项目简介 Project Statement：
Hidden in a remote and poor rural region for decades, the Chengtoushan Archaeological site was rediscovered through landscape design using performance and production based approaches to landscape. This not only protected the integrity and authenticity of the ancient heritage, but also sees to develop it as a valuable tourist attraction. It showcases how landscape architecture can transform an obscured archeological site into an educational, playful and productive asset which will greatly benefit the local community.
▼项目设计平面图：将城头山考古遗址保留在中央核心区，并对遗址护城河驳岸进行生态型修复。在遗址外的南入口处设计了一个户外稻作博览园，Site Plan: The archaeological site of Chengtoushan is preserved in the central core and the water’s edge of the heritage moat is ecologically recovered. An outdoor rice museum is designed at the entrance outside the heritage site.
▼户外稻做博览园：稻田的设计模式使行道树可以为游客创造观赏景致的同时提供乘凉树荫，但不会在水稻田上投射下太多树影，Outdoor Rice Museum: The rice fields are designed in a pattern so that the trees along the pathways create vistas for visitors, and provide shade without casting too much shadow over the rice plants.
▼生产性和实用性景观：水稻的收获、种植和管理的实际过程展现为一种体验式景观，让游客能够亲身体验这一领域，Productive and Performative landscapes: The authentic process of the harvesting, planting and management of rice is displayed as an experiential landscape which allow visitors to have intimate experience of this territory.
▼教育科普：通过科普环境标识系统与整个景观的道路网络相结合，让游客，特别是儿童，了解农作物文化 ，Education: An educational environmental interpretation system is integrated with a network of pathways throughout the landscape, allowing visitors, particularly young children, to learn about the nature and culture of the crops.
▼重新发现的美：设计后的农业景观提供了更新的景观体验，即使对于那些喜欢在稻田间漫步的老农们来说，在熟悉的稻田景观里也有了新的发现，Rediscovered beauty: The designed farming landscape provides a refreshed landscape experience, even for former farmers like this elderly man who enjoys wandering through the familiar yet new rice fields.
▼劳作和娱乐过程统一：田埂路采用生态友好的方式设计并能够保证密集的游客承载量，Working and Recreational Processes: The pathways of the rice fields are designed in an eco-friendly way and be able to accommodate intensive use by visitors
▼展现风景：稻田中弯曲的玻璃栈桥，为游客提供了俯瞰古城遗址北部和周边稻田的景观的观赏视角，Revealing the landscape: A sinuous glass bridge in the rice fields provides visitors with opportunities of bird’s eye views of the heritage site of the ancient city to the north and the surrounding rice fields.
▼现代元素的干预：简洁的结构及透明的玻璃桥将减少其在稻田上投射的阴影，Intervention with contemporary elements: The simple structure of the glass bridge and its transparency will minimize shadows to be cast over the rice fields.
▼耕作与娱乐相结合：在田间耕作是现场表演艺术的一部分。当农民在田间收获水稻时，游客则漫步于玻璃桥上，Mingling work and recreation: Working in the field is part of a live performance art. While farmers harvest rice in the fields, visitors wandering above on the glass bridge.
▼乡村与城镇：城镇居民和农民们之间从未如此紧密地联系在一起。对于父辈之前是农民的新城镇化的一代而言，水稻种植和收获的见证过程是一项具有极高价值的学习经历，Rural and urban: Never before have urban residents and farmers been placed so closely together. Witnessing process of rice planting and harvesting is a valuable learning experience for the newly urbanized generation whose parents were farmers not long ago.
▼在风景中耕作：一位劳作的农民和设计的农田一起组成了如诗如画的景观，而景观的本质意义—农民及其土地 – 得到了重现，Working in the scene: A working farmer and the designed farm together makes up a poetic and picturesque landscape, and the essential meaning of the landscape—a peasant and his land— is recovered.
▼亲密的连结：一位城市游客加入农民朋友共同收获水稻，An Intimate Connection: An urban visitor joins a group of farmers working together to harvest rice
▼多样性：荷塘和湿地是项目设计不可分割的一部分，其有助于修复稻田营养流失，调节季节性雨洪变化，为生物多样性和游客观景创造场地，同时也便于使用轮椅的参观者进入，Diversity: Lotus ponds and wetlands are integral parts of the designed farm, which help to remediate the nutrients from the rice fields and regulate the seasonal change of storm water, creating habitats for biodiversity and scenic places for visiting by people including those on the wheelchairs
▼真实性：遗址的核心区阐释了考古遗址外发生了戏剧性转变的同时木栈道是如何最低限度地干预景观环境的，Authenticity: The central core of the heritage site is minimally intervened with a boardwalk and environmental interpretations, while a dramatic transformation occurs outside the archeological site.
▼生态修复：对护城河的周边进行生态修复，并用透光混凝土制成且印有环境解说系统的观景盒进行点缀，Ecological Recovery: The edge of the ancient moat is ecologically recovered and dotted with environmental interpretation boxes made from translucent concrete and imprinted with environmental interpretation artifacts.
Challenges and Objectives
In 1979, Chengtoushan was a mound on the intensively cultivated flood plain of Dongting Lake in Hunan Province of China. At that time, Chengtoushan was accidentally discovered as the site of the earliest city in China, and the place where rice was first found cultivated, and soon after, it was designated as a national heritage site. For the local community, this great discovery was more of a burden on their shoulders than a blessing. Given poverty and remoteness in a rural region, the productive land was taken from their hands and designated as protected land, and they were also given the responsibility to protect this place from been destroyed. After being kept untouched for about three decades, the local government made the decision to turn the burden into a blessing, with the aim to transform this area into a tourism attraction to improve the local economy.
An expensive mistake was made at the beginning of this endeavor. Prior to a landscape architect being called in, the landscape around the archaeological site had already been transformed dramatically from agricultural fields into ornamental gardens. A wide avenue composed of several museums and monumental structures, lined with ornamental trees, and decorated with flower beds and rockeries had been built, as if it were in the urban landscapes seen ubiquitously in China, and a paved square was to be built at the south entrance outside the archeological site. The site began to lose its authenticity, and interest waned from visitors or urban residents from the cities in this region. It is fortunate that such a vast scale decorative landscape project was put on hold when a knowledgeable official at the upper level of government visited the site and made a negative comment. The landscape architect was invited to redesign the project, although for the most part it was too late, save to rescue the situation by a rediscovery of the surrounding landscape. The challenge, however, remained as to how the authenticity and integrity of an archeological site be protected, while concurrently transform the landscape in such a way that the ubiquitous agricultural landscape can become an attraction for tourism to fulfill the objectives of the local community and government.
Performative & Productive Landscapes
Three strategies had been taken to protect and transform the landscape of Chengtoushan. Firstly, the archeological site was maintained with minimal changes, except for a route designed to enable visitors to interpret the environment. The circular city surrounded by a moat becomes an empty and silent theater which creates ample opportunities for visitors to imagine what life may had been like in the ancient city.
A second strategy of ecological recovery through the use of diverse wetland plants and patches of trees was implemented for the land beyond the moat surrounding the circular urban core. The main part of the park outside of the protected core was reclaimed into agricultural fields, and turned into an outdoor museum of rice. Two crops of rice of various cultivars year round are enriched with other native vegetation in the water channels and wetlands which will regulate stormwater and remediate the nutrients leaked from the rice fields. Subtle designed patterns distinguish the rice fields from the normal agricultural fields, in that the parcels are divided into smaller ones and paths are lined with angles that create diverse vistas. The Chinese native redwood trees are planted on the paths, but only on the south-north oriented ones so that not much shadow will be cast over the rice fields, which need maximum sun exposure to grow. The shaded pathways make for comfortable routes for visitors during the hot summer months.
Thirdly, a glass bridge was designed to lift visitors 4 meters above the ground so that the archaeological site to the north can be seen and be photographed. The glass paving panels of the bridge allow sunshine to penetrate so the crops beneath it will not be harmed, and makes for walking along the bridge an enticing adventure. The glass bridge is stabilized and accessed through four ramps at four sides, becoming an attraction for visitors, particularly children and students, which make an otherwise monotonous and boring agricultural landscape exciting and entertaining.
While the archeological site is left in silence to stimulate people’s imagination, the productive fields are an active and ongoing performance: rice planting, weeding and harvesting are all parts of the design that mingle with recreational activities of jogging, picnicking, dog walking, school field trips and family days out. As a viewing platform and immersive pathway, the glass bridge allows urban visitors to witness rice planting and harvesting activities, and to have contact with hard working farmers. Visitors can help out the farmers and join in their farming work. In this landscape, the boundary between the working and performing, production and art, rural and urban, owners and visitors, functionality and aesthetics are all dissolved into an integrated scene of beauty and harmony.
This project took one year to build and it has proven to be a great success. Unknown in a remote region for decades, the protected archeological site has suddenly heightened awareness, and tourists from nearby cities are attracted to visit the site to learn about their ancient ancestors and the origin of the food they eat every day. Meanwhile, this poor rural region and particularly the neighborhood has gained significant economic benefits through the development of tourism.
设计时间：2015 年1 月
竣工时间：2016 年1 月
Project Address: Dongting Lake, Lixian County, Hunan Province
Design Unit: native design
Project area: 20 ha
Footprint: 970 m2
Design time: January 2015
Completion: January 2016