FLOATING CONNECTION: The Harbin Cultural Center Wetland Park by Turenscape

Turenscape transfroms the “messy” nature into a cherished urban park.

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简介 Project Statement

为了管理雨洪径流及净化自来水厂的尾水,哈尔滨市江北区修建了一片城市湿地,并引入亲水休闲设施,包括大部分修建在水面之上的人行栈道和休憩场所。同时还引入牲口维护绿地,不仅能够创造畜牧产品,还能降低湿地的维护成本,原本“荒野”的自然景观也因此变成一处难得的城市公园,自然而不乏可进入性,一年四季都吸引了大量市民前往使用,同时为建设水弹性城市做出重要贡献。

An urban wetland was created as a solution to manage storm-water runoff and tail water from water supply plant. A network of water adaptive recreational uses were introduced, including pedestrian paths and resting places, which are largely detached from the ground. Cattle were also introduced to create an agricultural husbandry that is productive while creating a low maintenance solution to make the otherwise “messy” nature into a cherished urban park that is intensively used by urban residents year round.

▼ 在建成湿地公园之后,这张北部全景照片包含了背景中新的城市开发。木板路和桥梁体系与地面和水岸分开,漂浮在恢复了原始形态的湿地之上。

A northern panorama of the wetland park with new urban development in the background: The network of boardwalks and bridges detached from the ground and water edges, floats above and runs through native communities, allowing intimate connection with nature without interrupting its processes.

03_The Harbin Cultural Center Wetland Park by Turenscape

 

挑战与目标 Challenges and Objectives

哈尔滨是中国东北地区的重要城市,地处松花江下游,洪泛时有发生。项目场地在江北新区,当地刚刚修建了一条500年一遇的防洪堤,将原属于江滩的200公顷湿地与主河道切离。由于水源被截断,湿地生境恶化。与此同时,湿地以北的城市建设迅速发展,造成严重的雨洪问题,被污染的雨水排入河道,导致松花江的水质下降。除此之外,新建的自来水厂每天向松花江排放了1500立方米的废水。凡此种种问题,很令当地政府头痛。同时,随着人口规模急剧扩大和城市进一步发展,人们对公共绿地的渴求也越来越强烈。

Harbin is one of the major Chinese cities in northeast area of the country. The city is subject to flooding due to its location at the lower reach of the Songhuajiang River. An existing 500-year flood control wall along the riverbank cuts off a 200-hectare (494-acre) wetland from the main river. The wetland habitat was deteriorating due to the lack of water supply. Meanwhile, the rapid urban development north of the site caused severe storm-water inundation while the discharge of the contaminated storm water caused the water quality of the river to decline. In addition, tail water from a newly built water supply plant dumps 1,500 cubic meters (53,000 ft3) of contaminated wastewater into the Songhuajiang River. The sum of these development and pollution inputs created worrisome problems for the local community. At the same time, public space is fervently desired due to the dramatic increase of urban population and development.

▼ 旧场地的照片反映出这块场地的恶劣环境。一道修成不久的防洪墙把场地与主河道分隔开。来自一座自来水工厂的城市雨水径流和尾水引起了河流污染。受到损害的生态系统和环境污染对湿地公园的设计形成了挑战,同时也带来了灵感。

The aerial photographs along with photos of the pre-exiting site reveal the deteriorating condition of the site due to its isolation from the main river resulting from the recent flood wall. Urban storm water runoff and tail water from a water supply plant caused pollution to harm the river. The degraded ecosystem and pollution challenged and inspired the design of the wetland park.

02_The Harbin Cultural Center Wetland Park by Turenscape

设计师提出将这片退化中的湿地改造为雨洪及自来水尾水的净化区,以改善原生的湿地生境,同时能作为城市公园,满足日益增长的市民户外游憩需求。研究发现,场地在旱季和雨季的水位高差变化竟达2米,因此寻求将公共空间与弹性湿地景观相结合便成为项目成功与否的关键。此外,如何管理如此大面积的城市公共空间也是一个难题。因为用不了多久,修复后的水生和湿生植被将滋生繁衍,市民也将很难在一年四季内都能进入这片湿地。

The initial understanding of the site was to turn the isolated wetland into a major park as well as a storm water and wastewater remediation area that would enhance native wetland habitat. But thorny issues emerged as the result of further study. The landscape architect discovered that the seasonal change of the water table is as much as 2 meters (6 feet) between dry and wet seasons, which thwarts the intention to combine public spaces with a resilient wetland landscape. In addition, such a large public space would be difficult to manage since the restored native vegetation would soon become too messy and wild to allow access and used by the people year round.

▼ 场地地图及设计理念:这是一座具有适应性木板小路和人行天桥的水弹性公园。道路和桥梁与随季节而发生变化的地面和湿地边缘相隔离。园中设计了生态沼泽以缓和雨水径流。

Site Map and Design Concept: A water resilient park with adaptive elevated boardwalks,pedestrian bridges and platforms, which are detached from the seasonally changing wetland edges. Designed bio-swales remediate storm water runoff.

01_The Harbin Cultural Center Wetland Park by Turenscape

设计的目标在于构建水弹性湿地公园,使之成为生态基础设施的有机组成部分,并用于净化雨洪和自来水厂排放的废弃尾水。在这一过程中,湿地重现生机。此外,景观设计师认为,有限的设计干预措施是实现项目目标的最佳手段,在恢复自然和发挥其雨洪管理即生态水净化的同时,实现一个低维护的城市绿地。

The design objective was to fashion a water resilient wetland park, which functions as an integral ecological infrastructure that remediates storm water and waste tail water from the water plant. In the process, the waste water could rejuvenate the wetland habitat. Furthermore, the landscape architect determined that limited design interventions would best serve the project objectives and transform the wetland into an accessible public space. A final challenge was establishing a low maintenance program for the park.

▼ 高架模板路和桥与水岸相分离,供市民游赏。它们组合成了景观,并在不同季节提供欣赏美丽而脆弱的水景观的路径。
Urban residents enjoy platforms built into the elevated boardwalks and bridges above the water edge. They organize the landscape and provide access to the beauty of the fragile aquatic landscape in every season.

06_The Harbin Cultural Center Wetland Park by Turenscape

 

设计方案:一个功能性湿地、弹性的公园和景观牧场 Design Strategies

能够净化雨洪的湿地:湿地公园四周将修建一系列生态洼地,南部文化中心及北部城区产生的雨洪径流将汇集于此并得到净化。这一湿地系统在雨季日均可处理2万立方米的水量,在雨洪流入湿地中心地带之前,生态洼地能够降低水流中的泥沙含量、拦截营养物及重金属。除此之外,附近自来水厂排放的1500立方米的尾水也将首先进入这片湿地进行净化,以免污染河道。

A working wetland for storm water remediation: A series of bio-swales were designed for the periphery of the wetland park to catch and filter the storm water runoff from the new development of the cultural center at the south and city at the north. Each day during the raining season, up to 20,000 cubic meters (706,000 ft3) of storm water on average will drain into the wetland filtration system. The bio-swales will reduce the sediment, suspended solids and heavy metals in the storm water before it flows into the central part of the wetland. In addition, 1,500 cubic meters (53,000 ft3) of tail water from the nearby water supply plant is retained and treated in the wetland to avoid polluting the river.

▼ 一系列生态洼地和池塘作为吸收开发区雨水的缓冲带
A series of bio-swales and ponds are designed as buffers to remediate the storm water runoff from the development area.

08_The Harbin Cultural Center Wetland Park by Turenscape

漂浮的连接与水弹性公园:通过配置适应性植被,使水岸绿化能应对旱季和雨季高达2米的水位差。水位线以上的植被采用放任自然的管理,较高的地带则在配置的乡土树丛(Betula platyphylla和Fraxinus mandschurica)之间种植人工草甸。在生态洼地的修建过程中,尽可能减少工程量,将开挖和回填过程结合在一起,同时尽量避免坡地整理的土方工程,以最大限度保留原有的树木和地被。每年的水位波动使水域边缘出现泥泞、脏乱、难以靠近的地带,要想将湿地建设成为市民终年可以前往活动的公共空间,显然需要处理这个难题。设计师想出来的办法是建立离岸木栈道,使人行空间与地面和湿地边缘脱离。最终建成了6公里的栈道系统,连接13个休憩平台。此外,还利用当地透水的火山沙,在高地上铺出生态友好的人行道,与湿地上的栈道一起,形成一个连续的步行网络,穿梭于树丛和草地之间,极大丰富了游客的体验。

Floating connection and water resilient park: Adaptive vegetation was designed to accommodate the two-meter annual fluctuation of the water table. In the low land, vegetation was left to respond to the process of natural succession. On the higher land, stretches of semi-natural meadow were sewn between the planted native tree groves (Betula platyphylla and Fraxinus mandschurica). Except for the minimum cut-and-fill earthwork necessary to create bio-swales, little grading was planned so that all of the existing trees and ground cover could be preserved. The annual fluctuation of the water table creates an inaccessible muddy and messy water edge, and poses a huge challenge to making the wetland into a public space that would be accessible year round. The design solution was a network of boardwalk (and bridges) detached from the ground and wetland edge. Altogether 6 kilometers (3.7 miles) of boardwalk and bridges were built, linking 13 platforms and pavilions. In addition, an eco-friendly network of pedestrian paths (using permeable volcanic sand from this region) is built on the raised ribbons of land that penetrate the groves and meadows, providing a rich experience for visitors.

▼ 漂浮的联接:茂盛的植物吸引了各类野生动物,漂浮于湿地之上的步行道和桥梁网络,使游客在不打扰动物活动的情况下与自然亲密接触(图片中游客在观赏鸟和钓鱼)。

Floating Connection: The flourishing regenerated wetland attracts diverse wildlife while the floating board walks and platforms allowing visitors to have an intimate contact with nature without interrupting its processes (visitors watching birds and fishing at the background of the image).

04_The Harbin Cultural Center Wetland Park by Turenscape

▼ 在人行天桥上行走是一种愉快的体验,行人能够与自然产生亲密的联系。夏日盛开的荷花吸引大量游人,步行桥的设计使他们可以近距离观赏。

Walking on the pedestrian bridges provides a pleasant experience that allows intimate contact with the nature. The blossoming wild lotus flowers in the summer attract thousands of visitors, which are otherwise invisible and untouchable due to their remote siting in the deep marsh.

05_The Harbin Cultural Center Wetland Park by Turenscape

▼木板道和桥梁与地面和湿地的边缘相分离,因此对场地内的自然环境只有最低程度的影响,否则它们可能显得杂乱。这些文化性构筑物创造了一种不干扰自然过程和形态的新形式。
Floating above the ground and the wetland edge, the boardwalks and bridges are minimum interventions that enframe nature, which might otherwise be viewed as messy. These cultural artifacts create a new form without disrupting the natural processes and patterns.

07_The Harbin Cultural Center Wetland Park by Turenscape

▼设计师战略性地将13个平台和亭子沿着6千米长的木板路和天桥进行安置。这些休闲空间提供了观赏湿地公园和城市的绝佳角度。
Thirteen platforms and pavilions are strategically located along the six kilometers of boardwalks and bridges. These resting places provide great views of the wetland park and the city.

10_The Harbin Cultural Center Wetland Park by Turenscape

▼步行道使用了当地出产的渗透性火山砂,形成了一个生态友好的网络。道路建造在高地上,穿行于树林和草地之中。它们为参观者提供了丰富多彩的体验。

An eco-friendly network of pedestrian paths (using the permeable volcanic lava sand from this region) is built on the high ground that penetrates the groves and meadows. They create a rich experience for visitors.

15_The Harbin Cultural Center Wetland Park by Turenscape

畜牧景观与低维护需求:大多数时候,公园受自然过程控制,而非人工管理,因此湿地和地面植被很容易疯长,从而形成杂乱、难以进入的自然景观。设计师提出将牲口引入较高的地带进行放牧,以抑制植物疯长,这样一来,湿地景观就能得到低成本的维护,公园也可全天候对游客开放,同时具有生产功能,而且能够丰富游客的景观体验。

Husbandry landscape and low maintenance: Since the park is largely under the control of natural, rather than human, processes, it is likely to become overgrown with seasonal wetland vegetation and ground cover, forming a wild and messy naturalized landscape. Cattle were introduced to maintain low vegetation on the high land zone so that the landscape will be accessible and usable as a park. A second benefit is the production of food and an enriched landscape experience for the city dwellers that have long been separated from agriculture.

▼在树林和湿地边缘之间设计了乡土物种构成的草地设计,由生命力旺盛的花卉组成。每年的花季,当人们在密集树丛围绕的高地与花丛相遇时,都能产生惊艳的效果。

Native meadows were designed between the forest groves and the wetland edge. These are composed of self-seeding flowers create annual surprises when they are encountered within the enclosing densely forested uplands.

09_The Harbin Cultural Center Wetland Park by Turenscape

▼游憩系统是完全无障碍的,使各种身体条件的人都能够接触自然。

The integrated pedestrian network of walking and resting facilities are detached from natural habitats and are universally accessible, allowing people of all abilities to have intimate touch with the marshy nature.

11_The Harbin Cultural Center Wetland Park by Turenscape

 

结论Conclusion

通过这些景观设计策略,原先持续恶化的湿地生境和无人问津的城市边缘地带,已成功改造成一个具有功能的湿地公园,可用于调节雨涝、净化城市地表径流以及自来水厂排放的尾水。建成的适应性水弹性公园里,利用最小限度的干预措施修建了木板道和休憩场所,轻轻地触摸大地,亲近自然而不破坏自然,满足了市民休闲游憩需求的同时让自然修生养息。

By these landscape strategies, the former deteriorated wetland habitat and a neglected peri-urban site has been successfully transformed into a working wetland that remediates urban storm water runoff and waste tail water from the water supply plant. An adaptive water resilient park was created through the minimum intervention of a network of boardwalk and resting places, which enable people to be close to nature but without disturbing nature. Thus, the recreational use of a park for people is fulfilled, and the nature can recuperate.

▼十三个平台均抬离地面,以便将对乡土生物的影响降至最低。为了与周边景观相呼应,每一个平台都经过精心设计,在繁茂的植被中创造出令人惊喜的对照。这便是使用最小干预手段让杂乱的自然更可观。

Each of the thirteen resting platforms are detached of the ground to impose minimum impact on the native habitat. Each of them is uniquely designed in response to the local setting, and creates a contrasting surprise in the overgrown landscape. It is a minimum strategy to order and enframe the messy nature

12_The Harbin Cultural Center Wetland Park by Turenscape

▼在新建好的公园中生长着繁茂簇新的植物,为孩子们的玩耍创造了更美丽的空间。

Children have the opportunity to play and interact with the newly regenerated lush vegetation via the newly created park network.

14_The Harbin Cultural Center Wetland Park by Turenscape

▼简约式的设计元素如树林、草地和当地火山砂铺就的步道,有效地将公园转变为怡人又可容纳丰富体验的场所,而非通常所见开放式的公园。

Minimalist design elements such as including tree groves, meadows and colored accesses (pave with local lava sand) effectively transformed the otherwise open and generic landscape into pleasant spaces and places accommodating various recreational activities.

13_The Harbin Cultural Center Wetland Park by Turenscape

项目地点:黑龙江省哈尔滨市
规 模:118公顷
设计时间:2011年7月
建成时间:2013年7月
设计单位:土人设计(Turenscape)
委 托 方:哈尔滨松北投资发展集团有限公司

Project Location: Harbin City, Heilongjiang Province, China
Project Size: 118 hectares
Date of Design: July, 2011
Date of Completion: July 2013
Architect: Turenscape
Client: Songbei Investment Development Ptd Ltd, Harbin City

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