Landscape Enhancement of the Construction Design for the Characteristic Cultural Blocks in Nantou Ancient Town (Phase I), Shenzhen, China by L&A Design

The Root-seeking and Regeneration of the City

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南头古城
一部深圳生长史
一处粤港澳渊源的见证
在近1700年的南头古城里
寻找旧与新的共生

Nantou Ancient Town
A growth history of Shenzhen
A witness to the historical origin of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao
In this ancient town over 1700 years
We look for the coexistence between the old and new.

©奥雅设计

 

历史古城和当代城中村的“共生体”
The “symbiosis” of Ancient Town and the Modern Urban Village

今年是深圳开放40周年,从“小渔村”到如今现代化的大都市,深圳发生了天翻地覆的变化,但其实深圳的历史远不止如此。这座年轻的现代城市背后,隐藏着一座已有1700年历史的南头古城。

南头古城位于深圳市南山区深南大道的尽头,呈现“六纵一横”的街巷格局。这里是深圳城市中仅有的历史文化载体,也是岭南古文化的宝贵遗存。它见证了东晋以来深圳地区的风云变迁,被认为是“深港历史文化之根”。

悠久的历史文化、特殊的城市肌理,让南头古城一直受到设计师们的青睐,都想为其装点一二。每逢重大历史事件发生,南头古城都要经历一番溯源和改造——1997年香港回归时新建八处仿古建筑,2011年大运会时主街穿衣戴帽,2017年深港双年展时将建筑与艺术进行了融合。2019年3月,南山区政府启动了南头古城“蝶变重生计划”,由万科集团执行落实,奥雅设计团队也有幸参与其中。

在深圳特区成立40周年之际,南头古城南北主街正式开放。李宝章先生看着焕然一新的古城,回忆项目进程中的种种困难,感触颇深。

南头古城开街即在!

自从2017年的双年展的主会场设在了南头古城,让世界把聚焦到了这个号称“粤港澳”之源的古城。这里经过各个时代发展的叠加,最后几乎成了一个带着城墙的城中村的地方。

17年双年展的主题是:城市共生。策展人,评论家侯翰如与都市实践的合伙人都教授与孟大师,希望在深圳看到一个“多元文化,包容、有活力的城市生态系统”。这届双年展吸引了230组来自中国与世界各地的参展人,在开展的3个月中,超过30万的人到古城参观了展览。

后来,我们大概知道深圳市政府希望通过“古城活化”,用现代创意再续古城的文化活力,使古城成为更多创意阶层的年轻人工作与生活的地方,同时让这里成为设计之都的一个既古老又时尚的文化地标。

古城活化总协调的任务(没有悬念地)落到了万科集团城市研究院的头上。去年九月底,我们非常高兴地知道万科城市研究院希望奥雅参与古城景观规划与重要景点的景观设计。看到了他们那份复杂到“不可能”的研究报告,又看到了参与“爆改”城中村当红的建筑师们与他们的方案,谁都知道这是设计师们的dream job.

希望总是特别美满,现实,怎么说呢,还是挺美满的,主要是还富很难再遇的戏剧性!在过去十个月的时间里(还的算上疫情的日子),在不知道经历的多少次的协调会,熬夜改图,女生哭鼻子,男生拍桌子,施工方、设计方与管理方多方对骂之后,封闭施工了几个月的南头古城终于又可以与大家见面了。

大家再到古城会看到奥雅深圳团队的这些工作:关帝庙的改建,南门公园的设计,南城门广场设计与南门古迹保护配合,以及南门内的主街的改造等,等等等等。先让我先代表奥雅公司感谢一下参与南头古城项目的所有人,我们的团队,万科管理方,各个设计合作方,施工方与没日没夜抢工的工人们。我们在一起完成了一个不可能完成的任务!

李宝章
2020年8月23日 星期日于蛇口

 

The year 2020 marks the 40th anniversary of Shenzhen’s opening. From a “small fishing village” to a modern metropolis, Shenzhen has undergone earth-shaking changes. However, the history of Shenzhen is far more than that. Behind this young modern city, lies a 1700-year-old Nantou Ancient Town.

Nantou Ancient Town is located at the end of Shennan Avenue in Nanshan District, Shenzhen, presenting a street pattern of “six verticals and one horizontal”. This is the only historical and cultural carrier in Shenzhen, as well as a valuable relic of the ancient Lingnan culture. It has witnessed the changes of Shenzhen since the Eastern Jin Dynasty and is considered to be the “root of Shenzhen-Hong Kong history and culture”.

Nantou Ancient Town has always been preferred among designers with its long history, rich culture and special urban texture. Whenever a major historical event occurs, Nantou Ancient Town would go through some history tracing and reforming—8 new antique buildings were built when Hong Kong returned to China in 1997; the main streets were greatly and newly decorated at the 2011 Shenzhen Universiade; and buildings were well integrated with arts at the 2017 Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism\Architecture (Shenzhen). In March 2019, the Nanshan District Government launched the “Nirvana and Rebirth Plan” for Nantou Ancient Town, which was implemented by Vanke Group, and the L&A Design Team was also fortunate to participate in it.

The north and south main streets of Nantou Ancient Town were officially opened on the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone. Looking at the renewed ancient town, Mr. Li Baozhang was deeply impressed, recalling the difficulties in the project process.

Nantou Ancient Town is just around the corner to embrace its brand new life!

Since the main venue of the 2017 Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism\Architecture (Shenzhen) was located in Nantou Ancient Town, the world has focused on this place known as the source of “Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao”. After the development of various eras, it has almost become an urban village with walls.

The theme of 2017 Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism\Architecture (Shenzhen) is “Cities, Grow in Difference”. Hou Hanru (the curator and critic), Professor Du and Master Meng (the partners of Urban Practice) hope to see a “multicultural, inclusive and dynamic urban ecosystem” in Shenzhen. This biennale attracted 230 groups of exhibitors from China and all over the world. During the three months of exhibition, more than 300,000 people came here to pay a visit.

Later, we probably know that the Shenzhen Municipal Government hopes to “make the ancient town alive”, and use modern creativity to renew its cultural vitality, making here a place for more creative young people to work and live, as well as an ancient and fashionable cultural landmark of the Design City.

The task of project overall coordination fell to the Urban Research Institute of China Vanke (without suspense) . At the end of September last year, we were very pleased to know that Vanke wanted L&A Design to participate in landscape planning and to design  the landscape of important scenic spots. I saw their research report that was so complex, also the popular architects and their plans for this project. Everyone knows that this is the designer’s dream job.

Wish is always perfect. Reality, how to say, is also quite well. It has the dramatic process that is difficult to meet again! In the past ten months (including the days of the epidemic), I don’t know how many coordination meetings I have experienced. We stayed up late to revise drawings, saw girls crying on their noses and boys slapping on the table, and experienced the arguments among constructors, designers and managers. Finally, after several months, Nantou Ancient Town, which has been closed for construction, can appear in front of everyone again.

When you go to this ancient town, you will see the work of the L&A Design Shenzhen Team—the reconstruction of Guandi Temple, the design of South Gate Park and South Gate Square (in the design we protected the local historic sites), and the reconstruction of the main street of the South Gate, etc. Now, let me on behalf of L&A Design, thank everyone who participated in the Nantou Ancient Town project—our team, Vanke management team, all the design partners, construction parties and workers who worked day and night. We have completed an impossible task together!

Li Baozhang
Sunday, August 23, 2020 in Shekou

 

 

项目描述
Project Description

随着外来人口不断迁移至此,南头古城的风貌发生了剧烈的变化。南头古城像其他散布在城市中的普通城中村一样,被快速发展的城市孤立,形成了一座城市中的孤岛。古城内部的建筑则开始了自然的“生长”,不同年代的建筑风格迥异,它们随着人口的迁入不断加高,将年代久远的建筑隐藏在其中。

当我们走进南头古城,老人们从家里搬出各样座椅在巷子里闲聊家常;这里没有茶室或咖啡馆、甚至不需要屋顶,有一处阴凉就可以打牌下棋;出生在这里的孩子,即便是闭着眼睛,也可以躲过石砖水洼。这里的一切是如此平常,人们认真地生活,却与古城外的光鲜世界相去胜远。偶尔走来一位着装讲究的先生,显得与尘土飞扬、破败杂乱的环境格格不入。

古城内部的肌理不同于周边的任何一处,这里的街巷狭窄蜿蜒,却恰当好处的满足了沟通联系的基本功能。一些狭小的开敞空间由错落的房屋围合而成,穿插在这些蜿蜒的道路两侧,重要的临街位置被各种商铺占据。然而,这种长期无序的发展必然会导致一些问题的存在。

With the continuous growth of immigrant population here, the style of the Nantou Ancient Town has undergone drastic changes. Like other ordinary urban villages scattered in the city, it was isolated by the rapid development and become a separated island. The buildings inside the ancient town began to “grow” naturally. The architectural styles of different ages are very different. New buildings have been heightened as the population moves in, hiding the old buildings among them.

Walking into the town, we could see that old people took out various seats from their homes and chatted in the alleys. There is no tea room or café. Not even a roof is needed. You can play cards and chess just in a shady place. The children born here can escape the stone puddles even with eyes closed. Everything here is so ordinary. People live in earnest, but they are far from the glorious world outside the ancient town. Occasionally, when a well-dressed gentleman walked into here, he would seem to be incompatible with the dusty, run-down and chaotic environment.

The texture of the interior of the ancient town is different from anywhere in the surrounding area. The streets here are narrow and winding, but it can meet the basic needs of communication and contact. Some small open spaces are enclosed by scattered houses, interspersed on both sides of these winding roads, and important street locations are occupied by various shops. However, this long-term disorderly development will inevitably lead to some problems.

▼南头古城的历史风貌,Historical townscape of Nantou ©奥雅设计

穿梭各个建筑之后,我们不难发现南头古城的另一重身份——城中村。在温馨的表象之下,南头古城也存在基础设施陈旧、街道缺乏对邻里空间的组织、缺乏沟通交流的公共空间等诸多问题。整个街道充满了分裂的空间,使得游览体验缺乏连续性。

面对这样复杂的空间体系,奥雅设计团队通过点(文化展示)、线(历史轴线)、面(活化建筑)有机串联不同片区,从“城市的寻根与再生”角度切入进行设计。寻根即是研究解读南头的历史变迁和民风习俗,深入了解南头古城的功能、空间和价值,挖掘南头古城的闪光点;“再生”则是将历史的转译为当代的,让南头古城“活”起来。

After traveling through the various buildings, it is not difficult for us to find another identity of Nantou Ancient Town—the urban village. Under its warm and sweet appearance, the Nantou Ancient Town also has many problems such as outdated infrastructure, lack of neighborhood space organization in the streets and public space for communication, etc. The entire street is full of divided spaces, so the tour experience lacks continuity.

Faced with such a complex space system, L&A Design Team organically connects different areas through points (cultural display), lines (historical axis), and planes (revitalized buildings), designing from the perspective of “the root-seeking and regeneration of the city”. “Root-seeking” is to study and interpret the historical changes and folk customs of Nantou, to deeply understand the function, space and value of this ancient town, and discover its shining points. “Regeneration” is to transform history into contemporary, so that Nantou Ancient Town could be “lived”.

▼今日的南头古城,the renewed Nantou Ancient Town ©奥雅设计

 

饮一方文化,酿一座古城
Employ the Local Culture to Enrich an Ancient Town

入口界面丨The Entrance

在古城南北向轴线上,分布着重点文物保护单位与历史建筑,由古城牌坊、关帝庙、南城门延伸至古城深处,形成了开合有序的空间序列。入口处的牌坊是深圳市悠久历史文化的象征,也是南头古城的起点与门面。

On the north-south axis of the ancient town, there are distributed key cultural relics protection units and historical buildings, extending from the memorial archway, Guandi Temple, and South Gate to the depths of the ancient town, forming a orderly spatial sequence. The memorial archway at the entrance is a symbol of Shenzhen’s long history and culture, and is also the starting point and facade of Nantou Ancient Town.

▼南头古城入口处牌坊,the memorial archway at the entrance of Nantou Ancient Town ©ACF域图视觉

奥雅设计团队在调研时发现关帝庙的香火十分旺盛,许多下班路过的居民都会在围墙外对着关羽像拜一拜再回家,这是一个感人又有趣的故事。也让我们意识到了沿街面挡土墙过高、过硬,视线开展度不足的问题。因此在改造中打开了临街的围墙,使得入口界面与城市的连接处形成了更为开放的空间。

▼改造前的关帝庙,Guandi Temple before reconstruction

During the investigation, L&A Design Team found that Guandi Temple was a high traffic area. On the way home from work, many residents would worship Guan Yu statue outside the wall when passing by. This is a touching and interesting story, which also made us aware of the problems that the retaining walls along the street was too high and too hard, causing the vision become limited. Therefore, during the renovation, the wall facing the street was opened to make the connection between the entrance interface and the town a more open space.

▼改造后的关帝庙,Guandi Temple after reconstruction ©ACF域图视觉

 

南门广场丨South Gate Square

穿过牌坊就进入了南门广场,设计师根据场地内原有的道路将南侧打开的空间收窄于一条通向古城的线性空间之内。道路两侧原有的灌木被清理,取而代之的是秩序的行道树和开阔的绿地。
The memorial archway is the entrance to South Gate Square. According to the existed road on the site, the designers narrowed the open space on the south side into a linear space leading to the ancient town. And the existed shrubs on both sides of the road were cleared and replaced by orderly street trees and open green spaces.

▼南门广场上络绎不绝的人流,A steady stream of visitors on the South Gate Square ©奥雅设计

 ©ACF域图视觉

仅仅这入口处的南门广场就经历了三轮设计和七次推敲,最终选择了最平凡的、最有生活气息的方案。在改造中我们保留了公园内的大榕树、散置石,留存了岭南村口的气质。奥雅设计团队认为,在这么小的空间中增添六个条石可能会显得十分拥挤,但是建成后看到村民与游客真正在使用的时候,内心是十分欣慰的。

The South Gate Square alone has undergone three rounds of design and seven rounds of scrutiny, and finally chose the most ordinary and most lively plan. In the reconstruction, we retained the big banyan trees and scattered stones in the park, preserving the peculiarity of the Lingnan village entrance. L&A Design Team thought that adding six chipped ashlars in such a small space might seem very crowded, but when it was completed, it’s very relieved to see villagers and tourists actually using it.

▼公园内的大榕树、散置石得到保留,留存了岭南村口的气质 ©ACF域图视觉
The big banyan trees and scattered stones were retained in the park, preserving the peculiarity of the Lingnan village entrance

▼富有生活气息的广场,A vibrant and lively square for both villagers and visitors ©奥雅设计

行至道路尽头,城门广场豁然开朗,设计师以瓮城的形式为广场设置了边界。广场靠城门一侧,城墙的基础作为历史文物被挖掘露出地面,设置护栏围绕,供游客观赏。城墙上的绿化植物,消解了古城内外的鲜明对立。柔和的灯光漫射在城墙上,使城门本身也成为了文物展品。

At the end of the road, the gate square suddenly opened up. The designer set a boundary for the square in the form of barbican. The square was on the side of the gate, and the foundation of the wall was excavated as a historical relic, surrounded by guardrails for tourists to watch. The sharp contrast of the inside and outside were dissolved by the green plants on the wall. The soft light diffused on the city wall, making the gate itself a cultural relic exhibit.

▼通往城门的道路,The road leading to the gate square ©奥雅设计

 

南北主街丨North-south Main Street

进入城门,来到了与外部截然不同的空间。漫游在其中,可以感受到多元文化融合所带来的冲击。街道被不同形式的建筑围合后,笔直的线性空间变得层次复杂。每走过一段,便会遇见几个岔路,这些岔路又连接着更狭小的巷道,像毛细血管一样连接着古城的腹地。

▼南北主街,North-south Main Street ©ACF域图视觉

Entering the gate, there’s a space completely different from the outside. Roaming in it, you can feel the impact of multicultural integration. After the street was enclosed by buildings of different forms, the straight linear space become complex in levels. You would encounter fork roads from time to time. These fork roads are connected to narrower lanes, connecting the hinterland of the ancient town like capillaries.

▼街道被不同形式的建筑围合 ©ACF域图视觉
The street was enclosed by buildings of different forms

在古城街道的改造中,奥雅设计团队采取了划分公私区域、分类解决问题的思路。以店铺前高地的界限作为划分公私的界面,主街将做统一的主街铺装,高地以上部分业主可自行装饰设计。同时针对店铺前“有空地”“无空地”“仅有台阶”“共用铺前空间”几种情况,分类提出了不同的设计策略,最终将破碎、杂乱的街道改造为如今连贯、通畅的形态。

In the reconstruction of the streets of the ancient town, L&A Design Team divided public and private areas and solved problems by classification. Taking the boundary of the highland in front of the store as the interface to divide public and private, the main street will be paved uniformly, while some owners above the highland can decorate and design by themselves. At the same time, different design strategies were proposed for the store front situations of “open space”, “no empty space”, “only steps” and “shared front space”, and finally turned the broken and chaotic street into its current coherent and unobstructed form.

▼破碎、杂乱的街道被改造为如今连贯、通畅的形态 ©ACF域图视觉
The broken and chaotic street has been turned into its current coherent and unobstructed form

在南街与北街的分界处,屹立着威严肃穆的新安县衙。作为见证深港澳历史变迁的重要坐标,展示着南头深厚的历史底蕴。

At the boundary between South Street and North Street stands the majestic Xin’an County Office. As an important place to witness the historical changes of Shenzhen, Hong Kong and Macao, it shows the profound historical heritage of Nantou.

▼新安县衙, Xin’an County Office ©奥雅设计

此外,在街道路面的改造过程中均采用了岭南传统街道的铺地材料和组合方式。路面上的排水金属构件与石质井盖,也都采用了符合当地风貌的材料进行铺设。同时,设计师根据每个建筑沿街立面的特点,为每一段立面设计了形式不同却风格协调的景观构造。最终,承载着悠久历史文化的主街焕发了新的生机。

In addition, the traditional Lingnan paving materials and combinations are used in the street reconstruction. The drainage metal components and stone manhole covers on the pavement are also laid with materials that conform to the local style. At the same time, according to the characteristics of each building’s facade along the street, the designer built a landscape structure with different forms but coordinated styles for each section of the façade, finally giving the main street which carries the long history and culture a new life.

▼铺地材料细节,paving materials ©奥雅设计

 

城外的自然与城内的生活
The Nature Outside and the Life Inside

2020年8月,330米长的南北街正式开放,焕然一新的南头古城在2017年双年展之后再次成为了网红打卡点。各种店庆与展览活动也如火如荼地进行着,为秋日优雅的南头古城增添了明亮的色彩。

In August 2020, the 330-meter-long North-South Street was officially opened. The renewed Nantou Ancient Town once again became an online celebrity check-in point after the 2017 Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism\Architecture (Shenzhen). Various store celebrations and exhibition activities are also in full swing, endowing bright colors to the elegant Nantou Ancient Town in autumn.

▼焕然一新的南头古城,The renewed Nantou Ancient Town ©ACF域图视觉

©奥雅设计

多种多样的活动,来来往往的行人,在草地上野餐的家庭,古城内自然而然地形成了“黄发垂髫,怡然自乐”的氛围。在古城中,我们看到了丰富多彩的空间现象、回归生活的场景、自然而然、高效人本的空间,甚至还有无可压制的自然力量。

With all kinds of activities, pedestrians coming and going, and families picnicking on the grass, the ancient town has naturally formed an atmosphere in which people old and young can both enjoy themselves. In the ancient town, we have seen a variety of spatial phenomena, scenes of returning to life, as well as the natural, highly efficient and human-oriented rooms, and even uncontrollable natural forces.

©奥雅设计

以古城的南城门为界,城内与城外形成了鲜明的对比。城内是浓厚的市井气息、丰富的古城生活,城外是自然的公共空间,景色宜人的林荫大道;城内是具有厚重历史感的传统城中村,城外是光鲜亮丽的现代都市。

在历史与现代,传统与时尚,旧与新的碰撞中,我们想要回到当下,用城内每一棵树、每一块石头、每一块砖、每一个凳子、每一株本土植物共同营造出美好的生活场景,去呈现自然的精神与生命的力量,去彰显南头古城“原初”的精神内涵。

With the south gate of the ancient town as the boundary, the inside of the town is in sharp contrast with its appearance outside. Inside, there are strong marketplace atmosphere and abundant life; outside, there are a natural public space and pleasant tree-lined avenues. Inside, there is a traditional urban village with a strong sense of history. Outside, there is a glamorous modern city.

In the collision of history and modernity, tradition and fashion, old and new, we want to return to the present, and use every tree, every stone, every brick, every stool, and every native plant to create a beautiful life scene, to show the spirit of nature and the power of life, and to demonstrate the spiritual connotation of the “primordial” Nantou Ancient Town.

▼鸟瞰,aerial view ©ACF域图视觉

项目名称:南头古城特色文化街区建设代建设计景观提升(一期)
项目地点:深圳市南山区
项目类型:城市更新
景观面积:40241㎡
客户名称:深圳万科城市设计研究院
景观设计:奥雅设计 深圳公司 项目三组 (设计范围:南门公园、关帝庙、南北主街)
建筑设计(注明排名不分先后):深圳市博万建筑设计事务所(普通合伙)/ 深圳市都市实践设计有限公司 / MVRDV / 武重义建筑事务所 / 一十一建筑设计工作室 / 竖梁社建筑事务所/ 厘米制造设计工作室 / 梓集建筑工作室 / 卜斌工作室 等景观施工(注明排名不分先后):湖南建工集团 / 深圳市翔飞达园林景观工程有限公司 / 广东南粤古建筑工程有限公司 / 深圳市西部城建工程有限公司 等
设计时间:2019.10-2020.06
竣工时间:2020.08.26

采写 / 奥雅设计 研发中心
编辑 / Christine
摄影 / ACF域图视觉,韦立伟

Project Name: Landscape Enhancement of the Construction Design for the Characteristic Cultural Blocks in Nantou Ancient Town (Phase I)
Project Location: Nanshan District, Shenzhen
Project Type: Urban Renewal
Landscape Area: 40241㎡
Customer Name: Urban Research Institue of China Vanke, Shenzhen
Landscape Design: L&A Design Shenzhen Company, Project Group Three (Design scope: South Gate Park, Guandi Temple, North and South Main Street)
Architectural Design (indicated in no particular order): Bowan Architecture (General Partnership) / URBANUS Architecture & Design, Inc. / MVRDV / VTN Architects / 11 Architecture / Atelier cnS. / CM Design / Fabersociety / Bu Bin Studio, etc.
Landscape Construction (in no particular order): Hunan Construction Engineering Group / Flying Landscape / South China Ancient Architecture / West Construction, etc.
Design Time: 2019.10-2020.06
Completion Time: 2020.08.26

Writing / L&A Design R&D Center
Editor / Christine
Photography / ACF ArCgFoto Wei Liwei

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