来自英国的建筑师事务所Gilles Retsin Architecture最近完成了一座极具实验性的全木质展馆。该展馆位于塔林，其建筑主体以乐高玩具的拼接方式组装而成。2017塔林建筑双年展举办了一次分两阶段评选的国际竞赛，参与者以传统爱沙尼亚木房建造工艺为基础，结合独具创意的形式打造一系列临时性户外装置。这一竞赛很快得到了广泛关注，仅第一阶段就有来自全世界200份创意设计方案呈递于此。在第二阶段竞赛中，评委会选出16件参赛作品，而Gilles Retsin Architecture便是这其中的最后胜出者。评委会委员Martin Tamke这样评价该作品“独特的审美与充满智慧的挑战，回应并质疑了当下建筑建造趋势和理念。”
London-based Gilles Retsin Architecture has completed an experimental plywood pavilion in Tallinn, using lego-like building blocks made of plywood. The Tallinn Architecture Biennale 2017 organised an international open two-stage competition, challenging participants to develop creative designs for a temporary outdoor installation, making innovative use of the fabrication capacities of the Estonian wooden house manufacturers. The call raised wide international interest, 200 portfolios were submitted for the first round from all over the world. 16 works were selected for the second round by the jury. Gilles Retsin Architecture was selected as winner, with a proposal that jury member Martin Tamke describes as “ characterized by outstanding aesthetic and intellectually challenging, as it questions current beliefs and trends in architecture”.
The traditional construction industry makes on average use of more than 7000 different parts. This results in a complicated production chain, making building slow, expensive and inaccessible for the many. What if we could radically reduce that number ? The TAB 2017 pavilion is based on a just a few, lego-like pieces that can act as both column, beam and cladding at the same time. The past decade has seen an explosion of parametric pavilion structures, built by architecture schools, research institutes and enthusiasts. These so-called “parametric pavilions” are remarkably similar: they are almost always based on a surface or shell, that is then split into thousands of different pieces and then painstakingly re-assembled into the desired form.
▼组件外部涂抹黑沥青焦油或清漆来抵御外部环境侵袭，the blocks are protected from the exterior climate with black bitumen tar or varnish
不同于以往的离散型建筑组件，该胜出项目提出以乐高积木的方式组建出不同的建筑形态。这些建筑元件全部为当地廉价和不合标准的18毫米耐风化胶合板（3.3 x 1.35 m）。每一片胶合板由CNC机器切割而成，并最终组装成可以承载结构重量的建筑体块。这些分别是45度、90度和135度角的组件构成一个系列的拼接模块。它们可以拼接成各种“刚刚好”的建筑结构，如承重结构，张力结构，悬挑或支撑柱。这些组件外部涂抹黑沥青焦油或清漆来抵御外部气候侵袭。超过380平方米的胶合板被切割并组装成80个结构组件。该展馆为设计师和当地建造商，于塔林当地合作组装完成。
This proposal is critical of this approach, and instead proposes to create a series of discrete building blocks, that similar to LEGO, can be assembled into a variety of structures. These building blocks are based on cheap, off-standard sheets of 18mm exterior plywood (3.3 x 1.35 m) which were locally available. Each sheet is cut by a CNC-machine, and can then be assembled into a stiff building block capable of bearing structural loads. The blocks exist as a family of straight,45 degrees, 90 degrees and 135 degrees elements. These building blocks are designed to perform “just good enough” in any structural condition: under compression, tension, as a cantilever or as a column. The blocks are protected from the exterior climate with black bitumen tar or varnish. Over 380 m2 of plywood was cut and assembled into 80 building blocks. The entire structure was fabricated locally in Tallinn, in collaboration with local manufacturers.
▼基本元件与组装，basic element and construction
▼装置由80个结构组件组装而成，over 380 m2 of plywood was cut and assembled into 80 building blocks
Similar to a brick-bond, these discrete building blocks can be combined together into a staggered pattern, able to produce large beams and spans. The connection is based on off-the-shelf threaded rods, used in suspended ceilings or to hang cable gutters. These rods connect through several pieces, forming a stiff structure under tension. The blocks can be quickly assembled on site, using only a set of ratchet-spanners and bolts. The assembly remains reversible, it can be modified or taken apart afterwards. The whole pavilion, covering an area of 75 m2 was assembled in just 4 days by a crew of 4 people, without any mechanical tools such as a crane or lift. The pavilion is materially and structurally efficient: the overall weight of the pavilion is only 2 tons, while it can support local loads of four people and can be extended with a roof. Using only 18mm thin plywood, cantilevers of up to 4m and are achieved.
▼装配与再装配，assembly and reassembly
▼装置可承重4人，it can support local loads of four people
The pavilion is more a case-study or prototype of a construction system rather than a finished form. In that sense it’s similar to Le Corbusier’s Maison Domino: an abstract model of a larger, recombinable and repeatable construction system. In contrast to the typical shell or surface-like parametric pavilions, this pavilion wants to be understood as a part of a larger whole, a unit in a mass-housing system. The horizontal organisation hints at the fact that it could be stacked and repeated in multiple directions. The pavilion is never finished: it remains an open and adaptable whole. The structure could be finished with a roof or facade and continue it’s life afterwards as a cabin, pedestrian bridge or house on another location.
▼展馆将可根据需要无限组装延伸，the structure could be extended
The digital workflow behind the pavilion enables a low-cost, fast and open production-chain. With the help of digital fabrication tools, an initially weak material is turned into a versatile and structural building block that can be assembled by anyone, with almost no tools. This construction method is scalable and could be applied for housing solutions on a larger scale using stronger materials such as CLT ( Cross Laminated Timber) or LVL ( Laminated Veneer Lumber). The project aims to send a message to architects and designers interested in digital research to set up technologically innovative and architecturally intelligent research into digital fabrication and mass-housing. Can we understand robots, 3D-Printers and other digital fabrication tools not just as a technical mannerisms, or tools for formal expression, but also as machines with a potential social agency ?
▼远眺建筑，view from distance
Designer: Gilles Retsin Architecture
Design Team: Gilles Retsin, Ivo Tedbury, Oscar Walheim
Engineering: Manja van de Worp, YIP Structural Engineering London
Construction Team: Isaie Bloch, Ward Delbeke, Gilles Retsin, Kevin Saey, Ivo Tedbury, Oscar Walheim
Client: Tallinn Architecture Biennale 2017,
TAB Volunteers: Mari Poom, Ra Puhkan, Mia Peil, Elsbeth Aarsalu, Katariina Mustasaar, Henri Ingelman
TAB Installation Curators: Sille Pihlak, Siim Tuksam
With Support of The British Council
Academic Partner: The Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL Design Computation Lab and Estonian Academy of Arts
Pictures: Studio Naaro
Drone Footage : Tonu Tonnul, Manuel Jimenez Garcia
English text: Gilles Retsin Architecture
Chinese text: gooood