Niamey 2000 是一个1700平方米的住宅项目，是为应对尼日尔首都尼亚美目前的住房危机而设计的。通过增加密度，该项目提出了城市住房的新模式。尼亚美有超过一百万的人口。大多数都比较贫穷，只有约20％的居民可以被认为是中产阶级以上。然而，近年来，城市的社会经济构成发生了巨大变化。更强劲的经济增长加速了迁移潮，更多人涌入尼亚美，导致中产阶级人口大幅增加。现有高级社区中的住房无法满足中低收入群体的需求，迫使这类人群远离城市中心进一步寻求经济适用住房。
Niamey 2000 is a 1700 square meter (18,000 sqft) housing development that was designed in response to the current housing crisis occurring in Niamey, the capital of Niger. By increasing density, the project proposes a new model for urban housing. Niamey is home to over one million inhabitants; a majority of the population is poor and only about 20 percent of its residents could be classified as middle-class and above. Nevertheless, the socio-economic makeup of the city has shifted dramatically in recent years. Stronger economic growth has fueled migration to the city, leading to a sizable increase in the middle-class population. Property in the older, affluent neighborhoods remains unobtainable, forcing the low-to-middle income population to seek affordable housing further from the city center.
▼ 位于尼亚美市郊的 Niamey 2000 住宅，the site is located on the outskirt of Niamey ©Torsten Seidel
▼ 快速增长的尼亚美城市，Niamey, city growth ©united4design
城市住房新模式 | A New Model for Urban Housing
Niamey 2000 来的灵感自该地区前殖民地时期的城市，如马里的廷布克图，尼日利亚的卡诺，尼日尔的扎宁，他们当时都是密集的城市中心。城市中复杂交织的房屋结构通常是有机发展的两三层小楼，同时保持隐私和亲密感。像早期的住宅一样，Niamey 2000 为其居民提供了隐私上的保护；然而，该项目力求解决的不仅仅是住房的需要。项目在材料选择上坚定的立场，通过使用未经烧制的泥土和被动冷却技术，试图在尼日尔灼热的天气下为其中的居民提供荫蔽的保护条件。与世界许多地方一样，本地的材料在城市中心越来越罕见，而采用混凝土来代替。
Niamey 2000 takes its inspiration from pre-colonial cities of the region, such as Timbuktu in Mali, Kano in Nigeria, or Zinder in Niger, which were all dense urban centers in their day. The cities’ organic configurations of intricately intertwined homes were often two or three stories in height, while still maintaining a sense of privacy and intimacy. Like its early predecessors, Niamey 2000 provides privacy for its inhabitants; however, the project strives to address more than the need for culturally appropriate housing. It takes a firm position on material selection by using unfired, earth masonry and passive cooling techniques to protect against Niger’s scorching temperatures. As is the case in many parts of the world, local materials have been increasingly abandoned in urban centers in favor of concrete.
▼ 建筑设计完美适应了当地的环境条件，the building was adapted to the local scorching temperatures ©Torsten Seidel
尊重城市环境 | Respect for Context
The compound–a single, one-story dwelling surrounded by a perimeter wall–has influenced much of Niamey’s growth and character. Densification within this context could be achieved through taller buildings, but finding a balance between development and the cultural and social norms of the region is critical.
▼ 住宅的的设计策略，strategy of the design ©united4design
▼ 住宅反映了当地的文化特点，the design responds to the cultural context ©Torsten Seidel
增加住宅密度 | Creating Density
Niamey 2000 提出六户为一个单位的设计。附加的楼层减少了建筑物的占地面积，增加了典型情况下住户的数量。随着城市扩张和通勤距离的增加，这一战略越来越重要。
Niamey 2000 proposes six single-family units on the same area as a conventional, single-family compound lot. An additional story reduces the building footprint, increasing the maximum number of dwellings on a typical plot. This strategy becomes increasingly relevant as the city expands and commuting distances increase.
▼ 入口的门廊，entry passageway ©Torsten Seidel
▼ 内向的庭院，courtyard entry ©Torsten Seidel
▼ 建筑内部，the interior ©Torsten Seidel
▼ 开放日举办活动的居民，the activities held on the opening day ©Torsten Seidel
温度舒适性 | Thermal Comfort
The homes require nothing more than a simple fan to keep things cool–even during Niamey’s hottest days–when temperatures often reach well into the 100s. Living spaces open out onto self-shading courtyards, which are cooled by both cross and stack ventilation.
▼ 遮阴棚为庭院提供舒适的温度条件，the shading construction offers a comfort environment ©Torsten Seidel
使用本地材料 | Local Resources
Niamey 2000 的现代设计将本地的资源重新引入建筑行业，并为广泛增长的城市人口提供经济型住房。随着尼亚美继续增长，更多的外国投资者承诺资助建立公共和私人基础设施，大型住房项目正在不断的进行中。首都一些精心设计的项目，利用当地的专业知识和生产方式，可以为尼亚美的未来创造一个有价值的先例。该项目利用基于当地的土壤材料生产的产品，不仅是帮助该地区实现了可持续发展和文化的传承，而且也引领了一种富有吸引力和理想化材料的风潮，为地方发展树立了一个典范。压实地土块提供了当下建筑行业与施工要求相结合的好方法。
The contemporary design of Niamey 2000 reintroduces locally derived resources to the construction industry and offers affordable homes to a broader range of the city’s growing population. As Niamey continues to grow, and more foreign investors pledge funds for building public as well as private infrastructure, large-scale housing projects are on the horizon. A few, well-conceived projects in the capital–using local expertise and production methods–could set a valuable precedent for Niamey’s future. The project establishes a model for local development by leveraging earth-based construction–not only for its sustainable attributes and cultural associations–but also as an attractive and desirable commodity. Compressed earth block offers an excellent method for integrating earth- based construction with the contemporary demands of the construction industry.
▼ 尼亚美当地的建筑材料，the local material used in the project ©Torsten Seidel
▼ 场地，the site ©united4design
▼ 平面，plan ©united4design
▼ 剖面图，section ©united4design
▼ 建筑内的通风设计，ventilation of the house ©united4design
Project Name: Niamey 2000
Project Location: Quartier Niamey 2000, Niamey, Niger
Lot Size: 9,600 sqft
Building Size: 18,000 sqft
Completion date: 2016
Architect: united4design – Yasaman Esmaili, Elizabeth Golden, Mariam Kamara, Philip Straeter
Structural Engineer: Urbatec SARL
Contractor: Entreprise Salou Alpha & Fils
Metal Fabrication: Atelier de Technologie Metallique
Credit: Torsten Seidel