海南生态智慧新城数字市政厅 / 清华大学建筑设计研究院有限公司 + 北京清华同衡规划设计研究院有限公司

可持续设计思想的海南本地体现

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非常感谢 清华大学建筑设计研究院 予gooood分享以下内容。更多请至:Architectual Design and Research Institute of Tsinghua University on gooood 
Appreciations towards Architectual Design and Research Institute of Tsinghua University for providing the following description:

海南项目设计思路主要有三点:第一深受当地元素的启发,第二是持续一贯的可持续设计思想的海南本地体现,第三是利用计算机辅助工具对可持续设计策略进行预决策辅助。

The following design concepts dominated throughout the project: 1. Inspirations by local elements. 2. Localized expression of out commitment to sustainability. 3. Assistance of pre-decision of sustainable design approaches has been realized with the aid of cutting-edge software.

▼鸟瞰图,Aerial View © 褚英男

 

一、当地元素的启发
Inspirations by Local Elements

印象最强烈的是当地土壤的红色,从来没有像第一次现场踏勘的时候,看到工地上裸露的红土地那么强烈,似乎久远的记忆里,也不曾有这样强烈的视觉冲击。这使得我们决定做一个红土颜色的建筑,正是这样的红土,承载了海南勃发的自然植被,也许我们可以通过一个红土色建筑来对本来看不到的,被绿色覆盖的大地母亲致以微薄的敬意。

火山岩砌筑的海南当地传统民居,工艺粗豪,透风撒气但是又恰到好处,毕竟热防护和北方寒冷地区的要求完全不同。但是石块叠砌的肌理,与大地景观融为一体,自然的物质的力量就是这样的,石块之间透光的缝隙,石块自身的孔洞和石块的颜色,实际上和红土、植被没有区别,唯一的区别是被适度的人工切削、垒砌,而就是这不依赖高科技的传统的做法,为自然的大地增添了一抹和而不同的人工景观。

In Hainan, what impressed me most was the sight of red soil on my first trip to the construction site. As a result, we decided to build with the color of red soil, on which the rich vegetation of Hainan thrives, and to which we would like to pay our tribute with such an earth-colored building.

A large portion of local folk houses are built with pumice. With relatively coarse and simple craftsmanship, their non-airtight enclosure is just right for ventilation, which is different from houses in cold regions of Northern China. The stacked texture of pumice seems to have merged into the landscape, impressing us with the power of nature. To us, the gaps, holes and colors of pumice has no difference from those of red soil and vegetation in essence, and the only difference lies in that the stones have gone through a process of cutting and stacking, which adds artificial beauty to nature without high-tech intervention.

▼东侧生态景观及入口,Landscape and Entrance in the East © 褚英男

▼东侧入口通往半室外中庭(台阶完成效果),East Entrance (Steps Completed Rendering)© 褚英男

丰饶的植被生长条件。海南植被生长条件之得天独厚,是以前工作室所有的项目都从来没有机会体验的。既然有这种条件,一定要充分利用好。

源自梯田的人工与自然交织的景观启发。项目前期交流过程中,五指山牙胡梯田的人工自然景致给了我们很多触动。项目地处园区入口,直接面向新城主要城市十字路口,使我们有机会尝试引入梯田状的生态自然景观,向城市开放,朝向园区内侧的建筑和院落则层层叠退,嵌合于梯田中。

Richly endowed with natural resources, Hainan is a region with such favorable conditions for vegetation that our previous projects could never enjoy, and we decided to make the most of them.

As we all know, terraced fields are formed by both natural and human power. Greatly impressed by the landscape of Yahu terraces around Wuzhishan Mountain during the preliminary stage of project negotiation, we introduced terraced ecological landscape into the entrance of the site, which faced a main crossroad, to show the building’s welcome and open gesture to the city. Part of the building and courtyards facing inward are embedded into the terraces.

▼梯田景观中的建筑,Building above the Terrace Landscape © 褚英男

▼观景栈桥,Trestle Bridge for View © 褚英男

▼景观楼梯,Landscape Stairs © 褚英男

这当地元素的启发,直接决定了建筑与景观一体化设计的构想,也决定了很多要素:

1、建筑主体色彩——红土的红色;
2、景观意向——梯田样的自由的大地景观,覆盖首层的部分展览交流空间,有利于植物生长,塑造了面向城市外部的公共休闲公园;
3、材料选择——传统工法垒砌的本地岩石。实际上,本地火山岩砌筑房屋上的光的缝隙,也启发了我们对于立面遮阳的思考。

These local features has not only inspired the integration of building and landscape in our design, but also determined a series of design elements—

1.Main Color: The building is dominated by the color of red soil.
2.Landscape Concept: Part of exhibition space on the 1st floor is partly covered under terraced landscape, which both benefits the growth of plants and presents a leisure park to the city.
3.Materials: Local rocks will be stacked with traditional craftsmanship. The gaps among the pumice on local folk houses have also inspired us on sun-shading design for our project.

▼南立面局部,Detail of South Elevation © 褚英男

 

二、持续一贯的可持续设计思想的海南本地体现
Localized Expression of our Commitment to Sustainability

这包括四个方面的内容:第一,建筑景观一体化的服务社会属性的提升及其开放性的强调。第二,整体能源策略的思考,其中非空调区域(半室外开放区域)与空调区域(室内功能区域)采用不同能源策略。第三,传统夏热冬暖地区冷巷、庭院和遮阳、通风等设计策略的提升。第四,空调区域的能源节约的设计对策。

Our sustainable design strategies are reflected in 4 aspects: 1. On the basis of the integration of building and landscape, the project’s contribution to society and openness to the public are both highlighted. 2. With an overall energy-saving scheme, different energy plans are applied to non-air-conditioned area (semi-open areas) and air-conditioned area (indoor functional areas). 3. Improvements are made to the cooling alleys and courtyards with better sun-shading and ventilation strategies. 4. In air-conditioned areas, a series of strategies are adopted to guarantee energy conservation.

▼剖面图,Section © THAD

首先,结合建筑——景观一体的设计思路,将景观体系布置成完全对公众开放的公园式景观体系,具备中国传统园林的可游、可憩、可观、可玩的特点,甚至为市民们布置了可食植物甬道,以及结合景观种植了水稻等农作物,拓展了公园式景观的内涵。层层叠退的梯田景观和建筑不同标高的平台、庭院相接,可以方便地将建筑的内部设施,服务于社会大众。

First, on the basis of the integration of building and landscape, the landscape system of the project will be completely open to the public for visiting, staying and playing. Even a path of edible plants has been planned for the citizens, with crops such as rice planted in accordance with the landscape, enriching the content of this park-styled landscape. Terraced fields, connected with platforms and courtyards at various altitudes, provide easy access to internal facilities so that the building will better serve the public.

▼景观种植的稻谷收割,Rice Harvest © 褚英男

建筑的主要功能空间分为首层的展览、休闲公共服务区,以及二层以上的文创办公区。基于这种功能分区,分别在北侧和东侧设置了两个主入口。朝北的主入口庭院导向半嵌入梯田下方的首层公共服务区以及一系列室外庭院、巷道,与梯田景观连通。东侧面向园区内部的主入口则通过公共台阶开放,公众可以拾级而上,沿着垂直绿化庭院,到达位于二层的建筑核心——半室外通高中庭。半室外中厅顶部设有天光和风扇系统,侧面则完全对自然开放,对公众及周边企业开放,供休憩游玩和灵活举办各种活动。半室外通高中庭、平台、庭院和巷道,与层层梯田结合,从首层到顶层,成为完整贯通的室外公园式景观体系,与室内建筑功能区域既处处连接,又相互独立,形成了一座承载现代功能的立体游园。

▼生态景观步道,Landscape Walkway © 褚英男

▼西侧景观台地上的办公,Office Area above the West Landscape Platform

With its exhibition, leisure and public service areas on the 1st floor and creative industry offices above the 2nd floor as main functional spaces, the building has two main entrances at its north and east side respectively. The entrance at the north, with a courtyard in front, leads people to the public service area semi-covered under the terraced fields, as well as a series of outdoor courtyards and alleys. The east entrance is connected to a set of steps, guiding visitors along a vertical green courtyard to the 2nd floor where the focus of the building lies—a semi-outdoor and full-height atrium. The atrium, with a ceiling equipped with daylighting and fan systems, has its sides fully open to its surroundings, and people and enterprises nearby can hold various events here. Besides, the atrium, platforms, courtyards and alleys are integrated with the terraced fields at every level to form an interconnected and complete landscape system, which is complementary to the interior of the building, presenting a modern-functioned and multi-dimensional garden complex.

▼景观步道,Landscape Walkway © 褚英男

▼自然景观融合人工步道,Artificial Walkway involves with Natural Landscape © 褚英男

其次,结合能源策略的调整,即局部开放的室外、半室外区域没有人工空调系统介入,局部封闭的室内区域采用了空调系统,从空调使用总量上,得到了极大的消减,同时也提供了自然开放的区域,既服务了市民,又保障了办公等功能的相对私密,还利用了自然资源,减少了人工能源的耗费。基本上有两种:

一种是充分挖掘夏热冬暖传统建筑的特点,利用遮阳、通风等自然手段,利用自然能源,努力调节气候,例如其中所有开放的区域,核心的半室外通高中庭、平台等都利用建筑自遮阳、自然采光和自然通风作为气候调节的手段,没有采用人工空调系统干预。

Second, an overall energy-saving scheme has been implemented. The semi-open and open spaces, which serve the public, are air-conditioning-free, while  only indoor areas, mostly used as offices with privacy requirements, are air-conditioned to minimize air-conditioning load. Sustainable goals are reached by the following two approaches:

On one hand, by making full use of features of traditional buildings in hot summer and warm winter region, sun shading and ventilation design are specially made to adjust the micro climate. For example, none of the open areas, the semi-open full-height atrium or the platforms are air-conditioned; instead, natural ventilation, daylighting and sun-shading by the building itself have guaranteed the thermal comfort in these areas.

▼立面局部,Detail of Elevation © 褚英男

▼立面局部,Detail of Elevation © 褚英男

另一种策略则是在空调区域内,一方面利用精心设计的遮阳系统和巷道—庭院系统,改善自然采光和通风,同时利用覆土等重型防护措施,提高能源使用效率,降低能耗。例如除开放区域外的办公等功能区域,考虑到保证工作效率等要求,采用了人工空调系统,调节气候。而即便采用人工空调系统的区域,也精心进行了遮阳和自然通风的考量,很多区域为覆土措施,即充分利用了海南植被生长快且好的有利条件,也降低了能耗。而另一个体现工作室一贯可持续设计思想的是天然光的充分利用和自然通风以及遮阳的创造性利用。建筑的核心区和各个覆土区域均有天光系统,保证充足的天然采光,同时各个庭院均是自然通风的路径,在过渡季结合遮阳系统,可以减少空调系统的应用。

On the other hand, a series of strategies are applied to air-conditioned areas to improve energy efficiency, including specially designed sun-shading systems and an alley-courtyard system which facilitates daylighting and ventilation. Solid insulation, such as earth-covering is applied. Functional areas like offices are air-conditioned yet considered for sun-shading and natural ventilation, with part of them earth-covered to make the most of the favorable conditions for vegetation and reduce energy consumption. Furthermore, the full use of natural light and ventilation, as well as innovative utilization of sun-shading parts are implemented, showcasing our sustainability awareness that SUP has always maintained. Daylighting systems are implemented in each core area and earth-covered areas for ample natural light, and each courtyard can serve as a channel for ventilation, reducing air-conditioning load in spring and autumn with the help of sun-shading system.

▼东立面局部,South Facade © 褚英男

▼入口台阶(台阶完成效果), Entrance Steps(Rendering) © 褚英男

第三,利用陶板本身构造工法特点,学习海南传统民居火山岩砌筑的方法,构造了独特的遮阳体系。同时在深入挖掘夏热冬暖气候区传统民居建筑的气候适应性基础上,在建筑的不同功能区内,设计立体的“巷道—庭院”复合系统,以便最大限度的利用天然采光和自然通风,并在遮阳配合下的适度气候调节。其中“巷道”有多功能厅外狭长的冷巷以及各层办公区的屋顶庭院和遮阳系统构成的窄巷,“庭院”则包括北入口绿墙庭院、圆形中心庭院、狭长的水庭院和斜坡绿植庭院。

Third, a unique sun-shading system is developed by studying the constructive features of local clay bricks and pumice. Furthermore, researches on local folk houses’ climatic adaptability have inspired us to integrate cooling alleys, tall and narrow courtyards, water yard and sloped courtyard into a multi-dimensional alley-courtyard system to facilitate daylighting, natural ventilation and moderate adjustment to micro climate. Scattered among different parts of the building, the system can utilize daylighting and natural ventilation to the full extent. Just as its name implies, this alley-courtyard system consists of alleys and courtyards: The alleys include a narrow and long cooling alley along the multi-functional hall, narrow alleys formed by roof courtyards and sun-shading systems, while the courtyards include a green-wall courtyard at the north entrance, a circular central courtyard, a narrow water courtyard and sloped lawn courtyard.

▼雨水花园通往北入口,Rain Garden to the North Entrance © 褚英男

▼冷巷,cool Corridor © 褚英男

第四, 空调区域能源节约的对策是充分利用自然可再生能源,结合遮阳系统、巷道—庭院系统,以及天光系统,最大限度地将自然光和通风引入建筑,延长过渡季的不使用空调的时间。同时结合覆土等重防护措施,保证有空调区域,周边热环境稳定性好,提高能源使用效率。

Fourth, the full utilization of renewable energy has guaranteed energy conservation in air-conditioned areas. With the help of the sun-shading system, the alley-courtyard system and the daylighting system, the building has maximized access to natural light and ventilation, extending its non-air-conditioned period in spring and autumn to the utmost. Furthermore, insulation approaches such as earth-covering has guaranteed the thermal stability around air-conditioned areas to achieve better performance.

▼展厅围绕的水院(效果图),Water Courtyard surrounding the Exhibition Hall (Rendering) © 褚英男

▼展厅围绕的水院1(施工中),Water Courtyard surrounding the Exhibition Hall 1 (Under Construction) © 褚英男

 

三、利用先进软件工具,对于建筑各个可持续设计策略进行预决策辅助
Assistance of pre-decision of sustainable design approaches has been realized with the aid of cutting-edge software

利用计算机辅助进行可持续设计预决策,是工作室持续坚持的工作方法,尽量借助先进软件工具,科学分析,科学决策。对于遮阳系统、半室外通高中庭和巷道—庭院系统等进行设计决策,居功阙伟。

其中,我们尝试结合ENVI-met软件建立适用于建筑设计阶段的界面空间气候缓冲效果预评价的方法,以庭院界面空间为例,讨论其形态、位置,和由空间形式所引起的遮阳、通风等因素对于其气候缓冲层作用以及自身热舒适性的影响,总结夏热冬暖地区庭院界面空间的设计策略,为建筑实践提供指导与借鉴。

It’s been SUP Atelier’s working habit to introduce computer-aided methods into pre-decision of sustainable design, establishing a working process with scientific analysis and decision. In the project of the city hall, computer aided methods have played a significant role in determining factors of the sun-shading system, the semi-open atrium and the alley-courtyard system.

In the design phase, we established a method for pre-evaluation of the performance of climatic buffering of the building’s surfaces with the aid of ENVI-met software. Taking the surface of courtyards as example, through the examination of its form, location, as well as the impact of sun-shading and ventilation on the climatic buffering zone and the building’s thermal comfort, we have come up with design approaches for the surfaces of courtyards in hot summer and warm winter regions like Hainan, which our future practices can refer to.

▼温度与风能模拟,Simulation of Temperature and Ventilation © THAD

此外,以被动式策略下的过渡空间(半室外通高中庭和巷道-庭院系统)为主要研究对象,借助Grasshopper 插件Butterfly等软件,对建筑整体的能耗水平和天然采光效果进行了全面的模拟和评价,得出过渡空间对室内空间的影响,和现有项目中过渡空间设计可能存在的问题,并针对项目中的过渡空间设计进行参数化优化实验,并得出相关的深化设计结果。

Furthermore, with the help of Butterfly, a plug-in of Grasshopper, we did thorough simulation and evaluation of energy consumption level and daylighting performance of buffering zones (the semi-open full-height atrium and the alley-courtyard system). Thus, we can measure the impact of buffering zones on interior spaces and figure out potential problems of buffering spaces in our ongoing projects. Then parametric optimization experiments can be carried out in pursuit of further design outcomes.

▼办公区的窄巷(效果图),Narrow Corridor in Ofiice Area(Rendering) © 褚英男

▼半室外通高中庭(施工中),Semi-outdoor atrium(under construction)© 褚英男

▼咖啡厅外的窄巷(施工中),Narrow Corridor outside Café(Under Construction)© 褚英男

▼展厅中央的圆形室外庭院(施工中),the Circular Courtyard in the center of the Exhibition Hall(Under Construction)© 褚英男

▼半室外通高中庭顶部的天窗和风扇(施工中),Skylight and Fans(Under Construction)

▼总平面图,Site Plan © THAD

▼一层平面图,First Floor © THAD

▼二层平面图,Second Floor © THAD

 

▼三层平面图,Third Floor © THAD

▼四层平面图,Forth Floor © THAD

▼立面图,Elevation © THAD

项目名称: 海南生态智慧新城数字市政厅
项目类型:建筑/景观
项目地点:海南省澄迈县
设计单位:清华大学建筑设计研究院有限公司素朴建筑工作室、北京清华同衡规划设计研究院有限公司
事务所网站: http://www.thad.com.cn
主创建筑师: 宋晔皓、陈晓娟
设计团队完整名单:解丹、褚英男、孙菁芬、于昊惟、夏雨妍、黄致昊、刘梦嘉
业主:海南生态软件园
建成状态:建设中
设计时间:2017.10-2018年6月
建设时间:2018.7至今
用地面积:18140㎡
建筑面积:11198㎡

其他参与者:
建筑:温雅宸、王林健
结构:龚政、孙晓彦
电气:杨莉、王鹏、李高楼、尹大鹏
给排水:林玉权、田英、解英
暖通:张玥、孙玉武、王司空
景观:广州普邦园林股份有限公司
照明:清华大学建筑学院张昕工作室
摄影师:褚英男

Project Name: RSC Building
Category: Architecture/Landscape
Project Location: Chengmai, Hainan
Design: SUP Atelier of THAD ( Architectural Design and Research Institute of Tsing-hua University ) , Beijing Tsinghua Tongheng Urban Planning & Design Institute
Website: https://www.thad.com.cn
Leading Architect: Yehao Song, Xiaojuan Chen
Architecture Design Team: Dan Xie, Yingnan Chu, Jingfen Sun, Haowei Yu, Mengjia Liu, Yuyan Xia, Zhihao Huang
Client: Hainan Resort Software Community
Status: Under construction
Design Time: Oct. 2017-Jun. 2018
Construction Time: Jul. 2018-
Land Area: 18140㎡
Gross Built Area: 11198㎡

Architect: Yachen Wen, Linjian Wang
Structural Engineer: Zheng Gong, Xiaoyan Sun
Electrical Engineer: Li Yang, Peng Wang, Gaolou Li, Dapeng Yin
Water Supply and Drainage Engineer: Yuquan Lin, Ying Tian, Ying Xie
HVAC Engineer: Yue Zhang, Yuwu Sun, Sikong Wang
Landscape Design: PUBANG Landscape Architecture Co.,LTD
Lighting Design: X Studio, School of Architecture, Tsinghua University
Photography: Yingnan Chu

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