Granary Remould Design of Dapeng City (Shenzhen), China by Yuanism Architects

Protection and Reactivation

Project Specs

Location:

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1.背景
Background

大鹏所城即大鹏古城,全称“大鹏守御千户所城”,位于深圳市大鹏新区鹏城村,占地11万平方米,始建于明洪武27年(1394年),是深圳目前唯一的国家级重点文物保护单位。古城三面环山,一处面海,在历史上曾是进可攻,退可守的兵家必争之地。目前保留的古城遗址,四条东西、南北街道轴线的城市空间格局和清晰的城市肌理脉络,古朴清式建筑保存完好,以条石和青砖砌建的东、西、南三座城门至今巍然屹立,雄伟壮观。2001年6月,大鹏所城被国务院公布为“全国重点文物保护单位”。

▼建筑北立面,north elevation ©吴清山

Dapeng City is an ancient city of Dapeng, with its full name of “Dapeng City of Defense and Protection for The Common”. It is located in Pengcheng Village, Dapeng New District, Shenzhen, covering an area of 110,000 square meters. Built in the 27th year of Hongwu, Ming Dynasty (1394), it is now the only Major Historical and Cultural Site Protected at the National Level in Shenzhen. Surrounded by mountains on three sides and sea on one side, it had historically been a city of the great military importance of attack and defense. At present, the city relics are well preserved with the clear urban spatial structure of four east-west and north-south axes and city construction patterns, as well as its simple and unadorned style. The three Gates of East, South, West made up of slates and black bricks still stand erect and majestic till now. In June 2001, Dapeng City was announced by the State Council as a ” Major Historical and Cultural Site Protected at the National Level”.

▼大鹏所城鸟瞰,aerial view of Dapeng City ©上启艺术

粮仓位于大鹏所城中部,始建于万历十四年(1586年)。粮仓总占地面积约960平方米,东西轴与所城空间轴线联系呼应,西侧毗邻所城南北向主街,北侧连通协台衙门遗址绿地庭院。粮仓仅一层,共10开间,面宽总长42.5米,总进深22.5米。每开间呈砌块拱形屋面,并各有两处排气通风口。主体结构承重墙体为黄泥墙,墙体厚度约318~327mm。建筑物檐口高4.0m,屋脊高5.5m。现状建筑除了部分空间新砌隔墙改造为木舟陈列馆之外,其余空间未被使用,室内墙皮脱落,破旧杂乱、年久失修。

▼粮仓区位,location ©元本体

▼粮仓室内改造前,interior view before renovation ©元本体

Located in the middle of Dapeng City, the granary was built in the 14th year of Wanli (1586), covering a total area of about 960 square meters. Its east-west axis is concordant with the spatial axis of the city. Its west side is adjacent to the main street in the south-north direction of the city, and its north side is connected to the green yard of Xietai Yamen (the government office in feudal China) Site. The granary has only one floor, with 10 rooms in total, 42.5m in width and 22.5m in depth. Each room has a block arched roof and two vents. The load-bearing wall of the main structure is the wall of yellow mud with a thickness of 318-327mm. The cornice of the building is 4.0m high and the roof ridge is 5.5m high. Except for a part of the rooms of the building transformed into the exhibition hall of wooden boats, the rest of the space has not been used yet. The interior rooms are worn out and messy in long neglect and disrepair with its wall peeling off.

▼粮仓鸟瞰,aerial view of the granary ©元本体

根据2019深港城市\建筑双城双年展大鹏所城分展场的要求,室内展场区域主要集中设在所城粮仓,展场以交互影像类为主。借助双年展介入的契机,我们对大鹏所城粮仓建筑空间进行了提升改造以满足展览需求。粮仓室内可改造面积约730平方米,拟将粮仓打造成为艺术事件、企业活动、历史文化教育、美育计划的发生场所和重要空间载体。

According to the requirements of the sub-exhibition hall of Dapeng City in the 2019 Bi-Annual-Exhibition of Shenzhen-Hong Kong Cities and Architecture Bi-City, the indoor exhibition area is mainly located in the granary of the city. The exhibition will be shown mainly by the interactive images. Taking advantage of the opportunity of the Bi-Annual-Exhibition, we have remolded and improved the space of the granary to meet the needs of the exhibition. The alterable area of the indoor granary is about 730 square meters. The granary will be built into a significant place and carrier for art events, corporate activities, historical and cultural education, and aesthetic education programs.

▼室内展厅,exhibition hall ©吴清山

 

2.策略
Strategy

粮仓作为古建筑重点保护单位,在满足文物保护法等相关要求下,进行了有限的、轻微的介入与活化。设计结合展览功能进行流线、空间、光线、庭院等系统性梳理和重构。

As a key protection unit of ancient buildings, limited and slight intervention and reform have been carried out to the granary, meeting relevant requirements such as the Cultural Relics Protection Law. The design makes a systematic illustration and reconstruction of the streamline, spaces, light, courtyards, and so on with the combination of the features of the exhibition.

▼改造分析,renovation diagram ©元本体

 

体验流线 | Experience Streamline

设计在现有空间结构体系下,进行了功能流线界定,展览流线从邻近所城南门主街的西入口引入,西侧门作为主展馆的入口。我们通过墙体、门洞的保留、封堵等微改方式,结合户内展览与户外庭院展场的关系,重新规划展览清晰的流线和不同的门厅出入口,使不同的展览出口及门厅与不同庭院景观和户外展场相衔接过渡,形成差异化的看展体验。

Under the existing spatial structure system, the functional streamline is designed and defined. The exhibition streamline is first introduced from the west entrance of the main street adjacent to the south gate of the city, and the west side entrance is used as the entrance of the main exhibition hall. Through the minor reform methods such as retaining and sealing of walls and doorways, combined with the relationship between indoor exhibition and outdoor courtyard exhibition, clear streamline and different entrance and exit of the hall have been planned to make a natural transition between different exhibition exits and halls to different courtyard landscapes and outdoor exhibition fields, forming a distinguished exhibition experience.

▼展览流线,exhibition circulation ©元本体

 

空间原型 | Space Prototype

粮仓特有并置单跨的的韵律性砌体拱形屋面,和与之相对应室内的重复性的拱顶空间,符合其本身结构逻辑的空间原型,同时也是整个建筑令人印象深刻和触动人们心弦之处。设计希望保留拱顶的原有形态和风貌。拱顶本身极具观赏性,同时也可作为一件展品向人们展示。拱顶作为历史性保留的特色,与新植入空间元素形成一种新旧对比,共同营造出一个符合现代展览需求的空间。深灰色的水泥自流平地面、白色的质感漆涂料墙面、横向纵深的走廊和独有的拱形空间,共同组合成了一个独特的展厅。

The granary features paralleling single-arch masonry roofs outdoors, in accordance with the same arched space indoors, which conforms to the spatial prototype of its own structural logic, and is also the impressive and heart-touching of the whole building. The design practice hopes to retain the original shape and style of the arched roof. The arched roof itself is extremely ornamental and can also be displayed as an exhibit. As a historically reserved feature, the old arched roof is in sharp contrast with the newly implanted space elements, which together creates a space that meets the needs of modern exhibitions. Dark gray cement self-leveling floors, white textured paint walls, horizontal and deep corridors and unique arched space are all combined into a unique exhibition hall.

▼展厅内景。展品:胡为一《手语》,exhibition hall. Artwork: Sign Language by Weiyi Hu ©上启艺术

粮仓每开间承重墙存在着2m宽门洞,设计保留这些门洞或将门洞变为窗洞,在功能上既能满足流线的要求,在空间视线上形成了穿透性,打破平面空间的局促感。通过洞口黑色拉丝不锈钢的包边,强化了具有强烈纵深感的特色“洞口”空间,同时构成了室内看展的框景图像。

The load-bearing wall of each room of the granary has a two-meter-wide door opening. The design practice retains these door openings or turns them into window openings, which can meet the requirements of streamlines in function, but also form a sense of penetration in the sightline of the space, and break the constraint of plane space. Through the wrapping of black brushed stainless steel at the entrance, the special “entrance” space with strong longitudinal depth is strengthened, and at the same time, the framed image for the indoor exhibition is formed.

▼室内展厅主轴,the main axis of exhibition hall ©吴清山

▼室内空间嵌套效果图,rendering of the nested spaces ©元本体

▼室内空间嵌套实景,the nested spaces ©吴清山

 

光线布置 | Light Arrangment

粮仓的内部空间被分割成一个个独立的展厅,粮仓内展品主要以人工光线为主,通过人工光照射拱形天花,强化拱顶展厅的空间特色,使拱形天花构成室内展品的“空间容器”背景。而展品主要依靠墙面上的轨道投射灯,根据不同展览作品的呈现效果,灯光可灵活伸缩移动,满足布展光线照度要求。

The internal space of the granary is divided into independent exhibition halls. The exhibits in the granary are mainly lightened by artificial light. Through artificial light, the arched ceiling is illuminated to strengthen the spatial characteristics of the arched exhibition hall, and thus makes an air of the “space container” for the indoor exhibits. The exhibits are mainly illuminated by the track projection lights on the wall. According to the performance of different exhibits, the lights can be flexibly changed to meet the requirements of the light intensity of the exhibition.

▼光线分析,lighting analysis ©元本体

▼室内展出Asma Kazmi的作品,Artwork by Asma Kazmi ©上启艺术

粮仓原有的每开间门洞的光线对展览的要求影响较大,设计以附加“内皮”的方式,在建筑内部空间采取石膏板隔墙加以封堵,使每开间均可形成了完整的展览空间,并可用之影像展览。每开间的粮仓拱形天花屋面保留着两处通风口,设计通过微改造,使之既成为室内气流的拔风通气口和室内空调的新风口,又可成为各个独立展厅内部的自然光筒,光线洒在地面,动态而变化,赋予空间弥漫着的情绪和氛围,同时又可作为视觉意义上的展品“观看”。

The natural light of the original doorway of the granary has a large impact on the requirements of the exhibition. The interior space of the building is blocked by gypsum board partition walls in the design, so that each room can form a complete exhibition space and be used for image exhibition. The two vents on the arched ceiling of each room have been retained and transformed to not only a ventilation outlet for indoor airflow and a new ventilation outlet for indoor air conditioning, but also internal natural light shafts of each independent exhibition hall. The light will be sprinkled on the ground and changing with dynamics, fulling the space with an air of human emotions. At the same time it can be appreciated as an exhibit aesthetically.

▼粮仓拆解,exploded diagram ©元本体

 

透明院落 | Transparent Courtyard

粮仓的南侧庭院保留了一系列独有的类似 “石扶壁”的结构受力构件,形成了幽深的门廊庭院。我们在原有的“扶壁”结构之外,通过轻手法以轻钢结构形式增加了半通透的的金属网帘屋顶,限定了门廊庭院空间,与圆形门洞相对,共同构成了强烈纵深感、秩序感的外部空间与庭院对景关系。苍旧、夯厚的历史建筑外墙与白色通透的现代金属网帘、纤细的轻钢结构形成了剧烈反差,而空间上又形成了一种新旧关系融合的半透明性和模糊性。

▼南侧庭院改造前,the courtyard before renovation ©元本体

▼南侧庭院拆解,axon diagram ©元本体

The south-side courtyard of the granary retains a series of unique structural force-bearing elements similar to “stone buttresses”, forming a deep and serene porch and courtyard. We add a kind of semi-transparent mesh roof of light-steel metal to the “buttresses” structure, which limits the space of porch and courtyard, corresponding to the arched doorway. Under this structure, the internal courtyard shares a strong sense of depth and order with the external space. The old and solid outer walls of this historic building form a sharp contrast with the newly-white and transparent modern metal proof of light steel, generating a sense of semi-transparency and ambiguity of the fusion of ancient and modern times in terms of space.

▼南侧庭院,the south-side courtyard of the granary ©吴清山

这次实践,以细微介入方式对文物建筑进行保护改造,重新赋予新功能,使其获得重生。时空关系的延续与重构,体现历史城市空间发展必要的包容性,展品的植入,又呈现一个既能通往历史又能体验未来的独特体验。

This design practice protects and reforms the traditional cultural building in a way of minor intervention. The granary is thus endowed with new functions and is injected with new energy. This practice is also an extension and reconstruction to the old buildings in terms of space-time relationship. Not only does it show the spirit of tolerance during the development of the historic city, but it also provides a novel experience for the common to experience both the history and future.

▼剖透视图,sectional perspective ©元本体

▼平面图,plan ©元本体

项目名称:深圳大鹏所城粮仓改造设计
项目地址:深圳龙岗大鹏
总用地面积:960㎡
改造建筑面积:730㎡
设计时间:2019年10月
建成时间:2019年12月
建设单位:深圳华侨城鹏城发展有限公司
设计单位:深圳大学建筑设计研究院∙元本体工作室
方案团队:蔡瑞定、陈景文、邱红霞、周雪梅
施工图设计团队:曾小娜、林才量、刘中平、韩国元、叶志恩、谢金安
建筑摄影:吴清山、元本体、上启艺术
策展公司:上启艺术

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