Peasants and their Land: The Recovered Archeological Landscape of Chengtoushan, Hunan province By Turenscape

A ancient heritage awakened by the landscape

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项目简介 Project Statement:

本项目将动态的农业生产过程作为景观体验来设计,使埋没于偏远贫困地区达数十年之久的城头山遗址被赋予了新的生命,不仅保护了古城遗址的完整性与真实性,而且还将其发展成为了具有旅游休闲价值的参观和体验区。作品展示了景观设计是如何将一个湮没无闻的考古遗址转变为一个能给当地发展带来效益的集教育性、娱乐性、生产性及经济性于一体的文化游览区。

Hidden in a remote and poor rural region for decades, the Chengtoushan Archaeological site was rediscovered through landscape design using performance and production based approaches to landscape. This not only protected the integrity and authenticity of the ancient heritage, but also sees to develop it as a valuable tourist attraction. It showcases how landscape architecture can transform an obscured archeological site into an educational, playful and productive asset which will greatly benefit the local community.

▼项目设计平面图:将城头山考古遗址保留在中央核心区,并对遗址护城河驳岸进行生态型修复。在遗址外的南入口处设计了一个户外稻作博览园,Site Plan: The archaeological site of Chengtoushan is preserved in the central core and the water’s edge of the heritage moat is ecologically recovered. An outdoor rice museum is designed at the entrance outside the heritage site.

 

挑战与目标 

1979年前,城头山还是一个位于湖南澧县洞庭湖冲积平原上的一个土丘,被农民们所精耕细作,稻菽飘香。一夜之间的石破天惊,遗址被意外地发现,并被鉴定为迄今为止中国最早的古城池遗址,也是水稻种植的发源地,被誉为“稻作之源,城池之母”,不久之后被作为国家文物保护单位加以保护。这项伟大的发现对于当地居民来说却并不是上天的眷顾,在某种意义上说更是一种负担。由于位于贫困及偏远的农村地区,可用来耕种的农田极其珍贵,现在这片土地却被定义为遗址保护区,并禁绝耕种以免遭到破坏。在经过三十多年的消极保护之后,当地政府终于做出决定,通过将这一地区转变为旅游景点,促进当地经济发展,使负担变为福祉。

刚开始,政府犯了一个错误并为此付出了昂贵的代价。在本景观设计师介入之前,城头山考古遗址周围农田已经转变为装饰性的景观大道和广场。一条宽阔的轴线已经建成,坐落着几座博物馆和纪念性建筑,两旁排列着观赏花木、花坛与假山装饰,跟中国其他地方的城市的化妆式景观一样,毫无特色;就在遗址外的南入口,一个两公顷的大广场正在施工。场地失去了原有的真实性,游客或城市居民也失去了来观赏的兴趣。幸运的是,一位知识渊博的省政府高层官员参观了这一遗址,对当时的景观工程给予了负面的评价,并叫停了这一庞大的装饰性景观工程,并令其重新设计。虽然大部分已经完成的建设很难改造,但是对遗址周边景观的重塑,再现农业景观还是可行的。然而,在开发旅游的同时,如何保护遗址的真实性和完整性的挑战仍然存在;与此同时,如何将随处可见的农业景观转变为具有吸引力的旅游地,并非易事。这两大挑战的核心是如何通过景观设计,既满足当地政府及社区的发展诉求,同时又能使国家级的大遗址得到很好的保护。

 

设计策略:将生产过程作为景观体验 

我们共采取了三项策略来保护和改造城头山遗址及外围景观,同时使其具有旅游的价值。首先,对中部的古城遗址本身做最少限度的干预,除了一条架空木栈道和与之相结合的环境解说系统外,对考古遗址现状不做任何干预。在一圈相对完整的护城河的环绕之下,考古遗址犹如一个空阔宁谧的剧院,人民游客遐想曾经在这里上演的历史剧情。

其次,用各种湿地植物及林带,对环绕古城遗址的护城河外侧水岸进行生态修复。核心区以外的公园的主体部分,被重新设计为农田,成为了一个户外的稻田博物馆。一年两季、多品种的水稻在这里轮作;作为农田景观的有机组成部分,水塘、水渠和湿地分布其中,生长着茂盛的乡土植被,这些湿地和水系像海绵一样,收集雨水,调节旱涝,同时吸收和过滤从稻田中流失的营养物质。精心设计的景观纹理将户外水稻博览区与其他一般性的农田具有相似却有不同的景观,这些田块肌理致密,田埂的朝向经过仔细的设计,形成多种微妙变换的透视角度。水杉林带只沿着大致南北方向的田埂路种植,既能给田埂路遮蔽,同时又防止树影投射在稻田里,因为这些稻田需要充足的日照来维持生长。夏日炎炎,绿荫下的道路为游客提供了舒适驻留和漫步机会。

第三,场地内设计了一座架高4米的玻璃廊桥,供游客登高远眺,使得公园北部的考古遗址尽收眼底。用玻璃作为桥面材料,可以使阳光穿透,保证其下方的农作物有充足的日照。如此,沿桥散步也成为一种奇妙的探险。玻璃廊桥通过四个方向的四个坡道来增强桥身的稳定性,并增加了桥与四方田埂的连通性。玻璃廊桥吸引了大量游客,特别是儿童和学生,使原先单调乏味的农业景观变得更令人兴奋且富有娱乐性。

在考古遗址向一个静静的舞台,默默地激发着人们丰富想象力的同时,户外水稻博物馆的田野犹如一台活生生的,正上演着活生生的农耕生产剧:水稻种植、除草和收割都被设计成与休闲活动相互交织的生动元素,融入了诸如慢跑、野餐、散步、学校和家庭的郊游。玻璃廊桥作为观景平台和使人身临其境,让城市游客能够亲眼目睹和体验水稻种植及收割过程,并与劳作的农民进行亲密接触。参观者亦可以加入到农民劳作之中,体验其中的艰辛与快乐。在这一景观中,劳作与休闲、生产与艺术、乡村与城市、土地所有者和游客、功能和审美之间都不分彼此地融合在一起,营造出美丽和谐的一幕。

经过一年时间的使用,城头山考古遗址公园被证明成为是成功的。这个被保护的遗址在偏远的乡村沉默了几十年之后,突然间被人们在网络和微信上传播开来,吸引了附近城市的大量游客。人们从这里了解到自己的祖先,以及每天享用的食物的起源。贫穷的农村地区,特别是遗址周边的乡村,通过旅游业的不断发展也获得了相当显著的经济收益。

 

详细说明 

▼户外稻做博览园:稻田的设计模式使行道树可以为游客创造观赏景致的同时提供乘凉树荫,但不会在水稻田上投射下太多树影,Outdoor Rice Museum: The rice fields are designed in a pattern so that the trees along the pathways create vistas for visitors, and provide shade without casting too much shadow over the rice plants.

▼生产性和实用性景观:水稻的收获、种植和管理的实际过程展现为一种体验式景观,让游客能够亲身体验这一领域,Productive and Performative landscapes: The authentic process of the harvesting, planting and management of rice is displayed as an experiential landscape which allow visitors to have intimate experience of this territory.

▼教育科普:通过科普环境标识系统与整个景观的道路网络相结合,让游客,特别是儿童,了解农作物文化 ,Education: An educational environmental interpretation system is integrated with a network of pathways throughout the landscape, allowing visitors, particularly young children, to learn about the nature and culture of the crops.

▼重新发现的美:设计后的农业景观提供了更新的景观体验,即使对于那些喜欢在稻田间漫步的老农们来说,在熟悉的稻田景观里也有了新的发现,Rediscovered beauty: The designed farming landscape provides a refreshed landscape experience, even for former farmers like this elderly man who enjoys wandering through the familiar yet new rice fields.

▼劳作和娱乐过程统一:田埂路采用生态友好的方式设计并能够保证密集的游客承载量,Working and Recreational Processes: The pathways of the rice fields are designed in an eco-friendly way and be able to accommodate intensive use by visitors

▼展现风景:稻田中弯曲的玻璃栈桥,为游客提供了俯瞰古城遗址北部和周边稻田的景观的观赏视角,Revealing the landscape: A sinuous glass bridge in the rice fields provides visitors with opportunities of bird’s eye views of the heritage site of the ancient city to the north and the surrounding rice fields.

▼现代元素的干预:简洁的结构及透明的玻璃桥将减少其在稻田上投射的阴影,Intervention with contemporary elements: The simple structure of the glass bridge and its transparency will minimize shadows to be cast over the rice fields.

▼耕作与娱乐相结合:在田间耕作是现场表演艺术的一部分。当农民在田间收获水稻时,游客则漫步于玻璃桥上,Mingling work and recreation: Working in the field is part of a live performance art. While farmers harvest rice in the fields, visitors wandering above on the glass bridge.

▼乡村与城镇:城镇居民和农民们之间从未如此紧密地联系在一起。对于父辈之前是农民的新城镇化的一代而言,水稻种植和收获的见证过程是一项具有极高价值的学习经历,Rural and urban: Never before have urban residents and farmers been placed so closely together. Witnessing process of rice planting and harvesting is a valuable learning experience for the newly urbanized generation whose parents were farmers not long ago.

▼在风景中耕作:一位劳作的农民和设计的农田一起组成了如诗如画的景观,而景观的本质意义—农民及其土地 – 得到了重现,Working in the scene: A working farmer and the designed farm together makes up a poetic and picturesque landscape, and the essential meaning of the landscape—a peasant and his land— is recovered.

▼亲密的连结:一位城市游客加入农民朋友共同收获水稻,An Intimate Connection: An urban visitor joins a group of farmers working together to harvest rice

▼多样性:荷塘和湿地是项目设计不可分割的一部分,其有助于修复稻田营养流失,调节季节性雨洪变化,为生物多样性和游客观景创造场地,同时也便于使用轮椅的参观者进入,Diversity: Lotus ponds and wetlands are integral parts of the designed farm, which help to remediate the nutrients from the rice fields and regulate the seasonal change of storm water, creating  habitats for biodiversity and scenic places for visiting by people including those on the wheelchairs

▼真实性:遗址的核心区阐释了考古遗址外发生了戏剧性转变的同时木栈道是如何最低限度地干预景观环境的,Authenticity: The central core of the heritage site is minimally intervened with a boardwalk and environmental interpretations, while a dramatic transformation occurs outside the archeological site.

▼生态修复:对护城河的周边进行生态修复,并用透光混凝土制成且印有环境解说系统的观景盒进行点缀,Ecological Recovery: The edge of the ancient moat is ecologically recovered and dotted with environmental interpretation boxes made from translucent concrete and imprinted with environmental interpretation artifacts.

 

Challenges and Objectives

In 1979, Chengtoushan was a mound on the intensively cultivated flood plain of Dongting Lake in Hunan Province of China. At that time, Chengtoushan was accidentally discovered as the site of the earliest city in China, and the place where rice was first found cultivated, and soon after, it was designated as a national heritage site. For the local community, this great discovery was more of a burden on their shoulders than a blessing. Given poverty and remoteness in a rural region, the productive land was taken from their hands and designated as protected land, and they were also given the responsibility to protect this place from been destroyed. After being kept untouched for about three decades, the local government made the decision to turn the burden into a blessing, with the aim to transform this area into a tourism attraction to improve the local economy.

An expensive mistake was made at the beginning of this endeavor. Prior to a landscape architect being called in, the landscape around the archaeological site had already been transformed dramatically from agricultural fields into ornamental gardens. A wide avenue composed of several museums and monumental structures, lined with ornamental trees, and decorated with flower beds and rockeries had been built, as if it were in the urban landscapes seen ubiquitously in China, and a paved square was to be built at the south entrance outside the archeological site. The site began to lose its authenticity, and interest waned from visitors or urban residents from the cities in this region. It is fortunate that such a vast scale decorative landscape project was put on hold when a knowledgeable official at the upper level of government visited the site and made a negative comment. The landscape architect was invited to redesign the project, although for the most part it was too late, save to rescue the situation by a rediscovery of the surrounding landscape. The challenge, however, remained as to how the authenticity and integrity of an archeological site be protected, while concurrently transform the landscape in such a way that the ubiquitous agricultural landscape can become an attraction for tourism to fulfill the objectives of the local community and government.

 

Performative & Productive Landscapes

Three strategies had been taken to protect and transform the landscape of Chengtoushan. Firstly, the archeological site was maintained with minimal changes, except for a route designed to enable visitors to interpret the environment. The circular city surrounded by a moat becomes an empty and silent theater which creates ample opportunities for visitors to imagine what life may had been like in the ancient city.  

A second strategy of ecological recovery through the use of diverse wetland plants and patches of trees was implemented for the land beyond the moat surrounding the circular urban core. The main part of the park outside of the protected core was reclaimed into agricultural fields, and turned into an outdoor museum of rice. Two crops of rice of various cultivars year round are enriched with other native vegetation in the water channels and wetlands which will regulate stormwater and remediate the nutrients leaked from the rice fields. Subtle designed patterns distinguish the rice fields from the normal agricultural fields, in that the parcels are divided into smaller ones and paths are lined with angles that create diverse vistas. The Chinese native redwood trees are planted on the paths, but only on the south-north oriented ones so that not much shadow will be cast over the rice fields, which need maximum sun exposure to grow. The shaded pathways make for comfortable routes for visitors during the hot summer months.

Thirdly, a glass bridge was designed to lift visitors 4 meters above the ground so that the archaeological site to the north can be seen and be photographed. The glass paving panels of the bridge allow sunshine to penetrate so the crops beneath it will not be harmed, and makes for walking along the bridge an enticing adventure. The glass bridge is stabilized and accessed through four ramps at four sides, becoming an attraction for visitors, particularly children and students, which make an otherwise monotonous and boring agricultural landscape exciting and entertaining.

While the archeological site is left in silence to stimulate people’s imagination, the productive fields are an active and ongoing performance: rice planting, weeding and harvesting are all parts of the design that mingle with recreational activities of jogging, picnicking, dog walking, school field trips and family days out. As a viewing platform and immersive pathway, the glass bridge allows urban visitors to witness rice planting and harvesting activities, and to have contact with hard working farmers. Visitors can help out the farmers and join in their farming work. In this landscape, the boundary between the working and performing, production and art, rural and urban, owners and visitors, functionality and aesthetics are all dissolved into an integrated scene of beauty and harmony.

This project took one year to build and it has proven to be a great success. Unknown in a remote region for decades, the protected archeological site has suddenly heightened awareness, and tourists from nearby cities are attracted to visit the site to learn about their ancient ancestors and the origin of the food they eat every day. Meanwhile, this poor rural region and particularly the neighborhood has gained significant economic benefits through the development of tourism.

项目地址:湖南澧县洞庭湖畔
设计单位:土人设计
基地面积:20 ha
建筑面积:970 m2
设计时间:2015 年1 月
竣工时间:2016 年1 月

Project Address: Dongting Lake, Lixian County, Hunan Province
Design Unit: native design
Project area: 20 ha
Footprint: 970 m2
Design time: January 2015
Completion: January 2016

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