非常感谢 董莳 + 赵迦 予gooood分享以下内容。
Appreciation towards Dong Shi + Zhao Jia for providing the following description:
To create a literati art center in a modern residential area, this is the topic assigned to us at the reception of this commission. This obviously challenging task sets us face to face with two relations: one is between modernity and tradition, and the other between the privacy of a residential area and the publicity of an art center. Fortunately, the plot is located at the foot of the Fuchun Mountains, one of the richest spots in terms of art, culture and tradition.
▼“小区里的美术馆”，a literati art center in a residential area
An Imaginary World for Literati
The buildings concerned are two five-storied terraced houses linked with each other, covering a relatively limited area of about 100m². Moreover, all the utilizable space is further squeezed towards the margins by a very generous staircase located at the center of the buildings, which is 1.2m in width. To meet the functionality of residence, the inner space of the buildings was divided into 38 rooms of variable sizes and shapes. Compartments separated with numerous walls, this was the state of the buildings in question at the starting point of the renovation work. In addition, all the facades in this residential area are under the control of administrative authority, which means that our renovation should be confined within and the final renovated buildings will not have a conventional bearing usually expected for an art center. So, how can such a space for literati art be brought forth under all these conditions and limitations?
The option which seems easiest to us is to implant into these buildings of modern structure some traditional elements like old-styled furniture or wooden walls of division, which in our opinion would be no more than ornament, since this ‘vocabulary of tradition’, due to the lack of a complete system of expression, is made up merely of some ‘fragments’ floating in history. What we need to do first is therefore to set up, as a reply to tradition, a system of formal language for space which can, firstly, hold the story of traditional objects with its own narrativeness and constructiveness, and secondly, grow on and explain for its own. That’s the reason why we start our conception with the imagination about a literati world and then establish a complete set of formal language applicable to our project.
▼用建构完整的语言系统改造的现代住宅，a modern residence transformed in a complete set of formal language
Grotto – Recipient – Frame Structure in Concrete
First of all, such a world for literati should be stood in mountains and close to waters, just like what is depicted in the paintings by Huang Gongwang, one of the foremost artists of Yuan Dynasty who is best known for his delineation of the scenery in the Fuchun Mountains. Since the spot is already surrounded outside by modern residential buildings, our idea is naturally turned inwards and focused on an imaginary landscape which is to be contained within a modern husk, just like a grotto for modern literati. Our literary imagination about such a world in grotto conducts us first of all to erase all the walls of division, all the staircases and part of stairways, maintaining only the original concrete structure as well as the outer surface of the buildings. As a result, a gigantic recipient which not only offers to us a fundamental structure to create a grotto but achieves at the same time the openness required for a public space transformed from a private dwelling place. The remarkable complexity of the original concrete structure, which had been further complicated by the repartition of dwelling space, is now fully exposed though enveloped yet by a colossal husk as its boundary.
▼木头房子+混凝土框架，wooden rooms + concrete frame structure
Imbued with a tone of complexity, the characteristics of the spot in question should be maintained and handed down to the grotto which, in essence, should also be a recipient of technology since the concrete structure is not only a representative for modern architecture but physically a load-bearing structure as well. The outer surface continuously extending along the six sides of the volume is the border area where is taking place the dialogue with the outside world. Reduced back to its original state, the concrete structure is not only a guaranty for the integrity of the Grotto but also a magic box of multi-dimensionality for the inner space.
▼垂直空间，the vertical space
Wooden Room Systems
▼木头房子 + 场所， wooden rooms + places
Following the clearance of the remainders of modern architecture is the space system fully adapted to the life-style of literati, in which nine wooden rooms are dedicated respectively to nine facets of literati life including Chinese zither, the game of Weiqi, calligraphy, drawing and painting, poetry, wine, tea, flowers and incense. Used as medium for expression of ideas and thoughts, most of these nine activities can factually go in pairs, like music and game, calligraphy and drawing, poetry and wine, tea and flowers, with only incense being singled out because of its peculiarity in spiritual life. Burning incense used to be regarded as part of a ritual activity and, quite often, the ascension of smoke symbolizes the connection with gods. That’s the reason why we put the section of incense at the central point of the building and name it ‘the Center of Humanity’, with the other eight aspects of literati life being settled in the surrounding area.
▼“香”被设置在了整个建筑的圆心位置，the section of incense is located at the central point of the building
According to their different position in space and various utility in practice, we borrow from traditional Chinese architecture one specific architectural term for each of these nine spaces which are, from below to above, Study Room, Music Tower, Art Gallery, Flower Studio, Wine Counter, Tea House, Poetry Pavilion, Game Space and Incense Platform, composing a polyphony of nine different aspects of literati life-style through nine archetypal constructions arranged in different positions in the renovated space. Why archetypal? Taking for instance the tea house which is designated as an, a Chinese architectural type originally referring to the buildings with a straw roof in shape of flattened cone. The image of an, which is often enriched by figures sitting with crossed legs and sharing tea, is illustrated in modern architectural language by an outline of a rectangle from outside and a circle inside, with at the same time considerable empty parts on the four surrounding walls. Such a modern construction not only contains in itself, but also respects, the connotation of this architectural form. By tracing back to certain archetypes in traditional Chinese architecture, we can firstly preset a form in which certain life-style can be unfolded, and, more importantly, prevent the space from being isolated from the nature. All types of buildings are linked to the environment. And more important to our Grotto World is the atmosphere created through man-made objects indicating mountains and waters. As often shown in traditional Chinese landscape paintings or typical Chinese design gardens, houses occupy only a modest fraction of the total area, ceding most land rather to natural landscape, notably mountains and waters.
▼中庭走廊，corridor at the patio
▼与“轩台楼阁”相呼应的建筑类型，a series of prototypes borrowed from traditional Chinese architecture
▼从中庭望向诗阁，view to the Poetry Pavilion from the patio
▼棋宇， Game Space
▼从走廊望向茶庵，view to the tea house from corridor
Conjunction of Natural Places
Parallel to the nine wooden rooms proposed above, we set up in the unoccupied space a conjunction of various places which are quite similar to what is easily encountered in traditional Chinese painting where, for example, a small cottage finds often on its side a tiny plot, being it a piece of vegetable garden, an enclosed area used as courtyard or merely a tiny piece of plain ground. Such a tamed place, which may be described as ‘natural’ to certain extent, is regarded as a zone of transition from nature landscape to man-made dwelling place.
▼场所系统，the space system
In our Grotto World, each wooden room has a place in this kind, of bigger or smaller size, for temporary passage or longer staying, being attached to or simply juxtaposed with the room associated. Each room, along with the associated place in its vicinity, constitutes a new space level. All these places are oriented towards a center which had been factually the patio enclosed by the two five-storied buildings and had been mainly used for ventilation. In contrast to the Center of Humanity represented by the Incense Platform, this virtual column can be understood as an Axe of Nature occupied, after the renovation, by a huge transparent installation in glass, of which the main purpose is to introduce some natural landscape to the interior. Equipped with a set of automatic shutters and especially an automatic water pumping and circulation system, this huge installation can recycle the water gathered on basement, pump it back to the top of building, and finally make a spectacle of waterfall with well regulated sound effect of raindrops. Visible from every corner of the Grotto, this installation symbolizes the connection between Heaven and earth. While the Incense Platform, owing to its position at the center of the entire space and, above all, its image of a 360-degree radiance, represents the communion with gods. Thus the ‘Center of Humanity’ along with the ‘Axe of Nature’, dominating respectively the nine wooden rooms and the associated places, constitute a double center for our World in Grotto where the Heaven, the earth, the humans and the gods get along with each other.
▼五层楼高的天井是一个大型透明玻璃装置，能够将自然环境真正引入到室内，the five-storey patio was designed as a huge transparent installation in glass, of which the main purpose is to introduce some natural landscape to the interior
▼中庭立面细部，patio facade detailed view
Vertical Garden – Promenade in Nature – Labyrinth of Landscape
▼垂直园林设计概念图，design concept of the vertical garden
As regards the materials used for the wooden rooms and their corresponding places, we have chosen those which are easily felt in terms of texture, tactility or even temperature for an appropriate expression of traditional concepts and, at the same time, applied to the concrete structure those materials which are sleek, lack in texture and more or less abstract as the vocabulary for modern architecture. With all its beams being fully exposed, the structure in concrete expounds plainly the complete technical framework of the buildings. Ceiling and ground floor being undefined, conventional limitation in horizontal space in modern architecture (ref. Le Corbusier’s concept of Dom-ino) being thus broken down, a certain ambiance is therefore created which is favorable to a free promenade in a multi-dimensional space, just like one’s strolling in real mountains and waters. Two systems deriving from two different conceptions are interwoven in the dialogue and effectively constitute an imaginary world of harmony between nature and humanity.
▼混凝土框架完全暴露，the fully exposed concrete frame system
▼楼梯间仰视，looking up to the stair well
Scattered around in the space and superimposed with each other, these different spots, once linked through specially designed paths and accesses, constitute a vertical garden or an enjoyable labyrinth of landscapes. Walking around freely in this uninterrupted space of overlaps and multi-dimensionality is in itself the most excellent expression of such a space. Even the paths themselves can be taken as part of the places or their extension. All the spaces, once connected, form an entire whole. As we have proposed, there are two groups of stairways in the building. One group, voluminous and always in the lower part of building, is inspired from the stone bridge across streams in mountains, which elevate us away from the lower space. The other group, always positioned in the higher part of the building, calls to mind the image of ‘stairway to heaven’. Some special treatments to the latter group of stairs, such as separation between steps and extension of each section, help reinforce the feeling of being amidst the clouds. With the marching time along the stairways being elongated, the firmament seems being pushed even farther and higher.
▼“天梯”， ‘stairway to heaven’
Metaphor – Scenario – Mirage
Along these interlinked paths are strung up not only spaces of practical function but also scenarios under diverse circumstances, which constitute a complex of mirages through various metaphors for mountains and waters. The patio, for example, as the only transparent white object in the space, breaks like a waterfall the silence of the Grotto or, sometimes, impedes at its top opening the flashes of sunshine. Another example is the Art Gallery, which is suspended above the water and dominates the lake of its twisted and bended borderlines. While opposite to the Music Tower, on the left is the patio with waterfall, on the right a rocky mountain made of LiTraCon. And further to the right side of the Music Tower is a cliff dotted with several niches. We can also imagine someone playing traditional Chinese zither in a deep valley. Different scenarios are thus strung together through the paths, cottages by lake, pavilions in height, terraces for temporary rest, wooden rooms for longer staying …, with visitors strolling or relaxing themselves between resemblance and metaphors. When night is falling, the Grotto will switch on its nocturnal version thanks to the lighting system. Droplights of various heights bring into our sight a starry sky while the wooden rooms, once fully lightened, seem like hearths in a mountaineous region. Floor lights along the path, together with wall lights, guide us in safety at each turning point of space. The only cold light resource is installed in the central patio and can brighten, once fully illuminated, the entire space.
▼“山水幻境”， a complex of mirages
▼一幕幕情境随着路径被剪辑串联，different scenarios are thus strung together through the paths
Fairy Island – Miniature of the World for Chinese Literati
Quite similar to the spatial property of the ‘natural’ place inside, the Grotto World needs also an outside area of transition from natural landscape, in correspondence with the homogeneous structure existed inside. The spaces connected with outer world include the outer surface of the Grotto and the four yards in different direction around the Grotto, i.e. the front yard, the back yard, the side yard and the top yard. These four yards, all connected to the outer surface of the Grotto, constitute an external layer of environment of certain thickness which is supposed to have two significances if the Grotto is considered as a metaphor for the Fairy Island of Penglai. It symbolizes, firstly, the sea/water surrounding the Island, where is the passage to the world beyond; and secondly, the aura of mystery around the Island, which is also a self-sufficient natural environment.
▼文人世界的微缩模型，a miniature of the world for Chinese literati
The world of traditional landscape painting consists of four basic objects existing in the Nature: mountain, water, trees and rocks, of which the myriad forms and various compositions bring about diversity of landscape. Taking inspiration from these four basic objects, we find for each of the four yards a theme and thus have such yards as of mountain, of water, of tree and of rock which form in a highly concise manner a ‘natural’ environment endowed with certain spiritual value. The back yard of water has a little gate and a clear pond. The front yard of tree, a big gate and a well preserved tree. The side yard of rock, relatively a discreet one, has a huge rock two meters high. The yard of mountain, on top of the building, embraces and integrates into its view the Fuchun Mountains yonder.
▼景观庭院鸟瞰，aerial view to the landscaped yard
The surrounding sea/water is represented in form of dry landscape. The term of dry landscape here does not refer to what is often seen in a typical Japanese rock garden but a metaphor, a symbolic or abstract representation of water scenery. Both the front and the back yards are covered of tiles. The terrace of numerous grades in the front yard expresses the idea of streams flowing on the strands. Enclosed with the relatively high fence, the area of the side yard, though not very large, might be understood as an imaginary spring pond. Both the back yard and the top yard are covered of black gravels. From the back yard, the ground scenery extends itself till the interior where the original terrace is forming a performance stage, with the whole space being maintained as the foundation for the upper space. In the back yard, the black gravels, which appear repeatedly in every place of natural scenery in the spaces above, render to us a metaphor for water surface, symbolizing clear streams flowing in the mountains and finally converging into the pond at the lower bottom. With the Fuchun Mountains being integrated into the view, the top yard renders to us a physically accessible version of Dwelling in the Fuchun Mountains, masterpiece by Huang Gongwang.
▼“枯山水”， dry landscape
The outer surface, now as the boundary of the Grotto, was initially used to bear the balconies. It was also a zone of transition from the inside to the outside. However, with its newly acquired characteristics after the renovation of the Grotto, its initial practical function is no longer in need. To create on the basis of balconies another environment more natural, we have transformed all the balconies into green tanks for trees and plants to introduce through windows more natural elements for the people inside.
After such a renovation to its exterior, the Grotto seems like a ‘Fairy Island of Penglai’ floating on water, having on the other side the mysterious world beyond. Miniature of the World for Chinese literati, this Grotto is a place of refuge where men of letters make spiritual exchanges, appreciate seasonal products and scenery and display their artworks. In one word, this is a shelter for those longing for an evasion from reality, even for a brief instant.
▼B2层平面图，plan level B2
▼B1层平面图，plan level B1
▼1层平面图，plan level 1
▼1层夹层平面图，plan mezzanine of level 1
▼2层平面图，plan level 2
▼3层平面图，plan level 3