华腾猪舍田中央图书馆 / 以靠建筑

设计不是造型艺术

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最近几年,我面试人的时候,如果对方嘴里经常说出“造型”这个词,我基本就不会要这个人,因为他(她)已经被流行和时尚毒害很深了。建筑是设计的综合表达,是个系统性的工作,而非仅造型艺术。为了表达“设计不是造型艺术”这个想法,最近的几个项目我特意在不造型上不作为,尽量做得低调,把精力放在发掘空间和人的体验上来,华腾田中央图书馆就是一次这样的尝试。

Whenever I interview a candidate in recent years, if he often mentions the so called shape, I will not employ him in most occasions. In my opinion, he must have been heavily poisoned by fashion. As a comprehensive expression of design, architecture is a systematical job rather than art of shape. In order to clarify design is more than art of shape, I intentionally pay little attention to shape in last several projects. Meanwhile, I tried my best to maintain a low profile in my design and spent even more time and energy on highlighting the space and experience of people. Huateng Hog House Rural Library is such a try.

▼图书馆航拍,aerial photo of library  ©章勇 Zhang Yong

设计之初,华腾沈总告诉我他收集很多枕木,我一听就非常兴奋,枕木乌乌的,暗暗的,低调而有历史感,与那些精致的建筑材料一下子拉开了距离。对于建筑材料,我特别害怕过于化工质感的精致,精致到腻味的那种,就像甜品店里的摆设出来的甜品,在灯光的衬托下,一看就想吃,但是一顿饭把陈列的每种甜品都吃了一遍,是令人难以下咽的。

At the very beginning of design, President Shen of Huateng told me he had collected many sleepers. I was very excited. The dark quiet sleepers seemed humble, conveying a sense of history, thus different from exquisite construction materials. As to construction materials, I particularly feared the oversophisticated chemical texture. Such texture is excessively exquisite and even appears boring. Like the desserts displayed in dessert store, they seemed delicious below elegant light to stimulate your appetite. But when you eat every kind of dessert available to you, you will find difficult to swallow.

▼大量使用低调而有历史感的枕木,the dark quiet sleepers seemed humble, conveying a sense of history ©章勇 Zhang Yong

现在很多建筑都被使劲做成甜品的样子,照片拍出来精致到无表情,就像整容过的网红脸。制造“网红脸”是现今的时尚和潮流,但我试着走到这种时尚潮流的对立面,把我的建筑做得“难看”一点,像“烤地瓜”,外面干瘪、粗糙、黑乎乎的,不是那种一看就讨人喜爱的,但是一旦拨开,必带着惊喜。

People are now struggling to build many constructions in the shape of desserts. The photos of such constructions are exquisite but expressionless, like online star face manufactured by plastic surgery. Online star face is a fashion and trend nowadays. However, I’m trying to go to the opposite side of such fashion and trend, in an effort to make my constructions look ugly to some extent. Like roasted sweet potato, my design appears somewhat dried out, crude and dark, nothing like the popular and favorite ones. But when you look into it, you will find something amazing.

▼建筑像“烤地瓜”外面干瘪、粗糙,内里却藏着惊喜,like roasted sweet potato which appears to be ugly but with amazing taste inside ©章勇 Zhang Yong

图书馆的面积要控制在200平米,业主提供的枕木的规格是160x220x2400。2400宽度的空间不可用,必需用若干根枕木相互搭接形成一个足够宽的空间。在此规格枕木的基础上,我们设计了第一稿方案。这个方案的剖面是用五根枕木搭出一个折型的拱状空间。

The library should occupy an area of 200 sqm. As the sleepers offered by proprietor is of 160x220x2400, they are not applicable to the space 2400 wide. It is necessary to form a space wide enough by sleepers. Based on the sleepers of such specifications, we worked out our first plan. The section of such design is a folded arched-space created by five sleepers.

▼初步方案空间与结构分解图,breakdown view of space and structure ©李兆晗 Li Zhaohan

空间宽度是6米,高度是5.7米,我认为这样的空间是好的,但是遇到的困难是这样的构造方式更适合做个亭子,而非可闭合的建筑,同时这种做法用枕木的量特别大,造价过高,于是在空间状态和尺寸不变的情况下我们改进了结构形式。从上图的照片上可以看出结构已经变成了正常的框架结构,而非早期的密肋结构。解决了结构的问题之后,我又要回到建筑与空间的关系。

The space is 6m wide and 5.7m high. Such space is very good in my opinion. However, the problem I have to confront is that such structure is more suitable for small pavilion rather than closeable building. Meanwhile, such method will consume a large amount of sleepers, thus resulting in over expensive price. So we have to improve the structure without change of space and dimensions. In the picture, the structure has now been modified to a normal frame structure rather than ribbed structure in early years. I have to come back to the inherent link between architecture and space after the problem of structure is addressed.

▼经过改进后的空间结构,after improving the structure ©章勇 Zhang Yong

既然图书馆的外形不是我关注的,那看书的体验就变得非常重要,在这乡间的田野中,我试图探索在此氛围下,空间的本质是什么?在没有了型的技法之后,建筑所要给人们体验到的意境与空间、环境的内在关系是什么?中国的建筑是否更多的在于意境而非技法与造型?我的思考是基于最近这几年看到太多的形式主义的图书馆,如安腾设计的司马辽太郎纪念馆的书架,还有MVRDV设计的天津滨海图书馆,还有很多类似的图书馆、书店,除了令人眼花缭乱的炫酷和高不可及的书架之外,它给阅读的人带来什么好处?我想也就好奇游走一圈,体验一下新鲜刺激,以后再也不会来看书了,因为那些非人性的空间给人带来了压迫,让书成了摆设,人也无法静下来看书,真是“过份修饰的舞台,终将使演员黯然失色”。

Since the appearance of library is of little concern to me, the experience of reading is very important. I’m trying to discover the nature of space in the countryside fields. Without the techniques relevant to shape, what inherent link between conception and space, environment the architecture is about to bring to us? The conception is more concerned about than techniques and shapes in Chinese constructions, really? My idea is based on so many libraries of formalistic styles I have seen these years, such as the bookshelf of Shiba Ryotaro Memorial Museum designed by Anteng. There are many other similar libraries and book stores, including Tianjin Binhai Library, a design work of MVRDV. How such libraries benefit their readers in addition to their dazzling cool and unreachable high shelves? I had a stroll around the library just to satisfy my curiosity and experience the freshness. I think will never come back to read there in future. The inhuman space imposed a sense of pressure on me. The books are no more than decorations, and the readers can hardly calm them down. An excessively decorated stage will eclipse the players on it.

▼图书馆内景Interior of library  ©章勇 Zhang Yong

在什么样的空间里看书最舒服?带着这个问题,我一直在努力深挖自己内心深处到底想要什么?记得我还在我出生的村小学读书的时候,我特别喜欢坐在教室的窗户边,可以转头看看窗外的田野,发个呆,那时望着窗的发呆的确给我留下美好的记忆。春天的田野,到处是绿油油的稻田,燕子在田野间追逐,偶尔在我眼前掠过;夏天的田野,稻花盛开,成群的蝴蝶在稻花上方飞舞,偶尔会贴着窗户的玻璃拍打翅膀;秋天的田野,满眼金黄的稻谷,田中偶有农民在收割稻谷;冬天的田野,虽然有些荒凉,但是一堆堆的晒干稻草是我想象中自在的乌托邦。

What kind of space will make readers feel comfortable? I’m always trying my best to find out what I really pursue at the bottom of my heart. I will never forget the years I spent in the primary school of the village where I was born. I especially liked to sit by the window of classroom, so I could easily turn my face to have a look at the fields outside and keep nothing in mind for a while. It carved a wonderful memory in my heart. In the breeze of spring, green rice fields are everywhere across the countryside, with swallows flying over the fields, sometimes across in front of us. Below the sunshine of summer, butterflies danced over blossoming rice flowers, sometimes flapping their wings close to the window. In the fresh air of autumn, vast golden rice fields are decorated with farmers here and there busy in harvest. In the cold wind of winter, the piles of dried straws on the bare fields arouse my imagination of Utopia.

▼图书馆的窗景,Views through window of library  ©章勇 Zhang Yong

小时候教室窗外的美好记忆就是这个图书馆设计的原型,那时候是开小差,缓过神来就是一阵惊,怕被老师批评。而现在,坐在图书馆里的人终于可以大大方方地望着田野,安安静静得看一会书,看累了,就发会呆,开小差,开多久都行,实在困乏还可以躺在懒人沙发睡一会。

The wonderful memory of the landscapes outside the window of classroom in my childhood is the prototype of my design. Sometimes I kept nothing in mind, and felt frightened when I regained control of myself for fear of criticism by teacher. Now I would like to gaze at the fields from the library without any restraint and read in peace. When I get tired, I will relax as long as I wish. Moreover, I can sleep in the lounge for a while when I feel sleepy.

▼人在窗边休憩,staying at the window  ©李以靠 Li Yikao

下图是图书馆建成后,我在图书馆里观察使用者的反馈时拍的照片,这三位是舟山来的老师,领队一直在催她们走,她们说希望能在图书馆里坐一个下午,安安静静地看书,我听了之后心里无比喜悦,我设计的目的达到了。她们不知道我是设计师,应该是说了真心话。

The picture below is a photo I took when I observed the reaction of readers in the library soon after it was built up. The three persons are teachers from Zhoushan. The guide urged them to move on, but they expressed their wish to stay to read quietly in the library whole afternoon. I was very happy when I heard it. Having no idea I was the designer of the library, they must have told the truth.

▼三位舟山来的老师,three teachers from Zhoushan  ©李以靠 Li Yikao

既然与形式主义的图书馆设计划分界限,我就把对读书人的关怀做到底,严格控制书架的高度,让读者能轻松拿到想要看的书。既然把建筑做出“烤地瓜”的感觉,那一定要烤到位,外皮是焦的,皮内的肉一定要保持新嫩。图书馆的室内木头用的是东北红雪松原木,没有刷任何的保护漆,让红雪松的香味自然的散发出来,让读书的人不仅有书看,还能木香闻,据说宇航员回到地球后要有一周时间住在红雪松的房子里恢复身体。

Despite the difference between my design and that of formalistic library, I make every effort to maximize the care for readers, strictly controlling the height of self so that the readers can reach out to their desired books without any difficulty. As I say I will highlight a sense of roasted sweet potato in the building, I propel myself to deliver my promise. Despite scorched skin, the insider must be soft and fresher. The wood used for interior of library is raw red cedar from Northeast China. Without any protective paint, the red cedar gives off a natural fragrance to provide readers with an elegant reading environment full of fragrance. It is said astronauts will be arranged to recover for a week in house made of red cedar after they returned to earth.

▼红雪松吊顶,red cedar suspended ceiling  ©章勇 Zhang Yong

图书馆建造接近尾声的时候,施工工人告诉我,他们午休躺在开启地暖的木地板上,可舒服了,是种享受。我还没有享受过自己设计的图书馆的地暖,但是红雪松的香味我是享受过了,实在是令人放松、愉悦的香味,只有来到这座图书馆才能闻到,照片和图纸都无法表达。图书馆建成后,正如我设计之初所预想的,它是安安静静得躺卧在田中央,成“一”字形,长约40米。从远处看,图书馆像谷仓,暗暗的木板表面像是经过多年风吹雨打之后留下了岁月烙印,看上去沉稳,谦逊,不与周遭抢空间,不与环境争颜值。这种不争不抢的状态反倒让周边的一切都成了图书馆的一部分,图书馆不再局限于200平米的室内空间,从窗户所望之处,都是图书馆的一部分。

Approaching the end of construction, the construction workers told me they would lie down on the wooden floor to have a rest when the floor heating system was powered on. It is an amazing enjoyment. I have not yet enjoyed the floor heating system of the library I design. The fragrance of red cedar is so charming and pleasant. Except being personally experienced in the library, it cannot be expressed by pictures or drawings. Just like I expect at the very beginning of design, the line-styled library stands quietly in the center of fields, stretching 40 meters long. From a distance, the library looks like a barn. The surface of dark board seems humble and calm as if it were carved by years of exposure to rain and wind. It appears harmonious with the surroundings no matter in space or color. The surroundings are integrated into the library in such harmony. The library is no longer confined to the space of 200 square meters. Everything in the view from the window is a part of the library.

▼图书馆安安静静得躺卧在田中央,成“一”字形,the line-styled library stands quietly in the center of fields ©章勇 Zhang Yong

“一”字排开的图书馆与乡间道路十字交汇,交汇的空间既是图书馆的门厅,也是田间供人休憩乘凉的驿站。我希望图书馆不仅仅为游客服务,也能为庄园田间劳作的工人服务,大家都能自由地来到这里,坐一坐,歇一歇,喝口水。

The line-styled library is vertical to the country lanes. The cross point is both the lobby of library and a post for rest in the fields. I expect the library will serve not only the tourists but also the workers in the nearby fields. Everyone may come here to have a rest and drink some water.

▼乡间驿站,Countryside post ©章勇 Zhang Yong

写到这里,该说的也都说完了,没有旁征博引,没有经典建筑的原型,也没有先贤哲人的指引,这栋图书馆建筑是我对生活态度的反映,是我儿时美好记忆的再现。设计之初的想法大多已经实现,但还是总有遗憾,其中一个遗憾就是枕木最终没有作为图书馆的结构呈现。因为在实施的过程中遇到了问题,枕木内有很大的铁钉,还浸泡过沥青,切割的过程刀片损耗量大,同时割据产生的热量会熔化沥青,沥青会粘住刀片,这是我事先没有想到的,不仅工程造价因此会急剧增加,施工也会变得很缓慢,于是我果断放弃了枕木,改用正常的木结构。

Now I have said what I should say. There is neither collateral evidence or sufficient quotes nor classic building prototype or guidance of superman or philosopher. This building of library is an embodiment of my attitude towards life and recalls the wonderful memory of my childhood. Most of the primary ideas of design have been realized. But there remains some regrets, one of which is the sleepers don’t appear in the structure of library because we encountered difficult during construction. The sleepers have been soaked in asphalt with large iron nails inside. The consumption of blade must be incredible during cutting. Meanwhile, the heat generated by cutting will melt asphalt to stick the blade. It is beyond our estimation. The cost of construction is expected to rise dramatically accordingly and the progress of construction will be undoubtedly slowed down. I had to abandon sleepers and turned to normal wood structure.

▼图书馆夜景,Night view of library  ©章勇 Zhang Yong

另外一个遗憾就是增加室内的结构拉索,因为施工方结构计算没有到位,结构框架建成后拱对两边柱子产生侧推力,时间久了会造成结构变形,不得已加了拉索,幸好对室内空间没有造成破坏,对我个人来说,金属构件的比例增加后,室内反倒更丰富了。我们习惯在错误中吸取教训和灵感,这次结构工程师工作的失误也给了我一个设计灵感。为了避免拉索,一个方法就是顺着拱产生的推力延伸梁,使之成为斜撑地柱子,消解拱产生的推力。这个推力把图书馆演化到另外一种建筑——教堂。这栋大约120平米的小教堂,即将在遵义的乡村建造。

Another regret is the inhaul cable of structure designed to increase interior of library. Due to constructor’s improper structural calculation, the arch generates side thrust upon posts on both sides after the framework is completed, which will result in structural deformation over a long time. I have no choice but to introduce inhaul cable. Fortunately, the interior space is not impaired. Personally speaking, the increase of metal component percentage enriches the interior space. We are accustomed to learning lesson and drawing inspiration from mistake. The structure engineer’s mistake in his work stimulated my inspiration in design. One of the methods to avoid inhaul cable is to extend beam along thrust generated by arch to transform it into batter post and eliminate the thrust generated by arch. Such thrust transforms library into another kind of architecture – church. The approximately 120sqm church is scheduled to be built in rural area of Zunyi.

▼拱演化成斜柱,Arch evolved into batter post

建筑同人一样,在不断追求提升的过程中,总是难免有缺点,对于缺点,唯一的办法就是正视它,拥抱它,改正它。对照片的态度也一样,摄影师问我要不要修一下照片,比如把电线杆之类乱乱的东西p掉,我说不用,让照片留点缺点,修得跟效果图一样就不真实了。掩盖一个缺点,也许会制造更多缺点,就让缺点暴露在阳光下吧。最后感谢华腾沈总及华腾团队对我们设计工作的支持,感谢港龙木屋的鼎力支持和付出,感谢以靠建筑华腾图书馆项目的设计团队:徐文力、李兆晗、张家齐。

Like a person, every building is inevitably flawed during its constant pursuit of improvement. As to such flaw, the only way is to face up to it, embrace it and correct it. Such attitude is also applicable to pictures. The photographer asked whether I want to amend the pictures, for instance, removing the wire poles and something else by PS. I told him not to amend. The pictures may seem artificial if perfectly amended like design sketch. When a flaw is covered, many other flaws will emerge. Let its flaw exposed below sunshine. Finally, let me extend my appreciation to President Shen of Huateng and his Huateng group, HKlong Log House as well as Leeko Studio’s design group (Xu Wenli, Li Zhaohan and Zhang Jiaqi) designated for Huateng Library for their generous support and contribution.

▼平面图,plan

▼立面,elevation

▼剖面,section

▼剖透视,section perspective

More: 以靠建筑 / Leeko Studio 更多关于:Leeko Studio  on gooood.



发表评论

6 评论

  1. 说大实话被网友嫌弃了,哈哈。中国建筑确实需要更多这种肯批判以形式美为原则的创作者。其实这个方案完全可以包装一下再发表,只要选几个好的角度加点滤镜就是了。谷德确实还没有几个比这种更适合看书的图书馆。

  2. 抬高自己,贬低建筑圈,结果做出来一个路人甲,话语间带着一丝油腻切装B··谷德随便翻看一个图书馆案例都不比你这个差。迷之自信·

  3. 个人觉得低调的建筑外形与项目选址实在是相违背,又想让建筑突出(指选址),又不想让它太华丽(指设计思想),还想让它融合在周边建筑里(不过确实融合进去了)。选址在田中央就很鸡肋,作为村里地标建筑。我没感觉到作者想表达的建筑美感(包括乡村的那种朴实感)。设计确实不是造型当道,但一个好的设计师应追求形式与功能共存。刻意压抑建筑外形来展现室内功能与意境,反而让人感觉设计感不足。个人拙见,欢迎指正。

  4. 嗯嗯,所以这个猪舍做的真不错

  5. Profile photo of 夏虫不可

    第一句话就让人感觉装逼之气扑面而来

  6. Profile photo of 路人乙

    面对窗户的阅读空间确实是我们读书年代都最喜欢的

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