Temperate House Conservation by Donald Insall Associates

The world’s largest Victorian glasshouse reopens to the public

Project Specs

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Appreciation towards Donald Insall Associates  for providing the following description:

Temperate House位于英国皇家植物园,其设计和建造深受维多利亚时期风格以及对自然世界的观察和研究的影响。在与Donald Insall Associates的合作下,这座维多利亚时期的温室经历了为期五年的大规模修复,并于2018年5月重新向公众开放。温室中汇集了来自全球的1万种植物,其中包括许多稀有和濒危物种。借助现代技术,修复后的建筑将为这些植物提供更加有利的生长环境。

The design and construction of the Temperate House (1859-1899) at the Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew was predicated on a Victorian obsession with the observation and study of the natural world. On reopening in May 2018 after a major five year restoration programme with Donald Insall Associates as the conservation architects, the Victorian glasshouse will continue to fascinate researchers and visitors alike. Its collection of 10 000 plants from around the world, including many rare and threatened species, will also be better cared for in a building where the environment can be fine-tuned using modern technology.

▼项目概览,project overview ©Gareth Gardner

Temperate House最初由Decimus Burton (1800-1881)设计,是场地中5座被列为一级保护建筑的场馆之一。它坐落在抬升的丘陵地带,并且与Kew塔保持平齐。建筑占地4880平方米,高19米,其面积是Palm House(同样由Burton设计)的两倍。事实上,Temperate House是全世界最大的维多利亚式温室建筑,并且常常被形容为一项“建筑奇迹”。

Designed by Decimus Burton (1800-1881), the Temperate House is a series of five Grade I Listed pavilions standing prominently on a raised earth mound, aligned on an axis with the Kew Pagoda. It is one of a number of other Decimus Burton projects at Kew that include the Victoria Gate and the majestic Palm House.  Covering a floor area of 4,880 square metres and extending to 19 metres in height, the Temperate House is twice the size of the monumental Palm House. It is, in fact, the world’s largest Victorian glasshouse and is often described as an “architectural wonder”.

▼Temperate House是全世界最大的维多利亚式温室建筑,the Temperate House is the world’s largest Victorian glasshouse ©Gareth Gardner

▼室内概览,interior overview ©Gareth Gardner

 

修复过程 | The Process

作为准备工作的一部分,温室内部的植物从建筑中移除,仅留下9棵树——它们对于整体园艺规划有着至关重要的作用。关于植物的记忆即使不存在于表面,实际上也会从它们的根系、残留的树钩甚至干枯的土壤中体现出来。

As part of the enabling works, the building was stripped of its living botanical collection, save for nine trees which were deemed too horticulturally significant to risk moving. The very memory of the plants, even when absent, is apparent in every joint opened by root systems, in remnant plant hooks and in exhausted soil.

▼剖面图,section

从涂料研究中可以看出,1860年代初期的建筑主要采用淡蓝色和灰白色石墙的装饰方案。19世纪晚期,南北两端的建筑开始使用深绿色的配色方案。1950年代首次使用了现代风格的钛白色基调,后来又逐渐被多色的石材装饰所取代。经过一系列研究之后,项目团队选择了这种以石材为主的装饰方案,旨在凸显出建筑细部和位于高处的雕塑。

▼以石材为主的装饰方案旨在凸显建筑细部和位于高处的雕塑,the decorative scheme of stone colours picking out architectural details and high level sculpture ©Gareth Gardner

▼雕塑细部,details ©Thomas Erskine

Paint analysis revealed that early decorative schemes within the 1860s buildings had stone- coloured walls with pale blue and off-white decoration on the structure. The later-19th-century North and South Blocks originally had a dark green colour scheme. The modern titanium dioxide white decorative scheme first applied in the 1950s has been replaced with polychromatic stone colours, picking out architectural details and high level sculpture, following the paint analysis research.

▼温室中汇集了来自全球的1万种植物,the Temperate House has a collection of 10,000 plants from around the world ©Gareth Gardner

▼窗户细部,glazing detailed view ©Gareth Gardner

超高压水流和石榴石喷砂被应用于结构的清理工作,能够消除建筑被腐蚀的部分,使原始的铸件痕迹和金属工人使用的印章被揭示出来——它们见证了维多利亚时代值得骄傲的工匠技艺。新的印章将被印在使用了新材料的位置,包括铅制品、防雪板和最终细部。玻璃立面没有增加印章,为的是维持较高的透光性和反射性。

Cleaning of the structure, utilising ultra-high pressure water and crushed garnet blasting to remove the build-up of corrosion, has revealed the original casting marks and metalworkers’ stamps, evidencing the quality and pride in craftsmanship of the Victorian era. New stamps will be added where new materials are used including lead work, replacement castings to the snow guards and finial details. Stamps have been omitted purposefully from the new glazing to maintain the purity of light transmission and reflection. These works acknowledge the passage of time and Donald Insall Associates’ part in that process.

▼建筑细节反映了维多利亚时代精湛的工匠技艺,the details evidence the quality and pride in craftsmanship of the Victorian era ©Gareth Gardner

 

技术 | Technical 

由于建筑的规模较大,涂漆和玻璃安装等工作的实施需要先将各部分构件进行拆卸、记录和存储。项目团队借助编码软件记录了构件的原始位置、网格线和新位置等。相比于拆除工作,建筑的恢复更具挑战性,尤其是是在既有结构中加入新的元素时,需要同时考虑到老化的连接件和五金细部。

▼在既有结构中加入新的元素,the conservation works in contemporary elements into the structure ©Gareth Gardner

To facilitate the re-painting and re-glazing of such a large structure 69,151 individual component parts had to be dismantled, recorded, logged and stored. Using tablets with latest coding software has allowed the team to do this and register originating position, grid line and current location. In retrospect, dismantling the building was the easy part. Reinstatement created many challenges especially when working in contemporary elements into the structure whilst taking into account the aged junctions and weathering details.

▼连接细部,junctions detailed view ©Gareth Gardner

▼施工过程,construction process ©Thomas Erskine

 

更好的旅客体验 | Better visitor experience

建筑内外的景观均得到了改善,并为游客提供了兼容性的通道。导览设施也进行了优化,能够使游客在五座相互连接的建筑中获得更加顺畅和自由的行走体验。树荫环绕的温室还专门增设了新的教育空间,能够在加强基础知识普及的同时,鼓励游客与整个植物园进行丰富和更深入的互动。

Landscaping, both internally and in the approach to the building, has been improved, providing inclusive access to all visitors. The visitor experience will also be enhanced through interpretation facilities, guiding the passage of the public through a suite of five interconnected buildings. This will allow visitors to take in temperate worlds, all the while located in leafy suburban TW9. A new dedicated education space on the site will offer Kew greater opportunities to engage with their audiences and reinforce the scientific basis of its foundation.

▼优化的景观设计和更加顺畅的行走体验,the landscaping has been improved providing inclusive access to all visitors ©Gareth Gardner

▼Rory Chisholm手稿,drawing by Rory Chisholm

▼西立面图,west elevation

▼中央楼梯剖面图,Centre Block Spiral Stairs

Temperate House Project data
Name of client: Royal Botanic Gardens Kew (Turner and Townsend)
Location of project: Richmond upon Thames
Type of project: Conservation of Glasshouse
Date of commission: January 2012 (for Conservation Management Plan)
Total Area: 5700m2 approx.
Key Design Team Members:
Project Manager: Turner + Townsend Cost Manager: Turner + Townsend Structural Engineer: Ramboll
M&E Engineer: Hoare Lea Landscape: Land Use Consultants Contractor: ISg
Archaeology: Compass Archaeology Sculpture Restoration: Taylor Pearce

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