缘起 | Origin
▼项目概览，project overview ©赵奕龙
Before that, my wife, who is also an architect, and I lived on the second floor of our studio converted from an old vila. This combination of studio and dwelling saved a lot of commuting time, but it also brought a lot of inconvenience. So we bought a commercial apartment with an area of about 40 square meters less than 2 kilometers from the studio as a new home for us and two cats.
Our apartment is on the second floor of a seven-story building, and downstairs is a 2.2-meter-high overhead garage. The plan of the unit is 11.4 meters long and 3.8 meters wide, with the inner short side entering and the outer short side being an equipment space and a shallow balcony. The property type of the district is commercial apartment. It is speculated that due to the overhead floor and the building height limit, the standard floor has a relatively strange indoor net height of 3.7 meters as a living space.
▼原状入口，the original entrance ©久舍营造
拿到钥匙进入公寓时，空间是10多年前开发商交房时规划的 “两室一厅”的格局。和绝大多数单开间公寓平面一样，主入口都偏在开间的一侧直通端头，以通过尽可能少的交通面积组织各功能空间。入口进来走道靠分户墙一侧为厨房操作台和烟道，另一侧是卫生间贴着过道的墙体与门洞，卫生间内有水管井和新风井。再往内走，左侧是一部垂直于过道的窄楼梯，上到二层后再分别钻入前后4平米和12平米的两个卧室，两个卧室净高不足1.6米，还有明确的墙体围合，分别在朝向阳台方向的墙体上开了一个窗洞，算是有了采光。从楼梯口再往内，是进深为5.5米的客厅，但靠入口一侧有两米左右进深被上方的小卧室压住，净高不足2米，局部下挂的楼板让有些空间低于1.3米，靠楼梯侧墙上有个小门洞，里面是楼梯下局促的储藏空间。实际上，真正3.7米通高客厅部分进深只有3.3米。客厅靠阳台侧被一个设备间挡住一小半，在另一半出现了一个对着阳台的小空间与客厅相连。惊喜的是， 在对着阳台的落地窗外，竟可以看见杭州西湖十景之一——“双峰插云“中的北高峰的峰顶。
▼公寓区位图，apartment location map ©久舍营造
When got the key to enter the apartment, we found that the space was the pattern of “two bedrooms and one living room” planned by the developer more than 10 years ago. Like most single-bay apartments, the main entrance was on one side of the bay leading to the end to organize functional space through as little traffic area as possible. One side of the entrance aisle is the kitchen console and the flue, the other side is the wall and door of the bathroom, and there are water pipe wells and fresh air shafts in the bathroom. Continue walking inward, on the left is a narrow staircase perpendicular to the aisle, leading up to the second floor and then into the two bedrooms of 4 square meters and 12 square meters. The two bedrooms are enclosed with wall and with the net height of less than 1.6 meters. There are windows facing the balcony, and they can be regarded as daylighting. From the staircase onward is the living room with a depth of 5.5 meters, but about two meters in depth is with the upper small bedroom overhead. The net height is less than 2 meters, and in some spaces less than 1.3 meters. There is a small doorway on the side wall of the stairs, which is a cramped storage space under the stairs. A small half of the living room is blocked by the equipment room on the side of the balcony, and there is a small space facing the balcony connected to the living room on the other side. To my surprise, from the window facing the balcony, I can see the north peak in “double peaks inserting clouds”, which is one of the ten sights of the West Lake in Hangzhou.
▼窗外的北高峰，the North Peak outside the window ©久舍营造
Such spatial planning meet the demand of the citizens for an affordable house in a certain period of time (the price of commercial real estate is much lower than residential real estate), and even with limited bay of 3.8 meters achieved “two bedrooms and one living room” and had all rooms facing south. It has reached the standard of “excellent household type”, which is usually achieved with at least 70 square meters. However, there is a huge gap between the abstract evaluation criteria and the quality of life experience.
For example, with such a small area, only one side of the aisle was used for the kitchen countertop, the other side was the wall of the bathroom, the traffic area was not good enough taken use of. The arrangement of the front and rear bedrooms made the rear bedroom very depressing. Each bedroom was strictly limited by four walls, and the space was divided into pieces. The daylight opening of the rear bedroom was at the top of the kitchen, so that the kitchen had a net height of 3.7 meters, which not only wasted space, but also let the oil fumes of the kitchen up into the bedroom. The front bedroom was only big enough for a double bed with both ends against the wall, which was very cramped. The path from the entrance to the living room was straight, and as soon as the door opens, you can see through all the first floor at a glance from outside. As a residence, the privacy was very deficient; the storage space was also very limited.
▼原状卧室及储藏空间，the original bedroom and storage space ©久舍营造
These problems are not acceptable for a high-quality living space, let alone meet the more specific needs of our lives. Therefore, the renovation is imperative.
It is lucky to be able to design a living space for yourself, especially for architects, which is usually the best opportunity to express themselves. As far as we are concerned, creation is the creator itself, the concept of architecture and the concept of life can not be separated. At this time, we finally had the opportunity to discuss deeply how our body and mind nourish each other with the external space, completely faithfully face and meet our real needs, and seriously ask some of the most important questions in our lives.
Fortunately, all the steps, walls and floors in the space were auxiliary light steel structures embedded in the outer concrete frame structure, and did not bare any load for the building. Therefore, we decided to remove all the partition walls and floors except the piping shafts, so that all thinking can start from scratch.
▼拆除内部轻钢结构，demolition of internal light steel structure ©久舍营造
设计的开始 | The beginning of the design
在梳理了我俩在这个空间里的所有功能后，我们发现要承载的功能既不算多，也不算少。不算多是因为我们近几年没有生小孩的计划，绝大部分的时间呆在工作室和外面，只有晚上和周末会在家。休息（身体的放松与精神的 增益）构成了这个空间中最核心的内容。不算少是因为虽然不常在家做饭，但夫人会时常突发奇想地做一些甜点和菜肴，因此需要足够大操作台面的厨房，大冰箱，烤箱和洗碗机，以及可以和朋友们分享美食的大桌子（亦可 作为书桌），还需要尽可能多的储藏空间来收纳大部分不常用的物件，再加上卫生间和洗衣机等日常必需品和两只猫的猫砂盆。
这些功能在一个常规的现代住宅里可能会被归纳到卧室、书房、厨卫、起居室、餐厅等数个功能房间中去。而在 一个只有40平米，即使有3.7米的净高可以操作的极小空间中，按功能房间划分的方式也是无法操作的。因此我 们必须破除功能主义“房间”的神话，抓住我们对这个空间的核心需求，并围绕此来重新安排生活的功能。
After combing through all the functions we have in this space, we found that there are neither many nor few functions to carry. Not many because we don’t have plans to have children in recent years. We spend most of our time in the studio or out, only at home in the evenings and weekends. Rest (physical relaxation and mental gain) constitutes the core of this space. Not less because although we do not often cook at home, but my wife sometimes cook desserts and dishes on a whim, so we need a kitchen with a large enough countertop, a large refrigerator, an oven and a dishwasher, as well as a large table (which can also be used as a desk) to share food with friends, and as much storage space as possible to store most of the items that are Infrequently used. Plus daily necessities such as bathroom，washing machine and litter pots for two cats.
These functions may be summed up in a conventional modern house into several functional rooms, such as bedroom, study, kitchen, living room, dining room, and so on. In a very small space of only 40 square meters, even with a net height of 3.7 meters, the division of functional rooms is inoperable. Therefore, we must break the myth of “room” in functionalism, grasp our core demand for this space, and rearrange the functions around it.
Resting our body and mind (reduce fatigue, restore energy) is the core need for this space. In this way, it seems that it is in line with the construction purpose of the Chinese classical garden, which is deeply influenced by Taoism, and the familiar word “urban mountain forest” appeared again. Recalling the first time I entered the apartment and was moved seeing the north peak, the idea of placing a “mountain” in this space flashed out vaguely.
▼置入一座山，put in a mountain ©久舍营造
盈尺起山 | Building a “Mountain” in a tiny area
Why a mountain? There is, of course, our preference for natural landscapes and gardens. However, to put a “mountain” in a space of 40 square meters is not just something you like to support. It is the small space and the strange height of the layer that provides the possibility for the emergence of the “mountain”. The inside and outside, interface and volume of “mountain” also happen to solve some problems of minimal space as a holistic strategy.
▼山内外分区，division inside and outside the mountain ©久舍营造
正因为空间小，因此需要疏密有致。致密的储存空间可以匀出疏朗的活动空间；也正因为层高怪，一层太浪费二层太局促， 因此一二层之间多级差的标高系统才有了充分的合理性。而这两者，都指向类似“ 山” 的形态。而且，“山”既有体积，又是界面。作为界面，它可以把强功能区与弱功能区内外分开，让紧得更紧，疏的更疏。
这座“山”位于平面长向的中段，如一道屏障，把公寓空间分为内外两个部分。“山”外部的厨房卫生间等强功能 区，和“山”内部的自由功能区。“山”的主体是一个完全由E0级环保桦木多层板构造的大家具。桦木多层板具有结构稳定、面层美观的特点，既是表面材料，又是结构材料。材料之间大多以重力叠加形式构造，辅助木枪钉直接固定，局部地柜部分用齿榫咬合，结构与构造的自然真实性都诚实地显示出来。它的正面桦木纹理与截面多层胶合的平行细密深浅线条也提供了余光中的生动细节。它集合了大量的储藏空间（除卫生间和厨房储藏以外， 在桦木多层板的山体内最终共设置了13.28立方米的巨量储藏空间）。“ 山脚” 的“ 峡谷” 入口，“山 腰”的“院子”，逐步抬升的连续台地（而不是楼梯），以及山顶的“洞窟”卧室以及一个联系“山体”内外的 窗洞成为了“山体”各部分的主要空间类型。
▼E0级桦木多层板，birch laminates of E0 level ©久舍营造
It is precisely because of the small space that there is a need for the combination of the sparse and the dense. Tight storage space allows sparse activity space. It is precisely because of the strange height that one story is too wasteful and two stories is too cramped, so the elevation multi-level system between one and two stories is fully reasonable. And both of them lead to a form similar to a “mountain”. Moreover, the “mountain” has both volume and interface. As an interface, it can separate the strong functional area from the weak functional area, so that the sparse becomes sparser, and the dense becomes denser.
The “mountain” is located in the middle of the plan, like a barrier, dividing the apartment into the inner and outer parts: strong functional areas like the kitchen and the bathroom outside the “Mountain”, and free functional area inside the “mountain”. The main body of the “Mountain” is a large furniture constructed entirely by birch laminate of E0 environment protection level. Birch laminate has stable structure and beautiful surface layer, which is not only a surface material, but also a structural material. The materials are mostly constructed by stacking, with wooden nails assisting, and the part of the floor cabinet is occluded with tenons. The authenticity of the construction is honestly shown. Its front birch texture and cross-section multi-layer glued parallel fine lines also provide vivid details in the corner of sight . It has a large collection of storage space (in addition to bathroom and kitchen storage, the birch laminate mountain eventually contains 13.28 cubic meters of storage space). The “canyon” entrance to the “foot of the mountain”, the “yard” of the “hillside”, the gradually rising continuous platform (rather than the stairs), as well as the “cave” bedroom at the top of the mountain and a window connecting the inside and outside of the “mountain” have become the main types of space for all parts of the “mountain”.
▼“山”体中13.28立方米的储藏空间，13.28 cubic meters of storage space inside the “mountain” ©久舍营造
The main types to constitute the “mountain” are determined, and then it is necessary to gradually definite the detail construction and dimensions inside and outside the “mountain”.
山外 | Outside the “mountain”
By transforming the outside of the”mountain”, the position of the original entrance door, the flue and vent pipe and water piping shaft (including water supply and sewer pipe) is related to the whole building, which determines that the position of the kitchen and toilet can not be much moved.
▼一层平面，ground floor plan ©久舍营造
The kitchen is changed from the original corridor unilateral countertop to the bilateral countertop, and the height is distinguished according to different operations in the kitchen. We have arranged a double door refrigerator and a shoe cabinet at the entrance door, as well as stoves, basins, a dishwasher, an oven and a lot of storage space in the cabinets on both sides of the aisle. The aisle can be fully used as operating area of the kitchen, and the kitchen utensils in the dishwasher can be placed into the cupboard opposite the hallway in no distance. The partition wall between the kitchen and the toilet has a turning point because of the different depth of the refrigerator and the countertop, which also strengthens the wall.
▼进门走道两侧为厨房空间，the kitchen on both sides of the entrance aisle ©赵奕龙
The net height of the kitchen and bathroom is 1.95 meters, which is a decision considering the upper rest space and the thickness of the floor. In order to use the kitchen in this height, we carefully selected the ventilator to match this height，and installed a special type of built-in spotlight to prevent dazzling light. For the highly functional kitchen and bathroom, we chose the Ikea modular white cabinets, with white electrical appliances and tiles to improve the overall brightness of the space.
▼洗碗机与碗柜的关系，the relationship between dishwasher and cupboard ©赵奕龙
▼动线图，circulation diagram ©久舍营造
The entrance into the mountain is on the bathroom side, which is on the opposite to the entrance to the apartment. Therefore, there is a turning point in the path outside the “mountain”. Due to the barrier role of the “mountain”, the sight is effectively blocked after entering the main entrance, and the life inside the “mountain” gains more privacy. On the vertical path at the turning point, we set up a lot of storage space in combination with the “mountain”, storing the suitcases and clothing out of the season into the sliding door.
▼转折的路径和落地储物柜，the turning path and the cabinet
In addition, we also changed the bathroom plan from original square to rectangle. The entrance is also moved to this turning path, and the bathroom is divided into dry and wet areas. The wash basin and the mirror are moved directly into the “canyon” on the other side of the “mountain”. The mirror also increases the subjective depth of the space when coming out of the “canyon”.
▼操作面长度与走廊长度对比，comparison of the surface length and corridor length before and after the modification ©久舍营造
▼走廊空间的使用状态，state of use of the corridor space ©久舍营造
It appears that we increased the length of the aisle, but the countertop length per corridor length increased by nearly 50% (from 1.18 to 1.72), which greatly improved the efficiency of the corridor and the passing through experience, achieving more convenient kitchen and bathroom and a more private interior.
山内 | Inside the “mountain”
Opening the door opposite to the basin and you’re inside of the “mountain”. First of all, you have to pass the canyon at the foot of the mountain. It is the highest place in the apartment. The separating wall is on the left, with a 75cm tall birch laminates dado leading the line of sight into the distance. A birch laminate cabinet is on the right, which falls step by step from the height of head. The barriers on both sides show the depth of the canyon. We stored some of the items related to the cat’s life in the cabinet on the right side of the canyon and set up a cave with no door panels at the bottom to hold the litter basin.
▼进入山内的“峡谷”，可见侧边的猫砂盆区域，entering the “canyon” in the mountain, you can see the cat litter basin area on the side ©赵奕龙
▼曲折尽致，full of twists and turns ©范久江
It is precisely because the location of the entrance of the “mountain” has been changed from one side to the other, that the partition wall of the equipment space is seen when entering the “mountain”, and the view outside the beveled balcony can only be seen after two steps. A sense of seclusion and depth of space and time in traditional Jiangnan gardens is achieved by turning the path twice.
▼平面视线，lines of sight in the plan ©久舍营造
Along the “canyon”, the “cliff” on the right gradually descends, while the ground rises from two steps, and the feeling of mountain climbing arise spontaneously. As the light of the scenery gradually strengthened, you’ll enter the courtyard at the “hillside”.
▼“山腰”的院子，the courtyard at the “hillside” ©赵奕龙
院子是架空在两级踏步高度的一个3.5米见方的大平台，四周都由同为45CM高的柜体或墙裙围绕，单一的桦木多 层板材料形成了强烈的包裹感，半高的墙裙如同床榻的靠背引诱人席地而坐。这个平台的下方是满铺的储藏空间以及一大一小两个电动升降的桌板。当桌板全部降下时，这个空间就是我们在家里随处可坐可躺的大地铺。而当桌板升起时，这个空间就变成了餐厅、画室、书房甚至棋牌室。除了一些可以收纳进地柜的靠背折叠沙发以外， 院子内唯一的一件家具就是一个好朋友设计的渔夫造型的落地灯。
▼单独升起的大桌面，the big table rises alone
The courtyard is a large square platform with a side length of 3.5m at the height of two steps, surrounded by cabinets or dado of 45cm height. The unified birch laminate forms a strong sense of wrapping, and the half-height dado are like the backrest of a bed, seducing people to sit on the floor. Under the platform is full of storage space and two (a large one and a small one ) electric lifting table board. When the tables are all down, this space is the bunk where we can sit and lie down everywhere at home. When the table rises, the space becomes a restaurant, a studio, a study and even a chess and card room. In addition to some Back folding sofas that can be accepted into the floor cabinets, the only piece of furniture in the courtyard is a lamp In the shape of a fisherman designed by a good friend.
▼两块桌面全部升起，two tables rise together ©赵奕龙
Setting off against the circle of cabinets and dados below in the courtyard, we used cement paint with fine concrete texture on the whole wall. This contrast of material and colour, combined with the sunlight from the balcony outside the courtyard, endows the “hillside” yard with the illusion of being in the open air.
Between the courtyard and the outer balcony, we set up an area of tatami that is 12cm higher than the courtyard, which became the area where we and the two cats enjoy the sun on weekends. By raising the floor the external balcony floor is further hidden, the “ta” will have the meaning of being suspended. The north peak seems to be within reach. Curtains are installed on the top of the hole between the tatami area and the yard, so that the area can also be used as a small bedroom for close friends and relatives to take a temporary rest in the future.
▼榻榻米空间，the tatami area
Looking out from the yard across the tatami space, you can see the trees outside the window and the north peak partly visible in the distance. While looking inside, a continuous ascending terrace spreads from the front of the eyes, all the way to the cavern at the top of the “mountain”. This is a terrace system that connects the upper bedroom and the lower courtyard, as well as a handy storage space for frequently used items. The four terraces of different heights provide a gradually rising sight, either sitting or standing, From horizontal view to looking down, the front yard and the dense forest outside the balcony will present themselves in different faces. At the highest level, the two large glass doors on the balcony are filled with green plants from the outside.
▼回望山体，looking back at the “mountain” ©赵奕龙
▼连接山内外的通路，the path connecting the inside and outside of the “mountain” ©赵奕龙
▼连续的阳台、院子、台地、卧室，the continuous space of balcony, courtyard, terraces, bedroom ©赵奕龙
▼影院模式，cinema mode ©赵奕龙
▼台地的储藏空间，the storage space of the terrace
The storage space of the upper two levels of the terraces is opened from outside of the “mountain”, while the lower two levels are deep cabinets for storing large objects such as mattresses and group drawers for storing random objects, which is convenient to use when sitting around the courtyard (the most frequently used sitting place for a short time).
▼储藏空间细部，storage detail ©范久江
与楼梯纯粹的交通作用不同，有一定高差的台地，并不能让人连贯顺畅的上下。上的时候有时需要手脚并用; 比较懒的时候，爬了两层还可以中途坐下回头看看窗外的绿色和远处的北高峰，甚至坐到侧边高出台阶的柜体上一览众山小，生活的节奏被无意中打断和放慢。 这种设置，彻底改变了常规居住空间的楼层概念，我们获得了在居住空间中非常规的视线与位置关系，而这种特殊的体验构成了我们新的日常性。
Unlike stairs, that are used only for passing through, the terrace with a certain height difference does not allow people to go up and down in a coherent and smooth way. Sometimes the both hands and feet are used to clime up. When we happen to be lazy, we would sit down and look back at the green trees outside and the north peak in the distance, or even sit on the side cabinet above the steps. The rhythm of life is involuntarily interrupted and slowed down. This design completely changes the concept of stories in conventional living space, we obtain the unconventional sight and position relationship, and this special experience constitutes our new daily life.
▼身体与空间，body and space ©久舍营造
▼内外入口及窗洞位置，the location of the entrance and the window ©范久江
At the highest level of the terraces, we made a long flat opening, installed a hanging window, and solemnly installed brass hooks and latches. This window is not only for auxiliary ventilation and daylighting for the kitchen and bathroom. With this window, I can even lie on the terrace looking at my wife cooking in the kitchen; or take over the dessert that my wife just made; or sit here and watch the movie cast on the curtain while looking back at the two cats in the kitchen; or even see the green outside the balcony in the bathroom. This window has become a shortcut for the two cats to easily shuttling between the inner terrace and the kitchen countertop.
▼两只猫的“捷径”，the shortcut for the two cats
▼从窗洞俯瞰厨房，overlooking the kitchen from the window ©赵奕龙
▼由入口厨房透过洞口望向室外，looking outside through the opening from the kitchen at the entrance ©赵奕龙
山顶 | The top of the “mountain”
The top of the mountain is a space like a cave, and that is where we rest. This space is only 1.6 meters high. Although we can not stand straight in it, but because when up to this space, we mostly sit or lie on the mattress, so we don’t feel oppressed.
▼山顶卧室，the bedroom at the top of the “mountain” ©范久江
▼二层平面，first floor plan ©久舍营造
▼通风示意图，ventilation diagram ©久舍营造
The space is also wrapped with birch laminates and the floor is covered with tatami. The three sides are cabinets with clothing inside. The mattress is embedded in one side, the original building air shaft is inside the cabinet at the head of the bed. We installed hidden exhaust fans to help ventilate. The side facing the terrace is completely open, and the activities in the space can not be seen from the bottom, while sitting on the mattress you can see everything that happens below, including the changing seasons outside the window.
▼高处的满窗绿意，the window full of green view at high point ©范久江
At the top of the opening side, we also hide a track. If the tatami downstairs is temporarily inhabited, curtains can be easily hanged, and the area becomes a space that do not interfere with downstairs.
▼装了帘子的卧室，the bedroom with curtains
结语 | Peroration
The “mountain” inside echoes the north peak outside the window, and it seems that our home has also been pulled into the urban geographical structure of the ten sights of the West Lake, and we have a figurative connection with Hangzhou. A series of space settings inside and outside the “Mountain” makes the living experience at home extremely vivid, and even some “arbitrary.” Since moved in half a year ago, we have been often moved by a scene in a moment, and record it as a memory for the future with photos.
▼生活的诗意，daily poetry ©赵奕龙
This space adds infinite daily poetry to our lives and matches the way of life of the two of us and the two cats. We can’t imagine any more suitable for our family of four than this one.
I think the design of this self-residence is our architectural ideal. The life experience here is endless, full of concrete and plump memories. Like the “mountain”, which is placed in a space of only 40 square meters, it is not designed in a way of conformation or construction, but is gradually presented in the questioning of the daily poetry of the individual.
▼卧室窗景，window scenery ©范久江
项目设计 & 完成年份：2018.05-2019.01
摄影版权：赵奕龙、范久江 Zhao Yilong, Fan Jiujiang
客户：范久江、翟文婷 Fan Jiujiang, Zhai Wenting