Pompejus是一座位于哈尔斯特伦卢佛瑞堡的瞭望塔，其特殊的位置使来访者可以俯瞰西布拉班特的水上防御大坝。非同以往，该瞭望塔既问讯处，也是开放的游客活动空间。该瞭望塔以该处堡垒的第一任指挥官Pompejus de Roovere的名字命名。
Pompejus is a watchtower on Fort de Roovere in Halsteren, West Brabant. The tower looks out over the West Brabant Water Defence Line, the oldest part of the Zuiderwaterlinie running from Bergen op Zoom to Grave. Pompejus is a watchtower, an open-air theatre and an information point for tourists. Pompejus is named after the first commander of the fortress, Pompejus de Roovere.
▼远景，view from distance
为防抵御法国人和西班牙人的入侵，保障从米德尔堡到多德雷赫特船运路线的安全，泽兰省和南荷兰政府于1627年建造了这座西布拉班特水上防御大坝。该大坝连接贝亨奥普佐姆和史丁柏根，并沿途设立多个防御堡垒。这其中最主要的堡垒卢佛瑞堡，是第一个将景观、边防和防洪体系结合在一起的防御工程。当洪水没过大坝蔓延到景观场地中，入侵者将寸步难行。在防御大坝悠长的历史上，它曾帮助荷兰人抵御来自法国，西班牙和奥地利人的威胁，也历经几次火灾。进入十八世纪，该大坝已经成为当地最重要的防线，这期间，著名设计师Menno van Coehoorn对它进行了彻底的加固。Roovere堡垒和一系列防御工程也获得了再次整修。西布拉班特大坝是荷兰历史上唯一一条水上防御大坝，它几经迎战，经历过成功和失败。1747年，大坝和当地城市在法国人的围攻下彻底沦陷 。到了19世纪，该大坝已不再作为军事要塞使用。部分堤坝被移除，遗下的一些军事堡垒也被拆毁。从2010年起，开发商开始陆续进驻大坝周边，运河景观逐渐得到恢复，众多娱乐活动也在其四周兴起。
The West Brabantse Water Defence Line was built in 1627 by the States of Zeeland, and Zuid-Holland to protect the important shipping route from Middelburg to Dordrecht against attacks by the Spaniards and the French. The line included the cities of Bergen op Zoom and Steenbergen and a number of forts, including the main fort, Fort de Roovere and was the first landscape defensive work in which inundation was deployed as a defence strategy. Inundation is the submersion of the landscape so that armies can no longer pull through the landscape with their equipment. In the course of the centuries the Linie has been under fire several times, among other things against the Austrians, French and Spanish. In the beginning of the 18th century the water line became more and more important and was thoroughly strengthened by the famous fortress builder Menno van Coehoorn. Fortress the Roovere was reinforced and increased and several preliminary works were carried out. The West Brabantse Waterlinie is the only waterline in the Netherlands where ever has been battled, usually successful, sometimes not. In 1747 the line and the City fell under the siege of the French. In the 19th century the line was strategically depreciated. It disappeared in some places, in others the forts were excavated. From 2010 onwards, one has started restoring the line. Forests have been taken from the forts, canals are restored. From that time on, the line is also developed for recreation.
由于位于布拉班特边线地区，景观轴线迎合了场地环境中极其微妙的高差变化。位于地势低处的村庄部分经常遭受洪涝灾害，因而位于地势高处的村庄则修建了众多防御堡垒，且这些沙堡彼此相连。因此，在堡垒之间建造丛林似乎是不可能实现的。Roovere堡垒曾是这其中处于最中心地位的一座。咸水与淡水在此处交融，视线从Bergen op Zoom堡垒到Steenbergen的方向里畅通无阻。因此，在原厂地处修建一座瞭望塔是景观规划中最重要也是最实际的决定。
The line uses very subtle altitude differences in the landscape. This is possible because it is located on the edge of the Brabantse Wal, the edge of the deck sand in Brabant. The low parts can be inundated, on the high parts and therefore defensive weak parts fortified towns and forts were built. These fortresses are sand forts and were connected to each other with ‘Linie dikes’. By afforestation this is no longer possible. Fort the Roovere was a central point in the landscape. The separation of fresh water and salt water inundation was here. It was the middle of the defence line, so from the fortress towards Bergen op Zoom and in the direction of Steenbergen could be looked at. This is no longer possible in the current landscape, which is why the plan came up of creating a watchtower here to make that possible again.
The edge of the fortress on which Pompejus stands is directed at the enemy. The tower is positioned exactly on that corner. By mirroring up the sides of the fort, a sharp shape is created which leans forward over the moat. As a result, it is closed on the outside, and open at the fort side. This creates space on the inside for an information centre and an open-air theatre for 225 people. To see the surrounding area over the trees, the tower must be 25 meters high above the fortress. Because the fortress itself rises 9 metres above the landscape, Pompejus literally towers 34 metres above his surroundings. From the top you can look 20 kilometres far in all directions and you can see the entire West Brabant Water Defence Line.
▼瞭望塔位于场地一角，located at the corner of the space
The facade is designed according to the principle of the Voronoi diagram, a mathematical design principle in which we used the triangles of the steel construction in order to make it possible to have windows and openings in the façade. Secondly the facade can be divided into elements to be prefabricated and transported, and add an additional layer to the facade to break the dominance of the triangular steel structure.
▼瞭望塔立面设计遵循泰森多边形法，the facade is designed according to the principle of the Voronoi diagram
Technology and material
In order to make the building of Pompejus manageable for everyone, we have used the File-to-Factory principle. No drawings have been made for the construction, only a 3D model is used. This model has been directly converted into ‘scripts’ for a Tekla model for the steel manufacturer and in machine language for CNC milling machines of the carpentry factory. This resulted in kind of Ikea-Billy cabinet packs in which all of the produced elements were encoded and could be assembled relatively easily. These packages were also scripted in such a way that from the 3D model also automatically the assembly drawings were provided. The construction consists of a hybrid steel-wood construction, in which the main structure consists of galvanized steel, and the sub-structure, façade elements, stairways and stairs are made of timber. The wood used is Accoya. The information space is thermally isolated and consists of timber frame construction.
▼立面细部 ，detail of the facade
▼主体结构采用镀锌钢，其他结构、立面装配、楼梯和踏步则使用固雅木，the main structure consists of galvanized steel, and the sub-structure, façade elements, stairways and stairs are made of timber
▼剧场台阶，the stairs of the theatre
In order to make this project possible, a community has grown in Bergen op Zoom who participated in the creation of Pompejus. For example, crowdfunding has been used to let people sponsor Pompejus, companies have sponsored parts of construction such as transport or wood, schools have provided interns, but also organizations have provided interns and volunteers. People who want to use the Pompejus and fort the Roovere in the future have been active to help the development. The aim was to make Pompejus ‘our tower’ and to connect with the residents of the surrounding area. This has been successful not only because the tower has been built, but above all because there is already an entire organisation to program the fort with events and it will be properly programmed and managed in the coming years.
▼瞭望塔与生活，the tower and community
Architect: RO&AD Architecten, Bergen op Zoom
Design team: Ad Kil, Ro Koster, Martin van Overveld
Opdrachtgever / Commissioner: Gemeente Bergen op Zoom / Municipality Bergen op Zoom
Constructeur/ structural engineer: Adviesbureau Luning, Velp
Aannemers / Contractors: Berghbouw, De Kok Bouwgroep, Nijs Soffers, VKP
Photographer: Katja Effting
Location: Halsteren, Nederland / The Netherlands
Start-End construction: 02-2017, 12-2017
Functie / Function: Uitkijktoren, openluchttheater, info-centrum / Watch tower, open air theatre, info centre
Hoogte / Height: 26 meter