Harvard Center for Green Buildings and Cities Unveils First-of-its-Kind HouseZero Lab and Prototype. HouseZero’s advanced data-driven infrastructure will enable cutting edge research, aims to shift the design and operation of buildings.
▼项目概览，overview © Harvard Center for Green Buildings and Cities
哈佛大学设计研究生院（GSD）的下属机构哈佛大学绿色建筑与城市研究中心（CGBC）于今日宣布，他们已经完成了HouseZero的建造。HouseZero位于剑桥，改造前是一座建于20世纪40年代前的建筑，曾作为CGBC的研究总部。如今，建筑师们希望将它打造为一个意义重大的生活实验室和节能建筑的正面原型，以便于大众从新的角度来看待建筑。HouseZero的设计从一开始就有宏大的目标，其中包括了将近零能耗的供暖和制冷系统、日间零人工照明、百分之百的自然通风，以及零碳排放等。建筑的翻修和后期运营皆是耗能的过程，因此该建筑旨在在其使用期限内，使产出能量远超于消耗能量，实现其零能耗建筑的目标。该项目由Snøhetta担任首席建筑师，Skanska Teknikk Norway担任首席能源工程师。
The Harvard Center for Green Buildings and Cities (CGBC) at the Harvard Graduate School of Design (GSD) announced today the completion of HouseZero, the retrofitting of its headquarters in a pre-1940s building in Cambridge into an ambitious living-laboratory and an energy-positive prototype for ultra-efficiency that will help us to understand buildings in new ways. The design of HouseZero has been driven by radically ambitious performance targets from the outset, including nearly zero energy for heating and cooling, zero electric lighting during the day, operating with 100 percent natural ventilation, and producing zero carbon emissions. The building is intended to produce more energy over its lifetime than was used to renovate it and throughout its subsequent operation. Snøhetta was the project’s lead architect and Skanska Teknikk Norway was the lead energy engineer.
▼研究室外观，exterior view © Harvard Center for Green Buildings and Cities
Leveraging HouseZero as both a workspace and a research tool, the CGBC will use millions of data points from hundreds of sensors embedded within each component of HouseZero to continually monitor its performance. This sensory data will also provide Harvard’s researchers with an unprecedented understanding of complex building behavior. This data will in turn, fuel research involving computational simulation, helping the CGBC develop new systems and data-driven learning algorithms that promote energy-efficiency, health, and sustainability.
▼研究室正立面透视，front perspective © Harvard Center for Green Buildings and Cities
“HouseZero’s flexible, data-driven infrastructure will allow us to further research that demystifies building behavior, and design the next generation of ultra-efficient structures,” said Ali Malkawi, founding director of the Harvard Center for Green Buildings and Cities and the creator and leader of the HouseZero project. “By creating both a prototype and an infrastructure for long-term research, we hope to raise interest in ultra-efficient retrofits and inspire substantial shifts in the design and operation of buildings.”
▼窗户夏季保护HouseZero免受太阳直射，减少室内制冷所需能量，冬季将阳光引入室内空间，减少季节性的能源需求， window shrouds protect the interior spaces of HouseZero from direct sun during summer months to reduce required cooling, yet allow winter sun into the space to reduce seasonal heat demand © Harvard Center for Green Buildings and Cities
“哈佛的HouseZero项目是效率和设计变革时尚一个意义重大的物理模型，”哈佛大学GSD的院长兼Alexander and Victoria Wiley资深荣誉教授Mohsen Mostafavi说道。“作为一个生活实验室，它为哈佛的学生和研究人员提供了一个无与伦比的、创新的基础设施。学校师生们可以利用HouseZero项目来进行建筑探索和研究，因为在不远的将来，他们将肩负起建筑师的社会责任，在世界各地设计并建造新一代的可持续建筑和城市。”
“Harvard HouseZero is an extraordinary physical example of efficiency and transformative design,” said Mohsen Mostafavi, Dean of Harvard GSD and the Alexander and Victoria Wiley Professor of Design. “As a living laboratory, it equips Harvard students and researchers with an unparalleled, innovative infrastructure for exploration and research as they design the next generation of sustainable buildings and cities around the world.”
▼太阳能通风口促进室内和地下室活动空间的通风，还有助于为再生砖的整体热元件进行充电和将阳光引入进楼梯间，a solar vent is used to instigate the natural ventilation of interiors and basement event space, and the glazed enclosure charges an integral thermal element of recycled brick and allows natural light to enter the stairwell © Harvard Center for Green Buildings and Cities
As a prototype, HouseZero works to address one of the biggest energy problems in the world today— inefficient existing buildings. The U.S. building stock is responsible for around 40 percent of energy consumption, with housing nearly a quarter of that use. Property owners spend more than $230 billion annually heating, cooling and powering its 113.6 million homes. [AL9] Addressing the energy-inefficiencies locked into this problematic building stock offers tremendous opportunity for curbing its impact on climate change. Paving the way through ultra-efficient retrofit strategies, HouseZero creates a blueprint for reducing energy demands and increasing cost savings for property owners.
▼开放式的平面和浅色的室内材料更加突出了空间的开放感，an open floor plan and careful selection of lighter-colored materials enhance the sense of openness in the space © Harvard Center for Green Buildings and Cities
“HouseZero demonstrates how to solve that problem by optimizing current technologies to achieve unprecedented building performance,” said Malkawi. “HouseZero challenged us to rethink the conventions of building design and operation to enhance lifelong efficiency and quality of life for occupants.”
▼零碳排放——使用具有高性能的当地材料，保持空气的质量和均衡的室内气候环境，using locally-sourced and high performance materials to preserve air quality and a balanced indoor climate to achieve zero carbon emissions © Harvard Center for Green Buildings and Cities
The ultra- efficiency of HouseZero lies at the intersection of cutting-edge technologies and applications of established, low-tech architectural design solutions. An example is natural ventilation, which is controlled by a window actuation system, which employs sophisticated software and sensors arrays to automatically open and close windows to maintain a quality internal environment throughout the year. The building itself will strive for best possible comfort; however a window can always be opened manually to ensure individual comfort still remains firmly tethered to human instinct.
▼100%自然通风——由电子控制的自动开合窗户系统确保内部空间全年都享有一个高质量的生活环境，a data-driven window actuation system maintains a quality internal environment throughout the year, achieving 100% natural ventilation © Harvard Center for Green Buildings and Cities
HouseZero will be used to research how to fundamentally redefine how a structure can connect with and respond to its natural environment to promote efficiency and health. Rather than approaching the building as a “sealed box,” the building envelope and materials of HouseZero were designed to interact with the seasons and the exterior environment in a more natural way. The building will adjust itself constantly— sometimes by the minute— to reach thermal comfort for its occupants.
▼100%自然采光——白天里，每个空间都最大限度地利用太阳光，不使用人工照明，maximizing daylight use in each space with no artificial lighting during the daytime to achieve 100% daylight autonomy © Harvard Center for Green Buildings and Cities
As a living lab, the Center’s researchers are afforded inspiring surroundings that they themselves will be able to control and adapt. With time, the CGBC’s research has the potential to greatly diminish the environmental impact of the building industry through widespread sharing and implementation of HouseZero’s findings and data-driven building research across new construction and future building renovations worldwide.
▼室内房间透视，interior room view © Harvard Center for Green Buildings and Cities
▼所有的房间都设有声学阻尼，降低了噪声透射率，使对话更加清晰，all rooms are designed to feature acoustic damping, reduce noise transmittance, and enable clarity of speech, achieving human-centric design for a data-centric building © Harvard Center for Green Buildings and Cities
▼数字化建筑中的人性化设计——实验室中心的楼梯螺旋上升，垂直贯穿建筑，减少了建筑物中流线的相互干扰，at the center of the building, a faceted stairwell that spirals up through all four floors of the building to reduce disturbance from circulation throughout the building, achieving human-centric design for a data-centric building © Harvard Center for Green Buildings and Cities
▼楼梯间的六角形面板由GSD的学生自主加工完成，the hexagonal panels of the stairwell are finished by students at the GSD © Harvard Center for Green Buildings and Cities
▼一层平面，1F plan © Snøhetta
▼二层平面，2F plan © Snøhetta
▼二层夹层平面，2F Mezzanine plan © Snøhetta
▼屋顶平面，rooftop plan © Snøhetta
▼地下室平面，basement plan © Snøhetta
▼主入口平面细部，main entry details © Snøhetta
▼南北向剖面图，north-south section © Snøhetta
▼东西向主入口剖面图，east-west section through main entrance © Snøhetta
▼东西向太阳能通风口剖面图，east-west section through solar chimney © Snøhetta
Client: Harvard Center for Green Buildings and Cities
Lead Architect, Landscape Architect and Interior Designer: Snøhetta
Energy/Climate Engineer: Skanska Teknikk (Norway)
Structural Engineering: Silman Associates
MEP/FP Engineering, Lighting: BR+A
Civil Engineering: Bristol Engineering
BAS/Controls/Natural Ventilation System: WindowMaster Acoustics: Brekke & Strand Akustikk
Code & Accessibility: Jensen Hughes
Geotechnical Engineering: Haley & Aldrich
Vertical Transportation: Syska Hennesy
Specficiations: Kalin Associates
BAS/Controls/Security Systems: Siemens Building Technologies
Photovoltaic System: Solect Energy
Landscape Architect, rear yard and surrounding properties: Reed Hilderbrand
Project Management: Harvard Planning & Project Management & CSL Consulting
Operations Support: Harvard Graduate School of Design Staff
Photographer: Michael Grimm