2014 世界园艺博览会于 4 月 25 日在青岛开幕，“天水”和“地池”是百果山上的两个原有湖泊，两个服务中心也因为分别坐落在两个湖边而得名。作为园博会园区内的主要建筑，承担着人流集散、活动集聚、餐饮、休闲景观、文化传播、展示等多项功能。由于建筑性质及地理位置等的特殊性，在设计中需要处理好几个特殊关系：
The International Horticultural Exposition 2014 opened in Qingdao on April 25th; the two service centers, “Heavenly Water (Tianshui)” and “Earthy Pond (Dichi)”, are named after the two extant lakes on Baiguo Mountain where the buildings are respectively located. As the primary architecture of the Expo area, the buildings undertook multiple functions including circulation hub, activity center, restaurant, recreational landscape, cultural communication, exhibition, etc. Considering the distinctive nature of the architecture and its geographical location, the following unique relationships require particular design treatments:
1. Architecture vs. Architecture – The service centers sit on the same central axial as the Expo Theme Pavilion, the building placement at such a significant location will require design treatment of the relationship between the “invisible” and the “visible”; i.e. the accentuation of the Theme Pavilion from afar, and yet have its own draw in proximity.
2. Architecture vs. Environment – The Baiguo Mountain and the Heavenly Water and Earthy Pond lakes where the named project is located have outstanding natural landscape. Given the prominent location of the buildings by the lakes, the design treatment of the relationship between architecture and nature is vital to the deliverance of their organic integration.
3. Architecture vs. Human – Due to the unique nature of the service centers, which have to handle large circulation flow, the design has to ensure visitors from all directions can reach the service center area swiftly; and at the same time, it has to provide for visitors who can’t gain access into the service centers momentarily as a venue for viewing and resting.
Tianshui Service Center
In response to these issues, the designers proposed “landform architecture” as a design solution:
1. Through the reasonable use of the differences in natural gradients, the architecture and its setting are engaged as an integrated design, where the functions are placed and classed following the different grade levels, minimizing the architecture volume while maintaining the best possible view orientation. The architecture is split into two levels conferring to the natural landform: the second floor roof is flush with the street level, lessening the presence of the building volume as much as possible such that it does not press upon the Theme Pavilion on the north side, and providing visitor access to the rooftop platform for viewing of the natural landscape. The main restaurants of the first and second floors are facing the lakes, such that the visitors can have the best possible viewing experience; auxiliary functions such as supermarket and service stations are located under the rooftop platform for ease of access.
2. Preservation of the extant landform, landscape and vegetation to the greatest extent. For instance, the small island east of the Heavenly Water Service Center has preserved its original landscape with addition of new elements such as the poplar tree forest.
3. A multi-trail system has being employed in order to provide maximum visitor experience and accessibility. The multi-trail system is the provision of more than one visiting routes while ensuring maximum accessibility and conveniences, such that the visitors can take different routes back and forth, enjoying the various function and landscapes along the way.
Dichi Service Center
Working on similar design principles as the Heavenly Water Service Center, the Earthly Pond Service Center made according design responses to the aforementioned three elements of architecture, environment and human:
1. Reasonable use of differences in natural gradient – The sunken courtyard of the Earthly Pond Service Center is adjoined to the lake wetland. The architecture and landscape heights are set following the natural grade levels, providing multiple accessibilities and viewing experiences at different elevations. The main architecture spaces are lower than the surrounding street levels, facing the central sunken courtyard, thereby accommodating the visitors while affording view of preeminent water landscape.
2. Preservation of the extant landform, landscape and vegetation to the greatest extent – All of the hundreds of trees in the Earthly Pond Service Center area were preserved in their entirety; a rooftop platform and green space were also created, which promoted building efficiency and helped integrated the architecture into the landscape.
3. Multi-trail system – The Earthly Pond Service Center applied a 3-dimensional diamond shaped grid system in the design. The grid carried out self-adaptive adjustment according to the variations in landform and functional needs, and achieved the eventual design of the overall architecture and landscape under the pretext of constant adjustment parameters. During the adjustment process, the adaptation of the landform and longitudinal adjustment of elevations are very important, such that created a series of sequential spatial systems at various heights consisting of the rooftop platform, observatory deck, plaza spaces, etc., which are formed following the extant landform morphology; the step system formed following the diamond shaped grid system became the transformational element interring these series of spaces. The architecture is then seen as a variant of a parametric control of a certain level, integrated into the geometric system, delivering a cohesive spatial system of architecture and its environment.
方案设计单位: 华汇设计（北京） HHD_FUN
Qingdao beiyang architectural design co., LTD
Design Team: Zhenfei Wang, Luming Wang, Hongyu Li, Hao Pan, Qi Wang, Xiaohuan Tang, Chong Su
Construction Drawing Team: Da Xu, Fang Ji, Quan Xu, Xixing Dai, HuilingXue, Wei Wang, Daolin Yao, Yunhong Deng, Jinling Chen, Fei Xu, Xiulan Chen