功能需求。同时,使新和旧、轻和重有了强烈的对比,在村落中形成了戏剧化的效果。

▼建造过程,construction process ©原榀建筑

Inside the stone wall, the steel structure system is inserted and the roof is raised 80cm to float above the stone wall. At the same time, a side skylight is set on the upper part of the stone wall to allow more light and landscape to enter the interior. The steel structure system is used inside the stone wall, which is a means of industrialization. On the one hand, it can cope with the site limitation of transportation and the accuracy of rural construction; on the other hand, the steel structure system and the stone wall system are organically integrated to meet the diversified functional needs of the homestay project. At the same time, there is a strong contrast between the new and the old, the light and the heavy, forming a dramatic effect in the village.

▼室内效果,interior view ©直译建筑摄影/何炼

除了主体建筑的改造范式之外,我们在局部区域采用了差异化的改造策略。如2号院南侧的房屋保留了原有的夯土砖墙,内部植入钢结构。4号院的南侧扩建了一处茶室,用混凝土板挑出在山体之外,外立面采用全落地玻璃,眺望森林和山谷。

In addition to the transformation paradigm of the main building, we adopt differentiated transformation strategies in some parts. For example, the house on the south side of No. 2 courtyard retains the original rammed-earth brick walls, with steel structures implanted inside. A tea room is expanded on the south side of No. 4 Courtyard, which is protruded out of the mountain with concrete slabs. The facade is made of glass totally, bringing the forest and valley inside.

▼石头与夯土,the stone and rammed-earth volumes ©直译建筑摄影/何炼

▼悬挑茶室,the cantilevered tea room ©直译建筑摄影/何炼

 

记忆与体验
Memory and Experience

在拉毫村的改造中,虽然有新与旧的并置关系,但整体上仍然呈现着乡村生活的记忆。除了建筑的石墙被保留,院落的石墙大门也被精心的保留,石头挡墙上留出缝隙种植花草,利用旧房拆除的木料、搜集的老物件制作景观,这些老的物件被循环利用,将村民生活的关联性融入了乡土文脉。

In the reconstruction of Lahao Village, although there is a juxtaposition of the new and the old, the memory of rural life is still present as a whole. The stone walls of the building are preserved, and the stone gate of the courtyard is also carefully preserved. Flowers and plants grow in the gaps of the stone retaining walls. The wood from the old houses and other collected old objects are used to make the landscape. These old objects are recycled. , Integrates the relevance of villagers’ lives into the local context.

▼老院门石墙细部,stone wall details ©直译建筑摄影/何炼

拉毫石屋是拉毫村“乡村旅游扶贫+”的起点,未来还会有一系列公共空间、公共景观陆续呈现。我们希望拉毫村的改造策略,能起到良好的示范作用,不仅尊重了老的房屋和村民的生活方式,也能唤醒乡村的记忆情感,让乡村文脉得以延续。

Lahao Stone Houses are the starting point of Lahao Village’s “Rural Tourism Poverty Alleviation +“project, and a series of public spaces and public landscapes will continue to appear in the future. We hope that the transformation strategies of Lahao Village will serve as a good example. They not only respect the old houses and the lifestyles of the villagers, but also awake the memories and emotions of the village and allow the continuation of the rural culture.

▼新与旧,old and new ©直译建筑摄影/何炼

▼休息平台,terrace ©直译建筑摄影/何炼

▼项目鸟瞰,aerial view ©直译建筑摄影/何炼

▼总平面图,site plan ©原榀建筑

▼一层平面图,plan level 1 ©原榀建筑

▼剖面图1,section 1 ©原榀建筑

▼剖面图2,section 2

▼分解轴测图,axo exploded ©原榀建筑

▼墙身轴测,wall details ©原榀建筑

项目名称:百美村宿·拉毫石屋
项目地址:湖南省凤凰县廖家桥镇拉毫村
捐赠方:中国石化
业主:中国扶贫基金会
设计单位:原榀建筑事务所|UPA
主持建筑师:周超
设计团队:邓可超、岑梓鑫、张航、邓海娟、许艺馨
合作设计:先进建筑实验室/穆威、何闻、罗俊贤
驻场建筑师:吴劲松
建筑面积:822m2
设计建成时间:2017.07-2020.05
结构设计:杨鹏
机电设计:王若辰、张涛
摄影:直译建筑摄影/何炼

Project Name: Bona Villa Lahao Stone Houses
Project Address: Lahao Village, Liaojiaqiao Town, Fenghuang County, Hunan Province
Donor: Sinopec
Client: China Foundation For Poverty Alleviation
Design Unit: United Practice Architects | UPA
Leader Architect: Zhou Chao
Design Team: Deng Kechao, Cen Zixin, Zhang Hang, Deng Haijuan, Xu Yixin
Cooperative Design: Advanced Architecture Lab(AaL)/Mu Wei, He Wen, Luo Junxian
Resident Architect: Wu Jinsong
Built Area: 822m2
Design and Completion Time: 2017.07-2020.05
Structural Design: Yang Peng
Equipment Engineer: Wang Ruochen, Zhang Tao
Photography: ArchiTranslator/He Lian

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