Hospital Nova by JKMM Architects

A future hospital with a totally new innovative concept and operation system

Project Specs

Location:

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“我们需要一座具备全新创新理念和运作系统的未来医院。”
这是JKMM事务所创始合伙人Teemu Kurkela在最初接触于韦斯屈莱市(Jyväskylä)新综合医院的项目时,院方所提出的愿景。从2010年起,担任阿尔托大学教授的Teemu Kurkela开始带领一个研究项目,旨在以新星医院研究案例,开发未来医院的理论模型。

“We need a future hospital with a totally new innovative concept and operation system.”
This was the vision of the hospital client when JKMM partner Teemu Kurkela first en-countered the project for a new general hospital in the city of Jyväskylä. From 2010, in his role as a professor at the Aalto University, Helsinki, Teemu Kurkela led a research project developing theoretical models for future hospitals with Hospital Nova as a case study.

▼视频,Video © Tapio Snellman

芬兰的医疗行业长期受困于医院设施的老化和新型医疗模式的缺乏。位于芬兰中部的于韦斯屈莱医院便是一个典型的例子。医院需要被重新考量,而研究则是突破当下思维框架的有效途径。2012年,新星医院正式拟建,并由JKMM事务所担纲设计。项目于2016年动工,2020年落地。今年此时,医院已正式向病人开放。

The Finnish hospital sector had been stuck for a long time, suffering from ageing hospital facilities and a lack of new healthcare models. The old Jyväskylä hospital in central Finland was a prime example. Hospitals needed to be rethought and research was an effective way to begin the process of thinking outside the box. In 2012, Hospital Nova became a real project with JKMM selected as architects. Construction began in 2016 and was completed in 2020. Patients were admitted this year.

▼医院外观,exterior view © Tuomas Uusheimo

新星医院的独特之处在于,不论是从功能概念还是建筑类型上而言,它都是完全按照项目一开始提出的理念来设计的。作为芬兰自1970年代以来第一座新建造的综合医院,新星医院不仅满足了新一代医院在临床上的需求,更从芬兰独有的自然环境中汲取灵感,在功能性与设计带来的直观感受之间取得了平衡。

▼设计草图,sketches

What is unique about Hospital Nova is that, in terms of both functional concept and building type, it has been designed entirely from first principles. The first new build general hospital to open in Finland since the 1970s, Hospital Nova balances the clinical requirements of an innovative next generation hospital with an intuitive design sensibility inspired by surrounding Finnish nature.

▼鸟瞰,aerial view © Tuomas Uusheimo

▼顶部停机坪,parking apron © Tuomas Uusheimo

▼建筑近景,a close view to the building © Tuomas Uusheimo

▼入口立面,entrance facade © Tuomas Uusheimo

 

创新的理念 | INNOVATIVE CONCEPTS

设计的目的在于打造新一代医院,以具有创新性的方式从内部重新思考建筑。新星医院并不是一座单一、庞大且错综复杂的建筑;相反,它被划分为四种不同的建筑类型,包括“热医院”(手术和专业看护)、“酒店”(病房)、“健康中心”(门诊)和“工厂”(辅助功能)。

这种运作模式具备多种优势,包括能够提供更高质量的病人护理和更加高效的动线。同时,这也需要通过合理的组织才能够实现。为了实现这一目标,项目团队为新星医院专门开发了一种新的运作系统。

▼体块生成:从分散的功能到围绕中央中庭布局的高效系统 © JKMM Architects
Diagram: from scattered functions to an effective system with a long public atrium around which all functions are organised

▼轴测图,axonometry © JKMM Architects

The aim was to design the next generation hospital, rethinking the building innovatively from within. Hospital Nova is not a single, large-scale and maze-like building. Instead, it is divided into four separate building typologies. These are ‘Hot Hospital’ (surgeries and specialised care), ‘Hotel’ (wards), ‘Health Care Shopping Mall’ (outpatients) and ‘Factory’ (supporting functions).

This model has several benefits, from providing better patient care to more efficient logistics. A large hospital is like a small city. It needs logical organisation. To achieve this, a new operation system was developed for Hospital Nova.

▼公路视角,view from the drive way © KUVIO M Sommerschield

▼立面近景,building facade © KUVIO M Sommerschield

▼立面标识,sign on the facade © Tuomas Uusheimo

自上1950年代以来,“塔楼+裙楼”一直是医院建筑的主流模式,该模式基于患者长期卧床的情况而决定的,随之产生的结果是病床的数量需要不断增多,塔楼也变得越来越高。而在今天,医疗保健的目标是尽可能地缩短病人的住院时间——平均仅约2天。

因此,未来的医院将围绕“护理流程”和“床位数量的最小化”来建造。要实现这一点,医院需要一个全新的运作系统。新星医院的模式类似于一座购物中心或机场,其所有的功能均沿着一个长长的公共中庭被组织起来。

▼剖面图,section © JKMM Architects

Since the 1950’s, the dominant architectural model for hospitals has been “tower with a podium”. This model was created when healthcare was centered around keeping patients in beds for a long time. As a result, the number of beds needed to be maximised and towers grew higher. Today, health care aims to keep patients in hospital for as short a time as possible, on average only two days.

So, the future hospital needs to be built around care processes and minimising beds. To achieve this, hospitals need a new operation system. In Hospital Nova, the model is similar to shopping malls and airports. All hospital functions are organised along a long public atrium.

▼所有的功能均沿着一个长长的公共中庭被组织起来
All hospital functions are organised along a long public atrium © Hannu Rytky

▼中庭空间,atrium © Tuomas Uusheimo

项目团队为新星医院量身打造了一套独特的芬兰“热医院”(Hot Hospital)理念。“热医院”的意思是,所有每天24小时不间断运作的“热点”功能均集中在一个优化的功能单元当中,包括急诊、诊断、重症监护室和手术室。以上这些功能仅占医院总面积的25%。对比之下,现代医院核心功能的组织和布局要比老式医院更加紧凑和高效。新星医院的危重病人通道同样由JKMM事务所设计,能够确保将急诊病人快速地转移至手术室。

A unique Finnish ‘Hot Hospital’ concept was developed for Hospital Nova. ‘Hot Hospital’ means that all 24/7 ‘hot’ functions are gathered into one optimised functional unit (emergency, diagnostics, intensive care units and surgery). This occupies just 25% of the total area of the hospital. The key functions of the modern hospital are thus arranged in much more compact and effective way compared to old hospitals. A Critical Patient Pathway ensures rapid movement of emergency cases to operating theatres, also designed by JKMM.

▼诊疗单元,functional unit © Studio Juha Sarkkinen

项目团队还为门诊部开发了一套新模式。各科门诊被汇聚成一个“健康中心”,360个诊室均沿着主要的内部中庭分布。诊室拥有统一的标准,可供不同的专业科室共同使用。患者可以一直待在同一间诊室中,等待医生和护士过来探诊,而不用从医院这头走到另一头。

医生和护士可以在“知识中心”一同开会或工作,显著改善了医务人员之间的沟通。“知识中心”是诊室区域后方的一个大型共享工作空间,作为一个高效的系统,它为来自不同领域的医疗专家提供了相互咨询的场地,从而确保对每个病人进行更加全面的评估。

A new model was also developed for Outpatients departments. These are designed as a ‘Health Care Shopping Mall’ in which all 360 consultation rooms are arranged along the main interior atrium. The consultation rooms are standardised and shared by different medical specialities. Patients stay in the same consultation room rather than moving from one part of the hospital to another, with doctors and nurses coming to see them there.

Communications among medical staff are greatly improved by doctors and nurses meeting and working together in the ‘Knowledge Centre’, a large shared workspace behind the consultation room zone. (There are no private staff rooms.) This is an effective system enabling medical specialists from different fields to consult each other thus ensuring a more holistic assessment of any individual patient.

▼医院走廊,corridor © Studio Juha Sarkkinen

物流和工作流程的重置进一步提高了医院的效率。例如,医院采用按需运送系统,能够将仓储量降至最低。设计的目标是让医院的物流像工厂和零售行业一样高效。对物流和工作流程的重新思考将使医院的运营成本降低10%。考虑到新医院前两年的运营成本与整个建造成本大约处于同一水平,从长期来看,运营支出的节省量将十分可观。

Logistics and process flows were rethought to further maximise efficiency. Storage, for example, is minimized with the hospital using an on-demand delivery system. The goal was to make logistics as efficient as they are in factories and retail. Rethinking logistics and processes will make it possible to cut the operation costs of the hospital by 10%. As 1–2 year operation costs are on the same level as the entire construction costs of the new hospital, long term savings in operational outgoings are significant.

▼诊疗室走廊,consultation room corridor © Tuomas Uusheimo

为了适应未来的变化,新星医院的设计被赋予了最大程度的灵活性,这主要来自于建筑的模块化结构、标准化的空间单元以及技术原则。随着医疗行业的发展,建筑本身也将随时做好改变的准备。

To allow for future changes, Hospital Nova was designed to be as flexible as possible. Flexibility comes from the building’s modular structure, standardised spatial units and technical principles. As health care changes, the building is ready for change.

▼等候空间,waiting area © Pauliina Salonen

 

病人至上 | PATIENT FIRST 

“病人至上”是新星医院的主要目标之一,为此设计团队也制定了数条战略。医院将基础和专业的医疗服务整合至同一座建筑内,使普通医护人员在一个完整的系统中工作。对于患者而言,所有的医护服务都可以在这个便捷的一站式系统中找到。

One of the main goals of Hospital Nova is to put the patient first. Several strategies were developed in terms of how to make this happen. Hospital Nova integrates primary and specialised health care into the same building. General doctors and nurses work within the whole system. All health care services can be found here. For patients, this is an easy and simple one-door system.

▼医院入口,entrance © Tuomas Uusheimo

医院的核心内部空间有着亲切宜人的氛围,三层高的中庭感觉更像是画廊或购物中心,而不是传统的医院场景。在新星医院,人们不会迷路,因为建筑的布局和规划都十分清晰明确。

The main internal space – the heart of Hospital Nova – is friendly and inviting, its three-storey atrium feeling more like a gallery or shopping centre rather than a traditional hospital interior. In Hospital Nova, you will not get lost. The plan and layout of the building is clear.

▼三层高的中庭,the three-storey atrium © Tuomas Uusheimo

▼画廊和购物中心般的场景,a gallery-like or shopping centre-like space © Tuomas Uusheimo

来访者可以从贯穿每个部门的视觉轴线来轻松地判断自己所在的位置。主入口通向一个顶部采光的中庭,中庭又与餐厅、研讨室、艺术庭院和木屋亭相连。儿童还可以在原木结构打造的开放式游乐场中玩耍。医院的大多数等候区均可以享受到风景和自然光线。

Visitors can orient themselves easily thanks to sightlines through different departments. The main entrance leads to a top-lit atrium that opens onto a restaurant, seminar room, art courtyard and a log-cabin kiosk. For children, there is also an open area playground designed using log structures. Most waiting areas in the hospital are designed so that they have views and natural light.

▼顶部采光的中庭,the top-lit atrium © Tuomas Uusheimo

医院的人工照明遵循了视觉友好的原则,并且与室内设计相得益彰。弯曲的白色顶灯引导访客、病人和工作人员在建筑中行进。主公共楼梯的扶手处采用了具有艺术感的灯光,在为室内增添活力的同时,进一步引导人们穿过医院。

Artificial lighting in the hospital is subdued in a way that is easy on the eye and complements the interiors. A serpentine white ceiling light invites visitors, patient and staff through the building. Handrails of the main public staircases are artfully lit to animate the interior and to further guide people through the hospital.

▼首层公共空间,public area on the ground floor © Tuomas Uusheimo

▼主公共楼梯,the main public staircases © Tuomas Uusheimo

所有的病房都是单人房,且设有独立卫生间,可为过夜的访客提供服务。在类似于酒店的氛围中,病人们将几乎忘却自己身在医院的事实。单人病房的设计体现了灵活性,不仅为病人带来具有治愈感、私密性良好且有助于睡眠的环境,还能够将传染的几率降至最低。

All patient rooms in the wards are single-occupancy with en- suite bathrooms and provision for overnight visitors. With a hotel-like ambience, patients can almost forget that they are in a hospital. Single-occupancy rooms are flexible, offering a healing environment, privacy and a good night’s sleep while minimising infections.

▼病房外走廊,patient room corridor © Pauliina Salonen

▼病房区域,patient room zone © Pauliina Salonen

▼病房内部,patient room interior view © Pauliina Salonen

项目建筑师Juho Pietarila表示:“我们的首要任务是设计一座庞大却易于使用和定位的医疗建筑。在进入建筑时,人们不会立刻感到自己正身处医院。这也是为什么新星医院切实地打破了人们对于医院设计和医疗建筑在外观和体验上的成见。”

Project architect Juho Pietarila says, “Our priority was to design a hospital building that is easy for patients to use and orient themselves in, despite its massive size. On entering the building, it is also not immediately apparent that you’re entering a hospital. This is why Hospital Nova really does challenge preconceptions about hospital design and how hospitals might look and feel.” 

▼温馨的候诊空间,a friendly and cozy waiting area © Tuomas Uusheimo

新星医院所在地区以其优美的湖景而闻名,同时是四个国家公园的所在地。为了让这座大型医院更加人性化,设计团队将自然作为医院内部装修的核心主题。室内空间的色彩、灯光和艺术品共同讲述着与自然相关的故事。在院方的委托下,设计团队在建筑中置入了大量定制的艺术品,回应了医院将患者体验放在第一位的理念。

The Hospital Nova region is known for its scenic lakeland district and is home to four national parks. To make the large hospital more human, nature was selected as the central theme for the hospital interiors. Colours, lights and artworks all tell stories connected to nature. A large variety of artworks was commissioned for Hospital Nova, to put the patient experience first.

▼中庭的艺术吊灯,the artistic light in the atrium © Studio Juha Sarkkinen

▼细节,detailed view © Hannu Rytky

JKMM室内建筑师Laura Hämäläinen表示:“大自然对人的治愈效果是众所周知的,这也是我们将于韦斯屈莱附近的国家公园作为室内设计灵感来源的原因。附近的松树林、山丘和湖泊等一系列为人们所熟悉的元素被引入建筑内部,共同创造出一种有意义的连接——这对于热爱自然的芬兰人而言尤为重要。”

JKMM Interior Architect Laura Hämäläinen says, “The positive and healing effects of nature are well known, and this is why we were drawn to looking at the national parks near Jyväskylä for our interior design concept. The nearby pine forests, hills and lakes are, of course, familiar to those using the hospital, and references to these in the building’s interior creates a meaningful connection and especially so for nature loving Finns.”

▼自然元素被引入建筑内部,natural elements are introduced into the building © Hannu Rytky

JKMM创始合伙人和新星医院首席建筑师Teemu Kurkela表示:“我们与医院怀有一个相同的愿景,即建造一座未来的芬兰医院。作为医疗建筑设计的新手,能够为新星医院产出新的概念、功能和技术创新可谓是一次振奋人心的经历。同时,我们希望打造一座将病人放在首位的建筑。芬兰的自然景色被用作设计的主题,有助于创造亲切又人性化的空间、营造治愈身心的医疗环境。”

Founding partner at JKMM and lead architect of Hospital Nova, architect Teemu Kurkela sums up the project, “We shared a vision with the hospital to create a future Finnish hospital. As outsiders to hospital design circles, we found it exciting to develop new conceptual, functional and technical innovations. At the same time, we wanted an architecture that puts the patient first. Finnish nature as the main design theme helped to create welcoming and human spaces, a healing hospital environment.”

▼建筑外观,exterior view © Tuomas Uusheimo

▼医院夜景,night view of the hospital building © Tuomas Uusheimo

▼轴测图,axon © JKMM Architects

▼负一层平面图,plan -1F © JKMM Architects

▼一层平面图,plan 1F © JKMM Architects

▼二层平面图,plan 2F © JKMM Architects

▼三层平面图,plan 3F © JKMM Architects

▼七层平面图,plan 7F © JKMM Architects

▼立面图,elevations © JKMM Architects

▼剖面图,sections © JKMM Architects

KEY DATA
Location: Jyväskylä, Central Finland
Function: General Hospital
Size: 116 000 gross m2
Status: 2012 – completion 2020
Client: KSSHP, Central Finland Hospital District
Scope: Architecture, art integration, furniture design, graphic design, interior, signage system

JKMM ARCHITECTS TEAM
lead architect, architect SAFA: Teemu Kurkela
architect SAFA: Asmo Jaaksi, Samuli Miettinen, Juha Mäki-Jyllilä, Aaro Martikainen, Anna Melander, Christopher Delany, Marko Salmela, Ville Hassi, Päivi Aaltio
assisting lead architect, architect SAFA: Riikka Heldan
project architect: Juho Pietarila
architect: Alli Bur, Gerrie Bekhuis, Jussi Jansson, Kimmo Kirvesmäki, Marko Pulli, Olli Vaskelainen, Pekka Tynkkynen, Rainer Virtanen
architect student: Jaakko Saraste
interior architect: Laura Hämäläinen, Raisa Hämäläinen, Timo Ryttäri
interior architect SIO: Veera Luostarinen, Kaisa Takala, Jorma Valkama
designer: Peter Vuorenrinne

JKMM TEAM PARTNERED WITH THE FOLLOWING PARTiES
Design partner: EGM architects
Project management constructor: SRV
Construction consultant: Ramboll CM Oy
Structural design, Geotechnical engineering, Audiovisual design: Ramboll Finland Oy
Electrical engineering: Ramboll Finland Oy and Easytec Oy
SUBCONTRACTORS MANAGED BY JKMM
Graphic design: Aimonomia Oy
Acoustics and sound proofing: Akukon Oy
Signage design for vision impaired: Avaava Oy
Vacuum waste disposal system design: Ecosir Group
Helipad design: FinnHEMS Oy
HVAC and FMED engineering: Granlund Oy
IT & BIM consulting: Gravicon Oy
Pneumatic tube system design: Insinööritoimisto W. Zenner Oy
Landscape design: Loci Maisema-Arkkitehdit Oy
Fire consultant: Paloässät Oy
Institutional kitchen design: Suurkeittiö-Insinööritoimisto Rita Pulli Oy
Signage design: Werklig Oy
Transport planning: WSP Finland Oy

KEY ARTISTS (INTEGRATED ART)
‘Notes of Lights’ artwork on the main facade: Tiina Pyykkinen
the wall of the auditorium: Pasi Karjula
‘Kukkajärvi’ (sea of flowers) light art installation on restaurant ceiling: Petri Vainio
Silent yard: Nora Tapper
second entrance: Jussi Heikkilä
artwork for the operation theaters and radiotherapy department: Jaana Kautto
hospital wards: Kati Immonen, Naoji Ishiyama, Aino-Kaarina Pajari, Johanna Pisto, Anna Ruth, Yuichiro Sato, Johanna Mäkitalo

PRESS IMAGE AND VIDEO CREDITS
Photography: Hannu Rytky, Pauliina Salonen, Studio Juha Sarkkinen, KUVIO M Sommerschield. Tuomas Uuusheimo
Videography: Tapio Snellman

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