2019深港城市\建筑双城双年展宝安分展场空间改造 / 南沙原创建筑设计工作室

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非常感谢 南沙原创建筑设计工作室 将以下内容授权gooood发行。更多关于:NODE Architecture & Urbanism on gooood
Appreciation towards NODE Architecture & Urbanism for providing the following description:

2019深港城市\建筑双城双年展宝安分展场选址于桥头村,整个展场由工业展区、河涌观念景观、社区公园、桥头剧场和桥头市场共同组成。此次南沙原创(NODE)参与了其中河涌观念景观、社区公园、桥头剧场和桥头市场四个空间的改造和设计,这四个空间性质分为两类,一类是基于现状的公共空间改造提升,一类是基于实验性的公共空间及景观。

Bao’an sub-venue of 2019 UABB in Qiaotou Village is composed of industrial exhibition area, canal-themed landscape, the Community Park, Qiaotou Theater, and Qiaotou Market. NODE participated in the renovation and design of the latter four, which involve two types of spaces, namely the public space upgrading based on status quo and experimental public space and landscape.

▼项目鸟瞰,aerial view of the project ©张超

深圳宝安桥头村,源于北宋末年,因村庄周边遍布河涌而得名。桥头村,从珠三角传统自然村落的鱼米之乡、到改革开放三来一补产业发展而成的工业强村,再到今日快速城市化之下的城中村,其历史脉络被切断,空间单一,与周边无异,它的发展历程是深圳开放改革、快速城市化的缩影, 是千城一面普适城市(Generic City)的典型

Located in Bao’an District, Shenzhen, Qiaotou Village was named after the peripheral dense river network in the late Northern Song Dynasty. In the past decades, it has evolved from a “land of fish and rice” typical of traditional natural villages in the Pearl River Delta, to a prosperous industrial village focusing on “processing with supplied materials, processing with supplied samples, assembling with supplied parts, and compensation trade” thanks to China’s reform and opening up policy, and then a “urban village” as a result of the rapid urbanization sweeping the country. The village, with dissected historical context and monotonous space, became homogeneous with others nearby. Its evolution epitomizes Shenzhen’s opening-up, reform and rapid urbanization and offers a typical example of generic city.

▼城市肌理变迁,transition of city texture
©NODE Architecture & Urbanism

城市设计
Urban Design

问题 | Challenges

桥头村,缘起水与陆之界的坳颈涌,近几十年被各种交通基础设施所取代,原来的坳颈涌也被一劳永逸的暗渠所覆盖;村里不同历史时期特色建筑,消隐在快速普通化的城市化发展碎片中;快速发展的工业和急聚增长的外来人口,打破了原有农业社区的宁静和平衡;而车水马龙的环境和杂乱无章的公共空间,让以老人和孩子为使用主体的生活社区毫无安全可言。

Qiaotou Village was derived from Aojing Canal that once served as the boundary between water and land. Along with the development of various other transportation infrastructures, the canal was covered and became a culvert as a “once-and-for-all” solution. The village buildings, built in different periods with distinctive architectural features of the times, have disappeared or diminished into the rapidly generalized urban fabrics. Booming industries and migrant population have broken the tranquility and balance of the farming community. Heavy traffic and chaotic public spaces made the residential community no longer a safe environment for the elderly and children to conduct their daily activities.

▼坳颈涌变迁,transition of the Aojing Canal ©NODE Architecture & Urbanism

▼建筑文脉变迁,transition of architectural context ©NODE Architecture & Urbanism

设计策略 | Design Strategy

借助2019年深港双年展宝安分展场的机会,我们希望对桥头村的核心公共空间进行重新梳理和设计改造。在充分田野调查的基础上,1.人车分流:混流让位于慢行路径,保证居民日常的基本出行安全;2.突出公共空间各自的功能特色,顺势而为,简化或强化现有场地;3. 强化慢行路径的环路和公共体验感,有效连接工业展区、河涌景观、社区公园、市场和剧场及不同历史时期的特色建筑,创造多样化的日常体验系列。

Thanks to the opportunity brought by Bao’an sub-venue of 2019 UABB, we decided to reorganize and renovate the core public spaces of Qiaotou Village. Based on thorough field investigation, the following strategies were proposed: 1. Separate pedestrians from vehicular traffic to give way to slow-traffic circulation and ensure safe daily trips of residents; 2. Highlight the functional characteristics of each public space and simplify/enhance the existing site as needed; 3. Enhance the slow-traffic loop and public experience, and link up the industrial exhibition area, river landscape, community park, market, theater, and buildings of different historical periods to offer diverse daily experience.

▼交通方式改善,improve transportation method
©NODE Architecture & Urbanism

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酷山水地表的记忆:公共观念景观
KU Landscape – Memories on Terrain: Public Landscape

观念景观《酷山水地表的记忆》,设计长度210米,宽度16米,是连接桥厂房主展区及桥头村展区的必经之道。其所处的位置原为坳颈涌的一部分,自立新水库坝下、流经桥头村后排入珠江口,原为开放的自然河涌,因常年工业污染及味臭,市政工程已将其设为暗渠,NODE介入之时已完成施工,准备铺设花岗岩地面。

The public landscape, 210 meters long and 16 meters wide, is the only link between the main exhibition area in the factory buildings and the exhibition area of Qiaotou Village. The site used to be part of the Aojing Canal, which flowed from under the dam of Lixin Reservoir through Qiaotou Village into the Pearl River estuary. The once open natural canal was covered due to odor and years of industrial pollution. The construction had been completed awaiting marble pavement when NODE got involved.

▼酷山水鸟瞰,aerial view of the public landscape ©张超

在所有设计的可能性下,之前这种暗渠处理估计是最简单粗暴的方式之一,不仅忽略了原有的地理和人文特征,也让桥头村的空间无特色、与周边无差别。如何重新唤起曾经的地表记忆和原有身份的追溯?我们希望通过对于现有场地的思考和重新设计,寻找其在景观建筑学和社会学意义上的双重可能性。

Of all the design possibilities, culvert could be among the most straightforward yet least thoughtful solutions. It ignores the local geographic and historical context, leaving homogeneous village spaces that can hardly distinguish themselves from those around. How could we recall the memories about the canal once running on the terrain and trace back its original identity? Through reflection on and redesign of the existing site, we aimed to explore its possibilities from the perspectives of landscape architecture and sociology.

▼景观改造前后对比,comparison before and after renovation ©左:张超,右:NODE Architecture & Urbanism

桥头村,正如其名,曾经这里水网发达,水是日常农耕生活不可分割的一部分,快速城市化使得自然和农耕文化消失殆尽。基于深港城市\建筑双城双年展的理念,我们探寻方案设计的实验性与公共性,思考如何将工程性基础设施延展为社会性的公共景观。我们最初的想法是希望重新打开河涌,作为开放的自然景观还原给社区,但被告知不可能。在这前提下,我们提出在原河涌场地重新植入一条新的人工河涌,作为一种地表的记忆存在,借此唤起与这方水土相关的独特记忆和朴素的自然景观。

Qiaotou Village, as its name suggests, used to have a well-developed network of water transportation. Water was also an integral element for the daily farming life then. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization has wiped out the natural scene and farming culture here. Under the theme of UABB, we explored the experimental and communal nature of the design, endeavoring to extend the engineering infrastructures into communal landscape with some social significance. Our first idea was to reopen the canal and resume the once open natural landscape for the community. After this was denied, we proposed to implant a new artificial “canal” on the original site. This new “canal”, as a “memories on the terrain”, was expected to bring back the unique memories about this place and rustic natural landscape of the village.

▼概念草图,concept sketch
©NODE Architecture & Urbanism

方案延续其地表原有河涌和农耕的特点,提出枯(酷)山水的概念:狭长的场地貌似一条静止的河流和地表,由于地表下方的起伏、挤压,形成高低起伏的山水,而进一步的涌动也终于从撕开的缝隙中释放出生命的迹象,重生的农作物和未来不可预知的人类活动,暗示了逝去的生命和记忆,此时此刻将以另一种方式回归。

Our concept of “dry (KU) landscape” continues the features of the original canal and farming tradition. The long and narrow site appear like a static river and terrain. The undulating landscape is shaped by ups, downs and squeezes underneath the terrain. The surges show signs of life through the gaps torn open. The regrown crops and human activities of unforeseen future suggest that the people and memories passing away are now returning in another form.

▼改造后起伏的河涌,corrugating landscape ©张超

的建构 | Tectonics of “Water” 

我们以折纸的方式折叠出山水的空间意向,众多的纸折模型比较之后,将确定的模型进行3D扫描。原为20000点控制点,因为工期要求和施工难度,降为以1.5x1米为单元的约500个水平控制点,并赋予3D扫描的高度,原本自由起伏的形式由此通过参数化高效率的转化,终于成为了量化可操作的可实施方案。

We worked out the intent spatial image of the landscape through paper folding. After we compared various paper-folded models, one was finalized and 3D-scanned. Given pressing schedule and construction difficulties, the control points were reduced from previous 20,000 points to 500 horizontal ones for a unit sized 1.5m x 1m with the height defined as the same in 3D scanning. With efficient parameter-based conversion, the undulating forms were turned into quantifiable, operable and implementable scheme.

▼折纸草模,paper model ©NODE Architecture & Urbanism

▼模型及三角网格控制点,computer model with triangle mesh control points ©NODE Architecture & Urbanism

但由于没有一个控制点的三维坐标是重复的,这无疑给施工现场增加了很多的难度。幸好现场的放线和调整、以及之后我们和施工方关于钢结构搭建和表皮完成面材料的施工实施方案不断推敲、讨论和放样,让两个月的工期和落地成为最终的可能。

As every control point had its own unique three-dimensional coordinate, the site construction became very challenging. Thanks to the on-site setting-out and adjustments, as well as rounds of discussions with the construction contractor on the implementation plan of the steel structure and finish materials, the project was eventually completed within two months as scheduled.

▼施工过程,construction process ©NODE Architecture & Urbanism

材料 | “Dry” Materials

我们尝试使用不同的材料去抽象展示地表曾经的痕迹——折叠起伏的三角折面为拉毛水泥面,涉水地面为白色雕塑水泥。貌似无生命的坚硬工业水泥,在下雨天的时候,白水泥地面特意设计的三角折面会局部形成安全积水区,在途径涉水或玩水中又仿佛把人带入历史的长河中;而剪切释放的覆土地表上选用细叶芒、粉黛乱子草、矮蒲苇、白羽叶甘蓝和粉羽叶甘蓝这些类农作物搭配种植,也让曾经的农业穿越来到当下,在匆忙的城市中营造出野趣自然的景观空间。这几种不同质感的材料杂糅在一起,在这段210米长的暗渠箱涵地面上自由展开,模拟自然河流和农耕时代的地貌景色,这种折叠起伏的凝固的流水给行走于其中的人提供了别样的视觉和体验,营造出一种与往常城市景观截然不同的表现形式。

▼东侧入口,east entrance ©张超

▼西侧入口,west entrance ©张超

We experimented with various materials to represent the traces once on the terrain: brushed cement for the undulating and folded triangular surface and white sculpture cement for the wading area. The seemingly lifeless hard industrial cement of the triangular surface specially designed on the white cement ground, when it rains, would form safe ponding areas, reminding people of the canal when they wade across or paddle with the water. The earth-covering surface was “cut” open to grow “analogous crops” like miscanthus sinensis, muhlenbergia capillaris, dwarf pampasgrass, white and pink kales, bringing back a long-lost agricultural scene decades ago and creating a rustic landscape within the bustling urban setting. These heterogeneous materials were mixed to freely unfold on the surface of the 210-meter-long box culvert, simulating the terrain with natural river and the earthscape in the farming era. The folded and undulating “solidified water” provided unique views and experience to roamers and represented a totally different approach to create cityscape.

▼人们在河涌中的活动,activities in the landscape project ©张超

▼白色材料与植被关系和谐,landscape in white material being harmony with the plants ©张超

河涌观念景观是一次有趣的设计尝试,以无水营造山水,其抽象的大地景观特征是建筑师对快速城市化自然和农耕文化快速消失的反思批判和再创作。双年展1222日开展后,社区不同年龄段的人对这个公共景观创造性的使用,也让我们深感设计对重新构筑社区生活和特色空间的意义和力量。

The canal-themed landscape was an inspiring experiment that created landscape through an approach that involved no physical one. The abstract earthscape features showed the architect’s critical reflection on and re-creation of the nature and farming culture that had rapidly disappeared as result of rapid urbanization. The creative use of this public landscape by community users of varied ages after the opening of 2019 UABB on Dec. 22 also made us realize the significance and strength of design in rebuilding community life and characteristic spaces.

▼夜景,night view ©张超

▼酷山水平面图,plan of the public landscape ©NODE Architecture & Urbanism

▼剖面图,sections
©NODE Architecture & Urbanism

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社区公园
Community Park

社区公园,占地面积约5600平方米,是河涌观念景观与桥头剧场之间的捷径,现状由长势各异、杂乱无章的植被和几处硬质铺地组合而成,有较多的消极空间,功能单一,使用效率和安全度低下,老人和小孩只能硬质铺地边的座椅上闲坐,傍晚之后几乎无人敢使用。

作为桥头村周边为数不多的社区公园,我们希望它能够发挥更多的城市公共空间价值,改变原本功能单一的空间,成为可供社区邻里间交往闲坐、儿童安全玩耍的公共开放空间。同时作为联系双年展不同展区之间的关键一环,在与其他展区交接处皆设置了出入口,从城市界面上也能够被发现, 改变其原有的封闭边界,成为往来人群的经由之路。

▼公园改造前后对比,comparison before and after renovation ©左:张超,右:NODE Architecture & Urbanism

The 5,600 m² Community Park provided a convenient shortcut between the canal-themed landscape and the Qiaotou Theatre. The site was covered by untrimmed vegetation and included a few hard-pavements. Due to considerable inactive spaces, monotonous function, low utilization efficiency and safety reasons, the only thing the elderly and children could do here was to sit on benches by the hard pavement, and almost no one stayed in the park after nightfall.

As one of a few community parks around the village, the Community Park was expected to play a more active role as a public urban space. To achieve this, the previous monotonous functions should be redefined to create public open spaces for social interaction and sitting of residents at leisure time and offer a safe playing environment for children. The park also meant to be an important connection node for UABB exhibition areas, while accesses leading to those exhibition areas were set up and could be found in the urban interface. By opening up the previously enclosed interface, the park became a crossroad for visitors to and from the exhibitions.

▼公园吸引了大量游人,the park attracts a lot of people ©张超

▼从公园看酷山水,view to the public landscape from the park ©张超

设计从简化着手,尽量保持原社区公园的大型乔木,清除长势不良的小乔木和灌木;减少场地不必要的无效高差,释放空间作为儿童活动沙池和可供不同年龄阶层健身和休憩场所,利用现场的微地形、形成的与沙池的小高差,也可作为老人照看孩子的休息板凳;几个简化后的功能活动区之间视线相通,大增加了公共场所使用的安全性,配以良好的灯光照明,给桥头社区营造一个24-7安全友好、老少咸宜的社区公园。

In the design, a “simplified” approach was adopted. The specific measures were to preserve the large arbors in the park whenever possible and clear away poorly-growing small trees and shrubs; to avoid unnecessary elevation difference at the site to spare spaces for children’s sand pool as well as fitness and resting areas for people of different ages; to make full use of the small height difference between existing micro-topography and the sand pool to provide resting benches for grandparents looking after the children; to establish visual connection among the “simplified” functional and activity areas to largely enhance the safety of the public space; and to provide well-equipped lighting facilities to create a 24-7 community park that is safe and friendly for all-age users in the community.

▼公园夜景,night view of the park ©张超

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桥头剧场
Qiaotou Theatre

桥头剧场建筑建于1979年,具有特定年代的建筑特征。剧场前广场面积约为650平方米,原为剧场的观演区,也是桥头村村民日常生活的中心,后因城中村建筑的扩建、生活方式的改变和机动交通的快速发展,汽车、电瓶车和行人混行,成为桥头村的十字交叉路口,加之周边机动车辆随意停放,交通混杂,空间使用低效。

我们的设计策略出自于对快速交通的批判和反思,尊重历史空间的特色,把慢行和宜人尺度的公共广场重新带入这个中心地带。首先梳理现状交通特征,结合未来城市更新发展对地下停车空间的规划,改变剧场前十字交叉路口的交通状态,形成完整的剧场前后广场空间。

Built in 1979, Qiaotou Theatre presents distinctive architectural characteristics of that time. The 650 m² front square, originally the audience area of the theatre, was the center of the residents’ daily activities. Along with the expansion of urban village, lifestyle changes and rapid development of motor transit, it has become a crossroad of the village but suffered from inefficient space uses due to the mixed traffic of vehicles, electric bikes and pedestrians, and the random parking of motor vehicles in the peripheral area.

Our design strategy was derived from the critical reflection on rapid transit and the respect for characteristics of the historical spaces. The plan was to bring back slow traffic and appropriately scaled public square to this hub area. Based on researches on existing traffic conditions and the underground parking space planning for future urban renewal, we decided to enhance the traffic condition of the intersection in front of the theatre and create a holistic square space in front and at the back of the theatre.

▼剧场轴测图,axonometric of the theater ©NODE Architecture & Urbanism

公共广场与剧场的外化 | Externalization of Public Square and Theatre

桥头剧场场地位于村中缓坡之上,设计尝试根据剧场的真实观剧需求,借鉴意大利Siena城市广场,以微妙的场地高差,使得观演区的观众可以选择坐在或斜躺于广场之上;通过不同的铺地材料去界定出剧场广场空间与交通行驶空间,创造出积极安全的公共空间,传统的桥头剧场建筑本身也变得更加具有识别性,并再次成为桥头村居民公共生活中的有效的一份子。

The Qiaotou Theatre sits on a gentle slope of the village. Considering the actual viewing needs of audience and inspired by the Siena Square in Italy, we created a viewing area where audience could sit or lie on the square by taking advantage of the slight height difference of the site. Meanwhile, varied pavement materials were used to clearly define the square space and vehicular space of the theatre, offering active and safe public spaces. This made the traditional theatre building more recognizable and again an active player in the communal life of residents.    

▼改造后剧场外观,external view of the theater after renovation ©张超

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桥头市场大街
Qiaotou Market Street

桥头市场位于村主入口的两侧,为长方形和凸字形的两栋1-2层建筑,是村民日常生活的密集交往区域。入口空间人流和车流交通量较大,环境杂乱无序,缺乏辨识度。设计尝试用审慎的加减法,建立起一个简单的有序入口,探索建筑微改造在城市公共场所所发挥的功能和作用。

Flanking the village’s main access, Qiaotou Market consisted of two buildings in one or two floors, one in rectangular plan and the other in a protruding geometry that resembles the Chinese character “”. As a center for the residents’ daily interaction, the market had considerable pedestrian and vehicular traffic at the entrance. the chaotic environment also led to a poor recognizability. In this context, we tried a modest solution to add or remove elements to the market. The goal was to create a simple and “orderly” market entrance, thus exploring the function and role of micro building renovation in public urban space.

▼市场入口整体环境,entrance of the market ©张超

例如,在凸字形建筑一侧的缺口处,我们植入一个与建筑屋顶等高的棚架,重新界定街道空间与建筑空间之间的关系,原本作为交通出入口的喇叭口多了一处可供停留的公共空间。棚架的结构梁采用垂直方向和斜向相互穿插,抽取斜向梁的结构柱,两种不同方向的梁具有完整的结构受力系统,空间变得灵活有趣多用。

For instance, a canopy in equivalent height as the rooftop was added at the cut on the protruding side of the building, redefining the relation between street and building while offering an additional public space at the bell-mouthed access, the former traffic entrance, for people to stay. The vertical structural beams alternated with the diagonal ones, while the structural columns of the latter were removed. Beams in two different directions formed an integral load-bearing structural system, creating a flexible and attractive multi-purpose space.

▼棚架提供可停留的公共空间,additional roof top provides public space for people to stay ©张超

▼棚架内部,under the additional roof ©张超

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结束语
Conclusion

桥头村,原本碎片化的公共空间,根据其本身特征和所处位置,因地制宜地进行改造设计,或大手笔或微改造,共同串联起双年展展场户外展览路线,更重要的是成为桥头村社区日常公共活动场所,社区居民们闲暇之余来到这里,各取所需,自由自在。由于双年展开展的要求,快速设计快速施工也带来不少遗憾, 例如桥头剧场的室外微地形,穿越市场室内作为串联路径的公共通道等几个空间未能实现,实为可惜,希望不久的将来能够实现。

The renovations, larger or micro, to the previously fragmented public spaces of Qiaotou Village were conducted based on their characteristics and locations, linking up the outdoor exhibition routes of the UABB sub-venue and, more importantly, offering daily leisure places for the residents to enjoy the activities they prefer. Yet fast design and fast construction to meet UABB schedule also left many regrets. It was indeed a shame that several spaces were not realized as planned, such as the outdoor micro terrain of the Qiaotou Theater, and the linking public passage that passed through the indoor part of the market. Hopefully they could be implemented in the near future.

▼总平面图,master plan ©NODE Architecture & Urbanism

项目名称:
地表的记忆:Memory of the Land:
2019深港城市\建筑双城双年展宝(深圳)宝安分展场空间改造
项目类型:公共空间、景观艺术装置
项目地点:中国 深圳宝安桥头村
设计单位:南沙原创建筑设计工作室
事务所网站: www.nodeoffice.com
主创建筑师: 刘珩
设计团队完整名单:刘珩、黄杰斌、韩韵、吴义娟、刘洋、黄赞宁、张诗晗、徐静悦、
阮艺玲、倪小弋、彭子琦(实习)
业主:深圳市宝安区人民政府
建成状态:已建成
设计时间:2019.06-2019.08
建设时间:2019.09-2019.12
用地面积:30,000平方米
策展人:杨勇
施工:深圳市广顺源建筑工程有限公司
材料:混凝土、钢板、青砖、红砖、穿孔板
施工图单位:中工武大设计研究有限公司,湖南城市学院规划建筑设计研究院
灯光顾问:深圳市光程式科技有限公司
摄影师(除注明外):张超
摄影师网站:https://cargocollective.com/ZCSTUDIO
视频腾讯链接:https://v.qq.com/x/page/i30609shzu4.html
投稿方联系邮箱:echo.wu@nodeoffice.com
微信对接人ID:yidianwu0211

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