信步辑 – 建筑教育: 东南大学建筑学院院长张彤

将建筑实践与理论学习结合,培养社会系统的设计师

项目标签

位置:

信步辑,闲庭信步看世界。gooood的信步辑拥有许多子分类。这里是“建筑教育”子分类。我们将对话建筑教育界的专业人士,倾听他们对于当今建筑教育的看法与建议,以期为读者提供更加学术化的视野。第四期对话东南大学建筑学院院长张彤。

Rumble, to take a glance at the world by wandering. Ramble is an album including many sub-albums, and this sub-album is about Architectural education. Here is the fourth episode where we have a conversation with Zhang Tong, dean of The Architecture School of Southeast University.

 

更多建筑教育专辑,请至:
第一期:清华大学建筑学院院长庄惟敏
第二期:同济大学建筑与城市规划学院院长李振宇
第三期:天津大学建筑学院院长孔宇航

Other articles in Ramble – Architectural Education
Series 1: Zhuang Weimin, Dean of the Architecture School of Tsinghua University
Series 2: Li Zhenyu, Dean of CAUP, Tongji University
Series 3: Kong Yuhang, Dean of Tianjin University Architecture School

 

 

 

▼视频,video(全文深度采访见下方文字。视频为4分钟精华版,建议选择高清1080p观看。)

 

 

 

Interview

gooood x 张彤

 

 

1. 

请介绍一下东南大学建筑学院的现状和特点。
Could you please introduce the current status and characteristics of Southeast University School of Architecture?

东南大学建筑学院是国内建筑教育史上第一个具备完整建制的建筑系和建筑学学科。经过九十多年的发展,形成了“技艺并重、格物至善”的学术传统和“严谨、博雅、求实、创新”的学院文化。国内建筑发展历史上的“四杰”,除了梁思成先生在清华,杨廷宝先生、童寯先生和刘敦桢先生都长期在东南大学,即当时的中央大学、后来的南京工学院工作。九十多年来,在学院工作或由学院培养的中国科学院和中国工程院院士共有十二位,占全国建筑类学科两院院士的45%;学院还培养了十四位全国工程勘察设计大师,八千余名在国内建设领域做出卓越贡献的人才。目前学院设有三个一级学科,分别是建筑学、城乡规划学和风景园林学,涵盖了从学士、硕士到博士的完整培养体系。在最近一轮全国学科评估中,建筑学科评分A+,并列第一;城乡规划和风景园林学科评分A-,并列第三。目前学院有教职员工170余人,其中两院院士5人、长江学者2人、全国工程勘察设计大师3人、外专千人计划特聘专家1人。学院有在读学生1700余人,其中本科学生800余人、博士和硕士研究生800余人。这些学生绝大部分是国内高考中的顶尖才俊,研究生则来自国内各所高水平建筑院校的优秀本科毕业生。一流的师资和一流的学生共聚一堂,共同构成了活力充沛、充满创新的学习共同体。

▼东南大学建筑学院中大院
courtyard of the School of Architecture of Southeast University

The School of Architecture of Southeast University is the first department of architecture with complete establishment in the history of Chinese architectural education. At present, the school of Architecture has more than 170 teachers and staffs. There are more than 1700 students in the college, most of whom were top ranked in China’s college entrance examination. In SEU, first-rate faculty and top-ranking students come together to form a vibrant and innovative study community.

▼东南大学建筑学院教学环境,teaching environment in the School of Architecture of Southeast University

 

 

2.

东南大学建筑学院的人才培养方针是什么?为了培养更好的人才,在教学方式上有哪些创新?
What is the policy of the School of Architecture at Southeastern University to cultivate qualified students? What innovations in teaching methods have been introduced to develop better talents?

我有一个这样的认识,总体而言两件事情推动了人类社会的进步,一个是发现,一个是设计。发现代表着人类探索未知领域的勇气和能力;设计则是创造性地解决面对的问题。建筑学、城乡规划学和风景园林学同属创意类工科,是设计领域中最为综合、包涵并具创意性的学科组群,它的对象包含了人类的生活、生产、思想、文化、情感、信仰等几乎所有方面。我们培养出来的建筑师、城乡规划师和风景园林师不仅是工程蓝图的绘制者,他们应该是自然和社会系统的设计师,需要有宏观的决策视野、均衡的能力素养和旺盛鲜活的创造力;同时具有真切的家国情怀和宽阔的国际视野,能在不限于本专业的职业领域中服务和引领地区、国家乃至全球的发展。这是我们的人才培养目标。

九十多年来,东南大学的建筑教育传承有序,形成了规制严整、技艺并重、本体为核、融合开放的教学特色,在全国起到示范和引领的作用,承担着教育部高等学校建筑类专业教学指导委员会主任单位的工作。在最近一次教学成果奖评选中,东南大学“学做融创,通合一体——建筑类创新人才培养的系统改革与实践”获得了国家级教学成果一等奖;我们的研究生教改成果“国际引领,实践创新——建筑学专业型硕士研究生培养模式探索与实践”获得了国内学位与研究生教育学会研究生教育成果一等奖。这是我们在教育教学和人才培养方面长期探索的结晶。

▼东南大学建筑学院评图,design review in the School of Architecture of Southeast University

东南大学的建筑教育一直以完整的教学体系为人熟知,近年来我们对原有体系做了拓展和提升,仍然以设计课程作为教学主干,人文历史类课程和技术类课程部分作为模块,插接进设计主干课中。根据大类培养、本硕贯通的要求,强调建筑、城规、景园三个专业在基础平台上的融会贯通,同时在纵向上拉通若干进阶式的培养路径。我们把它概括为“宽基础、强主干、拓前沿”。

“宽基础”是在低年级教育中强调三个专业在基础平台上的通合。年级教研组由三个系的老师共同组成,以建成环境的基础问题为课程设计主题,共同研究编制教案,同时强调三个专业自身的内涵和外延。“强主干”主要体现在大三,在课程设计中系统性插入人文历史类知识模块和技术类知识模块,设置更具综合性的课题,打造一个强劲的专业教育“腰杆”。对于本科四、五年级和研究生一、二年级的教学,相对于前三年的横向叠升,我们尝试把培养路径接通,强调依照专业方向的纵向延伸,涵盖从城市设计、公共建筑设计、住区设计、室内设计到绿色建筑设计、数字建筑设计、遗产保护等多个专业方向,由教授带领教学团队,设置本硕贯通的专题Studio教学,不同年级的学生形成一个学习共同体,共同探索学科发展的前沿,称其为“拓前沿”。

▼本科生设计课,design class for undergraduate students

研究生教育强调国际化培养和创新实践,将国际化办学的资源更多向研究生培养集结,与国际一流建筑院校签订多个双学位和互换交流计划,设置全英文学科前沿理论课程群和常态化的国际联合设计工作坊。同时强调在重大科研项目和实践工程中培养学生,联合国内外一流设计企业,搭建覆盖全国、延伸海外的校企联合培养平台。博士生和硕士生为第一完成人的高水平研究成果连年增加,在包括威尼斯建筑双年展在内的国际展览和奖项,以及国内行业设计评优中显露佳绩。

▼研究生课程,class for graduate students

I have come to realized that, in general, two things have advanced human society: discovery and design. The architects, urban and rural planners and landscape architects that we cultivate are not only the blueprint makers, but also the designers of natural and social systems. They need to have a macroscopic decision-making vision, balanced abilities and vigorous creativity. At the same time, they are supposed to uphold the concept of family-and-nation, as well as a broad international perspective so that they can serve and lead the development of the region, the nation and the world in a professional field that is not confined to their own majors. This is our goal in talents cultivating.

Southeast University’s architectural education has been well known for its complete teaching system. In recent years, we have expanded and upgraded the original system, while still taking design courses as the basic, with humanity, history and technology courses as teaching modules to be inserted into the main design courses. According to the requirements of training students in large category and breaking up the boundary between undergraduate and graduate courses, we emphasize the integration and continuity of architecture, urban planning and landscape architecture on a fundamental platform. At the same time, we provide training methods progressing vertically for in-depth study. We summarize it as “widen the foundation, strengthen the trunk and broaden the frontier”. Graduate education emphasizes international training and innovative practices.

▼研究生参与的实际搭建课程,construction project for graduate classes

 

 

3. 

东南大学建筑学院在国际化办学上有哪些成果和收获?国内建筑教育与其他国家相比有怎样的特点?如何在保持国内建筑学院自身特色的情况下,实现更深入的国际合作?
What approaches has Southeast University Architectural School made in international education? What is the characteristic of Chinese architectural education comparing to other countries? How to deepen the international collaboration while remaining the features of Chinese architectural schools?

学院在建立之初就是国际化的。我们的创始人都曾在世界一流的建筑院校中学习,杨廷宝先生和童寯先生毕业于宾夕法尼亚大学,刘敦桢先生则是东京工业大学毕业。以他们为代表的一代先驱对国内现代建筑教育发展起到奠基和引领的作用,其影响一直持续至今。80年代中期以来,南京工学院即后来的东南大学与欧洲最好的建筑院校瑞士联邦苏黎世高等理工大学建筑系一直保持着师生交流和互换,如此持续稳定的合作交流在国内建筑教育史中是独一无二的,这不仅对东南大学,也对整个国内建筑教育产生了比较大的影响。最近的活动是去年我们在南京举办了两校博士生之间的交流论坛,展现了年轻学者的专业研究和思想碰撞。

最近十年,东南大学建筑学院的国际化办学进入了一个新的阶段。我们与国际上超过三十所一流建筑院校保持着常态化的学术交流和学生互换,2017年获批教育部和国家外专局建筑国际化示范学院,目标是参考和借鉴国际先进的教育理念与办学机制,探索一条具有国家特色的,并且能够为国际建筑教育提供国内范例的办学道路。目前国际化示范学院有全职外籍教授四位,兼职教授四位,加上客座教授,每年有近二十位外籍教授在学院授课;设有十六门全英文理论课程,面向博士生、硕士生和高年级本科生开放。

The School of Architecture of Southeast University has been regarded as an international department since its establishment. All our founders had studied in the world’s leading architecture schools. Since the mid-1980s, there has been an exchange of faculty and students between Nanjing Institute of Technology, later Southeast University and ETH Zurich, one of the best architecture schools in Europe.

In the last decade, the School of Architecture at Southeast University has entered a new phase of internationalization. We have been keeping regular academic communication and student exchanges with more than 30 leading architecture schools all over the world. Currently, we have nearly 20 foreign professors teaching in our international demonstration school, including four full-time professors, four part-time professors and a growing number of visiting professors. The school provides sixteen theoretical courses taught in English for doctoral, master’s and senior undergraduate students.

▼国际化课程,international classes

我不认为建筑教育存在国家特色。如果有的话,也是因为面临的问题不一样。国内经历的剧烈、持续的城市化过程是学科和专业教育从未面对过的。有了不同的问题和需求,就会培养出不同的人才,这可能会形成教育的特色。与国外很多院校相比,国内建筑教育一个突出特点是强调对于学生职业实践能力的训练,大部分国内建筑院校毕业的学生有能力绘制一个工程项目的完整方案设计图纸,这与近三十年来国内强盛的城市化进程对建设人才的紧迫需要有关。

然而我们的建筑教育也存在着自身的问题。首先是对学科的认识和评价问题。不得不承认,跟许多欧美国家相比,我们整个社会对于设计和设计文化是缺少认识的。国内大部分建筑院系都在理工科大学里,普遍面临的问题是以理工科的评价标准衡量学科发展和师资水平,不可避免地会损害到建筑学科中的人文和艺术特质以及综合的实践导向。这个问题虽然在全世界的建筑教育中普遍存在,在当下的国内却尤显突出。东南大学建筑学院工作的一个重点仍然是艰难地守护学科的内核,减少对它的损害和磨蚀。

第二个问题来自学科的分立。2011年起,建筑学分裂为三个一级学科:建筑学、城乡规划学和风景园林学。这种学科的不断细化和知识边界的生硬划分本质上源于现代科学的观念和方法,而比科学诞生早得多的建筑学从一开始就不是专门化的,是综合和包涵的,在物形环境的营造中,不会因为对象是一个房间、一座建筑,抑或是一片街区还是一座园林而分野迥异,更不会把专业教育分为三个分立的体系。十年来,这种分化的危险正在显现。我指导的研究生设计课有意招收来自建筑、规划和景园不同专业的学生,出现的情况是规划的学生只能做块块,无法画出简单的建筑平面;而建筑的学生超出地块红线以后就显得无能为力。这是另一种损害,不是来自外部的认识和评价,而是来自自身的肢解和碎片化。在人居环境科学向更加宏观的地理空间与自然系统延伸时,原本以中微观物形环境为对象的传统建筑学会与更为宏观的地理学、经济学、社会学、生态学相遇,也许因尺度差异产生的纵向区分比城市、建筑、景观的横向切划更值得思考和探索。

这些认识都是来自于深入的国际交流触发的思考。他山之石,可以攻玉。国际合作最有价值的部分是提供新的视野,在比较中认识自己,看清要坚守什么,改变什么,光扬什么。

▼国际化课程成果受邀参加威尼斯双年展,the result of international classes exhibited in the Venice Biennial

I do not think architectural education should have a national characteristic. If there is, it is because we are facing different problems. China has been experiencing a dramatic and continuous process of urbanization that was unprecedented in the discipline and education of architecture. Compared to many foreign architectural schools, a distinctive feature of Chinese architectural education is its emphasis on the practical training of vocational skills.

However, architectural education in China has its own problems to deal with. We have to admit that there is a lack of awareness of design and the culture of design in our society as a whole. The second problem comes from the division of the discipline. Since 2011, it has been divided into three first-level disciplines: Architecture, Urban and Rural Planning and Landscape Architecture. This kind of refinement and the rigid division of knowledge boundaries essentially derive from the concepts and methods of modern science, whereas architecture occurred much earlier than modern science, and it was not specialized, but comprehensive and all-inclusive from the outset. The most valuable part of international collaboration is to provide new perspectives. We could know ourselves better through comparison and be more clear about what to hold fast to, what to change and what to carry forward.

▼威尼斯双年展现场,the venue of the Venice Biennial

 

 

4.

技术发展对建筑设计教育有着怎样的影响?如何平衡二者的关系?
What is the impact of the development in technology on the architecture design education? How to balance them?

建筑学作为一门工程学科,技术从来就是内生的核心。事实上建筑学的每一次进步都离不开材料、结构、施工或是环境调控的技术革新。在当今世界,牵动建筑学发生改变的主要力量来自于环境技术和信息技术。前者应对的是全球气候变化和环境危机,后者体现在大数据、虚拟现实和人工智能的疾速迭代,无情地改变着我们的生活方式和我们自己。这种改变已经不能用“技术发展”来描述了,甚至可能在我们还来不及思考的情况下,瓦解经典建筑学的核心。教育培养的是未来,当未来不可预知又不容选择时,教育面对的才是真正的危机和挑战。

从2009年开始,东南大学建筑学院在设计主干课程中系统性地加入了贯穿各年级的绿色设计教学和数字设计教学线索,对应于原有框架内各阶段的教学重点和训练内容,模块化、进阶式地插入可持续性空间环境设计和建筑运算与数字生成设计的教学要点。旨在让学生接触、认识、思考这一古老学科正在面临的挑战,而这必然是新一代建筑师在他们的职业生涯中不能回避的。相关的教学成果在2017年学院九十周年院庆时汇编成书出版。这仅仅是起步的摸索,我们的步伐已来不及跟上技术的激变。在这样的冲击下,如何保存建筑学的人文核心,又使其保有容纳和适应变化的弹性?这是当下建筑教育无法躲避的追问

▼数字化设计课程,digital design classes

Architecture is a discipline that is closely related to engineering, and therefore technology has always been intrinsic to its core. In today’s world, the main forces that could reform the system of architecture are from environmental technology and information technology. Since 2009, the School of Architecture in Southeast University has systematically added instructional clues of green design and digital design into the major courses in all grades, aiming to help students to be aware of, to engage with, and to reflect on the challenges that this ancient discipline is facing. This is only the start of the exploration. Under such an impact, how could we preserve the humanistic core of architecture while retaining its flexibility to adapt to the changes? This is a question that today’s architectural education must answer.

▼部分数字化设计成果
(上)南京汤山矿坑公园景观桥,(up) Landscape Gallary of Tangshan Mine Park Landscape Gallery
(下)成都安仁南岸美村林盘大型艺术装置,(below) LinPan : A Complex Art Structure at NanAn Village, Anren ,Chengdu

 

 

5.

建筑遗产保护对于现在的城市发展来说有怎样的意义?在建筑教学中有哪些体现?这样对于培养一个现代的建筑人才是有怎样的意义?
What is the significance of architectural heritage conservation for today’s urban development? How is it reflected in the architectural education? How can it contribute to cultivating modern architectural talents?

经典建筑学产生于对古代遗址的发现。阿尔伯蒂那代人重新发现了古代文明,整理古代文献,测绘研究古代遗址,建立了建筑学。由此可见,这个学科带有与生俱来的历史性。这是建筑学中最厚重的部分,它容纳了人类的文化进程,也为当代发展提供源源不断的思想资源。

东南大学历史理论和遗产保护方向的研究起始于1930年,叶恭绰、卢树森、刘敦桢等先生对南京栖霞寺舍利塔的修缮应该是国内最早的遗产保护工程,1932年杨廷宝等先生对北京天坛建筑群和城楼等古迹进行测绘、整理和修缮。之后几代学者传承有序,在东南大学形成了具有全国影响力的历史理论和遗产保护的研究和教育体系。目前,学院设有教育部城市建筑遗产保护重点实验室、国家文物局传统木构技艺研究重点基地,UNESCO亚洲建筑遗产管理委员会秘书处也落置在东南大学。我们和世界遗产保护领域中的各个主要学校保持着紧密和常态化的联系。教学中,在研究生和本科生的不同培养阶段,建构体系化的历史理论课程,并注重将知识模块与设计课程相衔接。在融合类设计课中,会请历史所的教授来命题和主讲以遗产保护为主题的课程设计,面对三个专业打通,凸显历史遗产对大类人才培养的通合支撑。

人文历史是高等学校人才培养不可或缺的养分。国内工程学教育和工程师培养最大的弱项就是囿限于细分的专业,尤其缺乏对人文精神和文化价值的思考和判断。在国家日益注重文化软实力打造的今天,培养具有综合人文素养和文化塑造能力的工程技术人才应是当务之急,我理解这也是新工科人才培养的一个重要指向。这一点上,建筑学应该也可以起到示范和引领作用。

▼历史建筑保护课程,historical heritage restoration classes

▼历史建筑保护课程成果,outcomes of the historical heritage restoration classes

Classical architecture emerged from the discovery of ancient heritages. It has an inherent historicality, which is the heaviest and dignified part of architecture. Research in historical theories and heritage preservation at Southeast University was started from 1930. Since then, generations of scholars have orderly inherited the study and established a nationally influential research and education system on historical theory and heritage preservation at Southeast University. At different teaching stages for graduate and undergraduate students, we have built systematic curriculum of historical theories and taken emphasis on linking knowledge modules to design courses. Humanities and history are indispensable for cultivating talents in colleges and universities. Today, it is the top priority for universities to cultivate talents in engineering and technology with comprehensive humanistic literacy and culture-shaping abilities.

▼部分东南大学历史建筑保护成果,part of the historical heritage restoration projects designed by teams from Southeast University
(上)愚园,(up) Yu Garden
(下左)愚园北画廊遗址,(lower left) Heritage of the North Gallery in the Yu Garden
(下右)金陵大报恩寺遗址博物馆,(lower right) The Heritage Museum of the Porcelain Tower of Nanjing 

 

 

6.
作为国内顶尖的建筑学院的院长,能否请您对广大的建筑学子提一些建议?
As the dean of a top architectural school in China, could you give some advices to the architectural students?

对同学们的建议有三点。第一点,从求解思维转向设计思维。与实验科学不一样,也跟同学们在高中学习的大部分科目不一样,建筑学的核心课程——设计课没有标准答案。设计不是一个寻找单一解的求解过程,而是一个需有明确的个人立场,通过自己的判断去发现问题,确立分析和解决问题的路径,在平衡各种矛盾中,不断前行,趋向一个相对最优解的过程。因为有创作的成分在里面,所以还带着强烈的个人色彩和创意个性,而且这是被鼓励的。

第二点,设计的幸福感。设计在解决问题的同时有创作的成分在里面,因而在历史发展的大部分时间里,建筑被认为是一种综合的宏丽艺术。因为创作,设计和建造就有了其它工程学科不能比拟的激情和幸福感。所有的艺术都有存在于创作者和它的作品之间的独特体验,我相信它存在于音乐家演奏他谱写的乐曲时,在画家长时间凝视他的画作时,对于建筑师,它存在于你徜徉在自己设计的空间场所中。这种幸福感是人类所有情感体验中最高级的一部分,值得我们付出所有的辛苦。

第三点,在学习中发现自己。除了面对客观的问题,在设计的过程中,永远有一个主观的存在。同学们从小到大的学习过程中,很少被鼓励去发现和树立主观。在建筑学院学习的同学,在发现外部世界的同时,要勇敢地充满好奇地面对自己,发现自己,并且在学习过程中塑造自己。这是成为建筑师的必由之路。

I have three advices for the students. Firstly, change your way of thinking from solution-oriented to design-oriented. Design is not a process of finding a single solution. It needs the students to have clear perspectives, making their own judgements to discover the problem and then set up the route for analyzing and solving it. They should learn to balance contradictory situations while keeping moving forward towards a relatively optimal solution. In the meantime, It is related to the act of creation, so it is also about a strong personal identity and creativity, which has always been encouraged in the process of design.

Secondly, find happiness through design. Because of the act of creation, designing and constructing can bring passion and happiness that is totally distinguished from other engineering disciplines. For architects, such happiness exists when they wander in the place they have designed. It is the highest part of human’s emotional experiences and is worth all investment and hard work.

Thirdly, find yourself through learning. Besides the objective issues that we all have to deal with, there is always a subjective presence in the process of design. Be brave and curious to the outside world, and also to yourself. It is an indispensable ability for architects to know how to discover and shape themselves.

 

 

7.

您认为研究对于建筑学的发展有怎样的意义?您是如何看待研究,教学和学院院长工作之间的关系?
What is the significance of research to the development of architecture? What is your perspective on the relationship among research, teaching and administrative work as the dean of the school of architecture?

设计本身就是一项研究,建筑学的研究大都不在实验室里,而是在实践中。是实践中的研究和思考构成了这个学科的主体。历史上有很多优秀的建筑师,同时也是杰出的学者,他们在创造具有深远影响的物质环境的同时,也在塑造思想。我们在本科高年级到研究生阶段的设计教学中,一方面强调实做实践,另一方面强调设计的研究性。研究性的设计教学,理想的过程是在实践中发现问题,展开研究,成果反馈回设计实践中。

在大学里教建筑,教学和科研是必做的,割舍不了的是设计实践,如果还要做点管理工作,那就进入了终极分裂的轨道之中。唯有的拯救是多轨合并,把科研和实践中的问题带入教学,以教学中的思考反哺研究,而实践则可以成为研究的实证检验。要做到这一点并不容易,但似乎别无他法。这些年作建筑系主任、副院长、院长,公共事务占据越来越多的时间和精力。但我逐渐认识到,学院的工作不仅是服务学生和老师,这是一项比之前做的任何一件事都重要的事业,因为我的工作在帮助塑造一个SCHOOL,这会影响成百上千人的价值观,影响他们的思想、实践和对社会的贡献。如果说研究,没有比这更大的课题了。为此我也在不断加强认知,提高对自己的要求。

▼研究室里的工作场景,working scene in the research studio

Design itself is a research, and most of the research in architecture does not take place in laboratories, but in practice. It is the study and thinking in practice that forms the body of the discipline.To teach architecture in a university, teaching and research are compulsory, while design practice is a part that I personally could not abandon. On this basis, if I also have to do some administrative work, I am afraid that I will fall onto an ultimately split track. The only solution is to merge the different tracks and bring the issues from research and practice into teaching. My reflection on teaching can feed my research, and the practice can become an empirical test for the research. It is not easy to handle but there seems to be no other way. However, I gradually come to realize that my work is helping to shape a “school”, which will influence the values of hundreds of people, as well as their thinking, their practices and their contributions to the society. If you regard it as a research, there is no bigger subject than this. And for that reason I am constantly broadening my scope of knowledge and put new demands to myself.

▼部分研究成果,part of the research results

 

 

8.

您认为建筑设计应该怎样应对现在恶化的生态环境?国内在绿色建筑方面有哪些特点?绿色建筑未来的发展方向如何?
How can architecture deal with the worsening eco-environment? What is China’s characteristics in green architecture? What is the future of green architecture?

建筑设计的一个根本任务是在有限的资源总体中创造一个均衡的、可持续的、美的环境。这里的定语很重要,环境资源是有限度的。我们有明确证据表明全球气候的变化与人类活动有关。我们呼吸的空气与以前不一样,不加节制的消耗会使资源枯竭。20世纪之前没有绿色建筑的概念,房屋和聚落的营造是在一个地理和认识上有限的环境里进行的,用建造的方式去适应地形、气候和资源,获取相对的舒适感。这是长期以来各地建筑发展出来的智慧,其中的类型本体构成了地域文化中最稳定的内核。工业革命和现代科技带来了空调、电梯和抽水马桶,这三项发明彻底改变了全世界的建筑。不管外部气候和建造形式,空调给建筑带来隔绝而稳定的室内环境,不再需要建造形式对气候环境的选择和调节,这是千城一面的国际式通行的技术后台。20世纪建筑学的一个大损失就是放弃了通过建造方式对空气进行调节,而这曾经是这个学科内在的目标和驱动力之一。

在我们认识到能源和环境危机之后,应对的方式仍然是以衡量能耗数值为指标,为此加设各种节能的设备,我认为这不完全正确,甚至是个误区。如果建筑师在设计中没有环境和节能意识,工程师们单靠设备系统的努力是事倍功半的。十几年来我在研究和实践中强调“空间调节”,通过空间的形态、组织方式和建造技术来调节建筑内外的环境,适应所在地区的气候,而不是去隔离它,减少对动力设备的依赖,回归建筑对气候、地形和资源的敏感与适应。最近几年,国家一系列绿色建筑的重大研发项目,都是以建筑学院士作为首席科学家的,一改以往由机电和暖通空调专业引导的格局,也代表了绿色建筑的发展由设备主导向设计主导,由指标导向向效果导向的转变。

One of the fundamental tasks of architectural design is to use the limited resources to create a balanced, sustainable and aesthetically pleasing environment. After realizing the crisis in the environment and energy, our response is still to measure energy consumption values and then increase the number of energy-saving equipments to reach the so-called target, which I think is not entirely correct, or even can be seen as a mistake. If architects have no awareness of environmental conservation or energy-saving in their design, although with mature equipments and systems, it will take twice as much effort for the engineers to get the result. For more than a decade, I have been emphasizing “spatial regulation” in my research and practice, which is to regulate the internal and external environment of a building and make it adapt to the climate of where it is located, by changing the form, organization and construction techniques of its space, while reducing the dependence on power equipments to give back the building’s sensibility to climate, terrain and natural resources. In recent years, China has launched a series of significant research and develop projects in green architecture, which are all led by architectural academicians as chief scientists, showing a big change in the industry pattern that was previously dominated by mechanical, electrical and HVAC techniques. It also represents a shift in the development of green buildings from equipment-oriented to design-oriented, and from index-oriented to effect oriented.

▼采用建造的方式适应环境的绿色建筑 – 普天信息产业上海工业园总部科研楼
Green architecture using construction methods to cope with the environment – Green Office Building in China Potevio Shanghai Information Tech-Park

 

 

9.

国内建筑如何在全球化浪潮的影响下,保持自身的特色?
How can Chinese architecture keep its own characteristics under the impact of globalization? 

自身特色的问题一直是国内建筑挥之不去的纠结。究其原因,仍然在于社会的主导价值。全球化是一个经济概念,不是文化概念,以前不是,现在不是,今后也不会是。文化必然是地域的,它跟经济或者大范围的文明类型不一样。人之所以为人,是因为你属于某个地方,有归属感和认同感,有情感和精神的寄托,共同的归属和情感塑造了地区的文化。只要社会仍然以经济为压倒性目标,那么这个困惑就很难消除。只有当社会的发展具有平衡的目标,文化的价值变得越来越重要的时候,才会产生对于自身文化的需求和认同,才有信心追求和塑造自身的文化。我认为不要一味地去纠结如何在全球化中保持地域性,这几乎不可能。如果你认同全球化是一个重要的价值导向,那经济在社会发展中一定是首要目标。这场疫情使我们看到这种单一取向的全球化可能走向终结。整个社会需要重新思考,经济和贸易并不是国家发展和国际关系的唯一主导。

Globalization is a economic concept. It will never become a cultural concept, no matter in the past or in the future. Culture is necessarily territorial and it is different from economy or a broader type of civilization. People are people because they belong to a certain place, having the sense of belonging, as well as the emotional and spiritual sustenance. The common sense of belonging and emotions shape the culture of a region. As long as the society taking economic development as the dominant goal, it will be difficult to dispel this confusion. Only when the society develops with balanced goals and the cultural value becomes more and more important will there be a need for one’s own cultural recognition and the confidence to pursue and shape it. I do not think it’s necessary to struggle in how to keep regional characteristics in the midst of globalization because it is almost impossible. If globalization was taken as an important value orientation, then economy must be the primary goal in social development. The pandemic of the coronavirus have already shown us that the single orientation of globalization may be coming to an end. The whole society needs to rethink that economics and trade are not the only dominant forces in national development and international relations.

▼张彤
Zhang Tong

 

更多建筑教育专辑,请至:
第一期:清华大学建筑学院院长庄惟敏
第二期:同济大学建筑与城市规划学院院长李振宇
第三期:天津大学建筑学院院长孔宇航

Other articles in Ramble – Architectural Education
Series 1: Zhuang Weimin, Dean of the Architecture School of Tsinghua University
Series 2: Li Zhenyu, Dean of CAUP, Tongji University
Series 3: Kong Yuhang, Dean of Tianjin University Architecture School

 

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