The cultural inheritance of a porcelain city for thousands of years
▼项目外观，external view of the project ©根本堂建筑摄影
China is the country of porcelain, Jingdezhen is the capital of it in China. In the early Years of the Ming Dynasty, Jingdezhen built a royal kiln factory, which was specially used to manufacture porcelain for the imperial palace and the imperial porcelain for the emperor to reward his officials. In 1911, the 1911 Revolution succeeded, overthrowing the monarchy completely, and the imperial kiln factory died. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, Jianguo Porcelain Factory was built next to the original royal kiln factory. Now, modern factory buildings are integrated with traditional buildings, forming the unique scenery of Jingdezhen.
Times change, industrial adjustment, the industrial age is gradually leaving us, the city’s economy has undergone a fundamental change from production to consumption, and Jingdezhen ceramic culture has remained forever. The old porcelain factory has been transformed into a ceramic culture tourism destination, attracting more and more young ceramic designers and artists to come here, injecting new vitality and vitality into the city. As an architectural relic representing the “traces” of an era, Jianguo Porcelain Factory is combined with the whole imperial kiln historical district. How should it be preserved? Should they be treated as unchanging artifacts with historical value, or should they be transformed into new buildings adding creative elements? We did the latter. It is like the regeneration of cells with new vitality, so that urban life can be better continued. The former Jianguo Porcelain Factory was transformed into a professional art museum to undertake the artistic mission of the new era and complete the cultural inheritance. At the same time, acupuncture is used to activate and utilize the surrounding space, making the old neighborhood full of vitality.
▼改造前建筑原状，original condition of the buildings before renovation ©筑境设计
Regeneration and transformation according to the trend
The renovation scope of the project includes the no.1 workshop of Jianguo Porcelain Factory, staff bathroom, staff dormitory, residential houses and the vacant site on the north side. On the basis of the existing building, according to the scale and functional requirements proposed by the gallery side, and combined with the surrounding environment of the site, the design with the historical district is carried out as a dialogue among them.
▼改造策略，renovation strategy ©筑境设计
The facade of the no.1 workshop is well preserved. Its interior is a large-span workshop space with brick columns as load-bearing structure and a light roof supported by wooden trusses.In order to ensure that the style of the old factory will not be damaged, in the design, we retained the external wall of no. 1 factory of Jianguo Porcelain Factory intact to ensure the original architectural style.Old factory on a smaller scale, but is limited by a single space, cannot meet the demand of the area of the professional art gallery and streamline, as a result, a layer of underground space to extension, used as warehouses, equipment, exhibition hall, and other functions, increase the gallery available area, and solve the problem of logistics part of the traffic, make public streamline and logistics flow can effectively separate, each other.As it goes down, the design goes up, too. We add two glass volumes in the middle of the old factory building as a special exhibition hall.At the same time, through line of sight analysis, we adjust the size and position of the glass volume, so that people on the surrounding roads can’t see the new glass volume, so as to achieve the effect of protecting the original block style.
▼项目鸟瞰，aerial view of the project ©根本堂建筑摄影
▼从历史街区看向美术馆，view to the art museum from the historic neighborhood ©根本堂建筑摄影
▼改造后项目保留原建筑立面风貌，original facade restored after renovation ©根本堂建筑摄影
The new two-storey volume is made of gradual glazed glass, and its light facade makes the original thick volume disappear in the environment. At the same time, the gradual change of color glaze creates a hazy color change, just like the glittering and translucent beauty of just fired ceramics, and just like an ink painting echoes with the context. A viewing platform is set inside the glass volume. Visitors can overlook the whole historic district through the gradual glazed glass, and have a space-time dialogue with the thousand years district and the royal kiln factory.
▼二层玻璃体量消隐在环境中，glass volume disappearing in the environment ©根本堂建筑摄影
In addition to the transformation of the old factory building, the space on the north side of the factory building is organically increased. The design continues the original workshop space scale, architectural form, column span, facade modulus and other factors, using modern concrete, glass, aluminum plate and other materials, with a more concise design language to create the new entrance space related to the old workshop. The new and old volumes are in harmony with each other in texture and proportion, but in interior space, architectural details and material construction, they show the architectural techniques of different eras, forming a harmonious and different design effect, implanting contemporary emojis throughout the 1,000-year-old district.
▼美术馆入口沿街外观，street view of the entrance ©根本堂建筑摄影
The original staff bathroom building has also been completely retained. Due to its brick and concrete structure, the space of which is small, so its functions have been transformed into VIP rooms and other service functions .Its distinctive gabled facade has also been well preserved, transformed into the poster wall of the art museum. Part of the residential houses around the museum which are integrated with the surrounding historical district are also within the site. Therefore, we adopt a way to adapt to local conditions to repair the residential houses and transform them into the artist’s studio of the museum. While continuing the overall site style, inject new artistic functions.
▼海报墙，poster wall ©根本堂建筑摄影
The ups and downs of time travel
The original Jianguo Porcelain Factory is an industrial workshop with a single space, so the design makes a breakthrough in both plane and three-dimensional through the addition of volume in space processing, so as to enrich the spatial level and form a sequential space. At the same time, the contrast between the old and the new is used to bring visitors a space experience through time and space.
▼新旧建筑的对比，contrast between the new construction and the old buildings ©根本堂建筑摄影
The entrance plaza steps up into the new lobby space.The space adopts double-slope concrete roof, whose prototype comes from the old factory roof frame, but interprets the charm of artistic space in a more modern and simple way. The lamps in the lobby are designed in pottery shape, echoing with the local culture and enhancing the artistry of the space.Design comes from a prototype, but it must go beyond the prototype. Only in this way can history and reality, individual and society, particularity and universality be perfectly merged together through the design process.
▼门厅与咖啡厅，entrance hall and cafe area ©根本堂建筑摄影
▼门厅，设有陶状灯具，entrance hall with ceramics-like lightings ©根本堂建筑摄影
▼艺术品商店，art shop ©根本堂建筑摄影
Through the foyer, guided by the wall, through the transition space with height difference (retaining the ground floor of the original bathroom) into the old factory building, the walls of the old building are protected in glass, like exhibits. Through the low space, as if through a time tunnel, from the new hall into the old factory hall.
▼引导性的片墙，wall leading visitors to the old factory building ©根本堂建筑摄影
▼新门厅的墙体和屋架细部，closer view to the wall and ceiling of the new entrance hall ©根本堂建筑摄影
The public hall of the old factory is mainly used for holding public activities. The interior renovation of the hall is based on the principle of restoring the spatial characteristics of the original factory, continuing the wooden frame form of the factory and adding steel components to ensure stability. The red brick wall restores the industrial feeling of the Jianguo porcelain factory in the 1950s. Thus, it forms a strong contrast with the new entrance space.
▼老厂房公共大厅，public hall in the old factory building ©根本堂建筑摄影
▼异形体放映厅，projection room in an irregular volume ©根本堂建筑摄影
Through the public hall, led by the irregular shape space, enter the three-storey atrium space, to reach the climax of the spatial sequence. The design uses the technique of seeing the big in the small, to create infinite space experience in the limited space — in the existing workshop, the design uses the existing second floor space and underground space, and inserts the atrium through the third floor, so that the original single workshop space becomes three-dimensional ,rich and magnificent.
▼经过异形体引导进入通高中庭，irregular volume leading visitors to the double height atrium ©根本堂建筑摄影
▼通往地下的楼梯，staircase towards the underground space ©根本堂建筑摄影
▼地下层看向通高中庭，view to the atrium from the underground level ©根本堂建筑摄影
▼通往二层展厅的公共楼梯，public staircase towards the exhibition space on the second floor ©根本堂建筑摄影
▼二层公共空间看向中庭，view to the atrium from the public space on the second floor ©根本堂建筑摄影
Walking up the stairs in the atrium, we can get to the exhibition hall on the second floor. The wall of the curving special exhibition hall on the second floor has a horizontal hole facing the public hall. The linear window hole creates a sense of eternity, forming a look back between the exhibition hall and the public space, thus bringing the activities of the public space into the sight of visitors as exhibitions. Public activities are also part of the gallery’s exhibitions.
▼曲线特展厅，special exhibition hall in curved form ©根本堂建筑摄影
The exhibition hall on the second floor is enclosed by the colored glazed glass curtain wall, which is open to the surrounding environment, and a viewing platform is designed inside. The height of the viewing platform is just right to see the whole historical district from the gable of the factory, and forms a line of sight with the Longzhu Pavilion of the imperial Kiln factory. The viewer looks down on the whole thousand-year-old historical block from the dim colored glazed glass, and the gradual-colored glaze blurs the boundary of time and space, thus achieving the space-time dialogue between the viewer’s thoughts and the context of the site.
▼二层展厅，exhibition hall on the second floor ©根本堂建筑摄影
▼透过玻璃立面看向历史街区，view to the historic neighborhood through the glass facade ©根本堂建筑摄影
Detailed technical means
From a dilapidated industrial factory to a modern art museum with constant temperature and humidity, the problems of structure, equipment and structure to be solved are the realistic appeals of this program. The original factory was built in the 1950s and the construction was limited by the construction techniques and materials of the time. The building was built with a wooden truss roof supported by brick columns and surrounded by brick walls. In order to preserve the old wall, the design separated the main structure of the building from the old wall, and reinforced the old wall with steel wire mesh, with local connections. To ensure that the old exterior wall foundation is not affected, a safe distance should be kept between the exterior outline of the basement and the exterior wall foundation. The first-floor beams and slabs were cantilevered as close as possible to the external walls, and new concrete columns were added alongside the brick columns to support the steel and timber truss roof. The original factory was a brick column structure, but now it is a frame structure with one underground layer and partly two floors above ground. Therefore, the brick column is replaced with concrete column. However, at the junction with the external old wall, concrete columns are enclosed by bricks, which is consistent with the old wall style.
concrete columns supporting the roof structure ©根本堂建筑摄影
The original roof structure was light wood trusses but fell into disrepair. During the transformation process, we first removed the log trusses and recycled the usable wood. The new structure uses steel and wood trusses instead of the original wood trusses to increase the bearing capacity of the roof. Part of the new steel and wood structure is made of recycled wood, which continues the antique style.
▼改造后的墙体与屋架，wall and roof structure after renovation ©根本堂建筑摄影
The light-color steel tile roof of the original building has now appeared rust and water leakage, and the quality of the interior space is very poor, which is cold in winter and hot in summer. In this regeneration, we changed the roof structure, adding waterproof layer and thermal insulation layer, with black ridge tiles. Low-E glass was added to the side shutters of the original roof, and the wood shutters were replaced with metal wood grain shutters to achieve the effect of improving the indoor physical space environment.
▼黑脊瓦和金属百叶，black ridge tiles and metal shutters ©根本堂建筑摄影
The symbiosis of architecture in different times is the inheritance and growth of history. The transformation needs to adapt to the new era, new functions and new perspectives. This is how urban regeneration could come to life. Thanks to Chairman Liu Zili, General Manager Xiong Honghua and Dean Lei Ziren for their professional positioning and strong support.Thanks to Academician Cheng Taining and curator Liao Peng for their technical guidance.
▼入口夜景，view of the entrance in the night ©根本堂建筑摄影
▼夜景，新门厅立面的划分模式，night view, facade division of the new entrance hall ©根本堂建筑摄影
▼一层展厅，exhibition hall on the first floor ©根本堂建筑摄影
▼总平面图，site plan ©筑境设计
▼一层平面图，first floor plan ©筑境设计
▼二层平面图，second floor plan ©筑境设计
Project Name: Jiangxi Academy of Painting Art Museum in Jingdezhen
Design: CCTN Architectural Design Co. Ltd.
Contact e-mail: email@example.com
Time of Design: 2018-2019 Time of Completion: May,2021
Lead Architect: Zhou Xuhong
Architecture Design Team: Zhou Xuhong, Fan Jingjing, Zheng Congtao, Li Xuehan
Structural Design Team: Zhou Xuhong, Fan Jingjing, Yang Jia, Yang Jiaming, Zheng Congtao, Xiao Junlong, Xu Chaohua
Structure design team: Ni Xinghui, Wang Mengxiao
Construction equipment design team: Pan Jun, Wang Zili, Shen Danqun, Qiu Ping, Li Hao, Sun Chao
Project Location: 63 Shengli Road, Zhushan District, Jingdezhen City, Jiangxi Province, China
Gross Built Area: 11331.9㎡
Photo Credits: GBT Architecture Photography, CCTN
Clients: Jingdezhen Pottery Culture Tourism Group
Brands / Products: Gradual glazed glass – Guangdong Nanliang art glass