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Appreciation towards Architectural Design and Research Institute of Zhejiang University for providing the following description:
The Era of Pan-Architecture – Urbanization
▼山水-古镇 ，Ancient town- Mountain-River ©山嵩
Wu LiangYong pointed out in ” A General Theory of Architecture” that the mission of architecture and the extension of architecture are constantly changing with the development of the times. Meng Jianmin’s “Reflections on Pan-Architecture” also clearly points out the dynamic relevance between architecture and other disciplines.
Over the past few years, as China’s new urbanization process has continued to expand in breadth and depth, the content and methods of construction activities have also undergone many changes. Architects have been given new responsibilities and expectations to directly face the problems of architecture outside of traditional meaning, that is, the variables of the non-building itself, the boundaries of architecture are being quickly broken, and the era of “pan-architectural” is truly the beginning of the implementation to the level of practice.
▼城镇维度的泛建筑变量，Pan-building variables of urban dimensions
Pan-Architecture Object – Fengqiao Ancient Town
Fengqiao, a thousand-year-old town in Zhuji, Zhejiang Province, has become a cultural center in the northeastern part of Zhuji in history due to the “Gu Yue Jian Du” and “Fengqiao Sanxian”. The “Fengqiao Experience” in 1962 is known throughout the country as a model for social grassroots governance. Recently, Fengqiao Township’s “Mo Mei” – “Don’t exaggerate the color, only keep the atmosphere full of energy” is Keep visitors open.
However, the ancient towns that are famous on the surface are actually bleak. At the end of 2015, when the task of revitalizing the entire town was handed over to the project team, we were very excited when we were excited. As an architect, the first feeling is that this is not a “pure building” project, compound development needs, uncertain work objects, vague design goals, even no mission books, no feasibility reports, no budget. In the traditional professional system, it is difficult to find technical means suitable for such objects, and it is impossible to find a working mode and guarantee mechanism.
▼村民与古镇，Villagers and ancient towns
Pan-Architecture Practice – Differences in Seven Dimensions
Everything needs to be explored, but everything has the meaning of transcending traditional “Architecture.” For four years, we have been working in Fengqiao, with the local feelings of the architects, and doing the practice of “pan-Architecture” in a solid and innovative way. The obvious differences between these projects and traditional architectural projects in seven dimensions are organized.
▼七个维度的差异，Differences in seven dimensions
决策维度(零维）| A Decision dimension (zero dimension)
“Why shouldn’t it be?” is the “presence” premise to be solved first. When we submitted the “Fengqiao Ancient Town Renewal Development Plan” for the first time, we proposed the overall development goal of “seeing development and retaining homesickness”, as well as the three-year three-step long-term plan and Three-year three-step plan, while listing a large number of landing construction items that match the target. Many times, even beyond the scope of architecture, the role of a decision maker is exercised.
▼三年三步计划，Three-year three-step plan
▼枫桥“现代古镇”发展策划，Development Planning of Fengqiao “Modern Ancient Town”
主体维度（一维）| B Subject dimension (The first dimension)
▼枫桥， Fengqiao bridge ©赵强
The main body of a general construction project is very clear, but as a small town project, the main body of construction is very complicated. In terms of the main body of construction, it generally undertakes various departments related to policy formulation, investment, audit, management, and resource introduction; it uses the construction of multi-party joint platform on the main body of work, and joints related enterprises, through open work platforms, overall operations, It is divided into channel management, project planning and implementation to carry out all-round operation; in the main body of use, it also involves the citizens, tourists, associations, incubators, investors, makers, operators and other entities operating and using in the town. And often these subjects may be transformed into each other, interspersed throughout the project, very complicated.
▼枫溪边的枫桥古镇，Fengqiao Ancient Town by Fengxi River ©赵强
▼枫溪 ，Fengxi River ©赵强
▼古镇青年街 ，Qingnian Street in Guzhen ©赵强
▼枫桥， Fengqiao bridge ©赵强
技术维度（二维）| C Technical dimension (The second dimension)
(a) New and old balance: First of all, small towns are often not a brand new project. The material space of small towns contains too many things such as natural landforms, old buildings, historical memories, cultural heritage, etc. This is not a reintroduction in a large number of urban organic renewal projects. It is not a new project in the conventional sense, it is an organic update of the real “whole darning”.
▼新旧平衡：青年街，The new and old Qingnian Street ©赵强
▼新旧平衡：孝义路，The new and old Xiaoyi Road ©赵强
(b) Multi-regulation: Prior to planning, small town projects generally required an existing planning process. After planning and obtaining recognition, we have unified design from three-in-one planning, detailed planning and urban design. The content is more designed and lighter. This is in fact very common with the “multi-integration” advocated in the current planning system. It is coincident and natural.
▼新旧平衡：枫溪边的古镇， The new and old Ancient Town by Fengxi River ©山嵩
(c) Professional collaboration: Small towns are a level of design objects and cities. In addition to planning and construction, they also include design projects in all construction areas such as municipal, transportation, energy, security, lighting, landscape, intelligence, urban furniture, etc. A large number of design cross-coordination and overall effect control have become another important work content of the main designer.
▼孝义老街鸟瞰，Xiaoyi Road aerial view ©山嵩
▼孝义老街，Xiaoyi Road ©赵强
▼孝义老街枫桥记忆馆，Fengqiao Memory Hall on Xiaoyi Road ©赵强
空间维度（三维）| D Spatial dimension (The third dimension)
(a) Balance of integrity and individuality
(b) Balance of space development and protection
(c) Balance of urban space and architectural space
▼古镇-主入口区-城市 ， Ancient town – main entrance area – city ©山嵩
时间维度（四维）| E Time dimension (The fourth dimension)
The time dimension of the building emphasizes the balance of parameters throughout the life of the building. First, the building has a clear life cycle, generally 50 years; secondly, there are clear evaluation criteria, such as construction cost, carbon emissions, space utilization efficiency, energy saving parameters, material recycling rate, etc.; There are also clear disposal methods, or dismantling or alteration. But the balance elements considered in the time dimension of small town projects are more complex than buildings.
(a) Balance between tradition and modernity
(b) Balance between construction and operation
(c) Balance of design and self-growth
▼古镇-主入口区，Ancient town – main entrance area ©赵强
▼古镇主入口区-建筑组团 ，Ancient town main entrance area – architectural group ©赵强
▼庭院局部，partial view ©赵强
▼古镇主入口区- 映月，Ancient town main entrance area – The Moon ©赵强
▼地域化表达，Regional design ©赵强
体系维度（五维）| F System dimension (The fifth dimension)
Small towns are the smallest urban unit, “the sparrows are small and well-organized.” Breaking through the specific three-dimensional material space system that our profession corresponds to, the small towns of ecology, transportation, energy, social governance, industry, education, disaster prevention, etc., which are in the normal operation of a city, have a large system. body. The scale of big cities makes it difficult to feel the impact of these systems on a single building project. However, at the scale of small towns, the scale is small and the system is very close. If you don’t pay attention, you will touch it, and the influence between each other will be more obvious.
▼多方参与的工作机制，Multi-participatory working mechanism
For example, the social governance system, Fengqiao is known throughout the country for its “Fengqiao Experience”, a social grassroots governance model with Chinese characteristics. The government and residents of Fengqiao are very aware of public participation, so they were given in the construction project of Fengqiao Town. Ordinary residents enjoy important decision-making power. Many details of the design are determined by the on-site coordination with the residents, which resolves the social contradictions on the one hand and enhances the design’s landing on the other.
情感维度（六维）| G Emotional dimension (The sixth dimension)
(a) 情感的聚落：一个小城镇聚落既有乡村聚落的乡土情感，也有着城市聚落的体系完整。在设计中，也非常注重对当地人情感的保护和回应，现状存在的要予以保护利用，曾经存在或者当地居民希望存在的也尽量的挖掘和塑造。(b) 人文的承载：人文是产生于情感的凝结物，每个小镇都有其特殊的人文积淀，从而由内而外传递出独特的气质。
In addition to the above rational dimensions, good buildings have temperature. At the level of small towns, the emotional connection between people and space is equally possessive and even more intense. This kind of emotion makes us unable to avoid in the design, and it is also the higher pursuit and ultimate goal of the small town project.
(a) emotional settlement: A small town settlement has both the local feelings of rural settlements and the system integrity of urban settlements. In the design, it also pays great attention to the protection and response of the local people’s emotions. The existing status needs to be protected and utilized. The existing or local residents hope to exist and try to dig and shape. (b) Humanity bearing: Humanity is a condensation produced by emotions. Each town has its own special humanistic heritage, which conveys a unique temperament from the inside out.
▼情感平衡：唤起人与环境的情感关联，Emotion Arousing the emotional connection between people and the environment
结语 | Conclusion
In the practice of building small towns in Zhejiang Province in recent years, in the face of such new design objects as small towns, we have indeed felt the influencing factors and the lack of evaluation system. Based on the “balanced architecture” theory of Zhejiang University Architectural Design and Research Institute, it is promoted to use dimensions to classify all aspects involved in the construction of small towns. I hope to try to systematically list the relevant impact factors of small towns’ pan-architecture projects. At the same time, the Fengqiao Ancient Town Renewal Project has been tracked for more than 4 years, with profound experience and rich cases, which has become the evidence of the pan-building practice of this dimension system.
▼项目分布，Project map ©山嵩
▼古镇更新总平面图，Ancient town renewal master plan
▼古镇更新立面图，Ancient town renewal elevation
▼孝义路更新立面图，Xiaoyi Road renewal elevation
▼青年街41、43号改造图，Reconstruction drawings of 41、43 Qingnian Street