TOPIC: Educational Architecture in China

An interview on educational architecture in China with OPEN Architecture, Crossboundaries and LYCS Architecture

Project Specs

Location:

 

gooood对一些机会和条件合适的项目推出深度报道,希望对项目进行更为立体的表达和展现。

在本次专辑中,gooood分别访问了在教育建筑方面有着丰富经验的 OPEN建筑事务所、 Crossboundaries 以及 零壹城市 的创始人兼首席建筑师,围绕教育建筑方面的挑战、理想的教育建筑和过去的实践三个主题进行对话,希望借此引发更多有关中国教育建筑现状和发展方向的思考。

gooood would dig into projects which are appropriate for deeper report, in order to present the project in a more comprehensive way.

This time, gooood interviewed the founders and principles of OPEN Architecture ,  Crossboundaries and LYCS Architecture, who all have extensive experiences in the practice of educational architecture, to talk about their completed projects, the challenges they have encountered and their opinions on ideal educational buildings. We hope this conversation will lead to more reflections on the status quo and the development process of educational architecture in China.

查看更多关于OPEN建筑事务所、Crossboundaries和零壹城市的项目,请点击这里:OPEN Architecture on gooood ; Crossboundaries on gooood ; LYCS Architecture on gooood

 

出品人:向玲 | Producer: Xiang Ling
编辑:武晨曦,刘丹阳,陈诺嘉,徐馨羽 | Editors: Wu Chenxi,  Liu Danyang, Chen Nuojia, Xu Xinyu

 

(Please scroll down to see the English text)

 

 

 


在实践教育建筑的过程中,通常会遇到哪些方面的挑战?又是如何化解的?

 

 

OPEN建筑事务所:

非常多元和多方面的挑战。

从建筑类型上,教育建筑听上去是一个建筑类型,但通常一个中小学校园里,除了教室、实验室之外,还会有餐厅、宿舍楼、剧场、体育馆(室内篮球、羽毛球场,甚至游泳池)、图书馆、艺术空间,等等。实际上,一个校园的建筑会包含文化、餐饮、居住、体育等等各种建筑类型,而这些不同的建筑类型都有各自专业上和法规上不同的、严格的要求。设计一个校园,要求一个全能的建筑师团队

从用地上,建筑用地常常得到的是开发用地里相对不利的地块,房地产价值不高因而划给了配套的教育建筑。随着土地越来越紧张,学校规模越来越大,学校的建筑密度问题变得日益严峻。

从投资上,教育建筑通常会受到很大的局限。与此关联的,设计费用也常常是很有限的。

而从设计者自我把握的职业标准上,教育建筑应该被给予最大程度的关注和爱,以及对理想主义与实施项目品质的最大程度的坚持

学校教书育人,建筑动用大量社会资源,两者同样是百年大计,影响深远,同样需要执业者不计投入的热忱、理想和担当。可能因此,我们发现跟好的教育家沟通,是一件比较容易达成共鸣、互相尊重、互为启迪的事情,这也通常成为化解项目过程中碰到的各种困难的良好基础。其他方面,就是我们不断努力地提高自己专业能力的同时,保持乐观、见招拆招了。

▼OPEN建筑事务所代表项目
(上排)北京四中房山校区(点击查看更多
(下排)上海青浦平和双语学校(点击查看更多

 

 

Crossboundaries建筑事务所:

第一层面:我首要考虑的就是:环境育人,“We shape our buildings, thereafter they shape us. ”——丘吉尔对于建筑空间对于人类教育的定义,建筑不单是一个遮蔽物,功能性场所,更多是她本身,建筑本身可以成为教育主体,这也是我对教育建筑的理解。因为这个原因,我在实践教育建筑中,考虑最为核心的,都是围绕使用者,对于周遭建筑空间的理解与影响,所以挑战也是围绕着这些思考发生的。Crossboundaries坚持为培养“自由”,“文明”的人设计建造空间

第二层面:如何运用合适和巧妙的建筑语言去表达并实现,幸运如我,可以遇见和我有同样想法和判断的甲方。

▼Crossboundaries事务所代表项目
(上排)江苏北沙幼儿园(点击查看更多
(下排)北大附中朝阳未来学校点击查看更多

 

 

零壹城市建筑事务所:

挑战之一是随着为了增加竞争力而产生的城市资源进一步集中,大量中国城市的密度的继续加剧,使得其中的中小学密度、相应的单校师生密度都进一步提升。而因此,校园的规划建设所面临的用地不足、活动空间有限等问题不断凸显,同时高密度所致的集约性在很大程度上也限制了中小学的设计在空间尺度、流线、行为模式等方面的发挥空间。但高密度并不是导致上述问题发生的根本原因,它是一个最终呈现的结果。决定了空间组织的架构组织是才是核心的问题所在:学校教育管理固有的等级制度使得校园设计常以管理者自上而下的思维模式出发,追求的是管理有效、管理安全。制度等级形成了规划等级,轴线、动静分区、教学运动与生活三区规划等一系列设计方法,无一不是对于这一设计思维模式的反应。而这一出发点恰恰忽略了作为大多数实际使用者的学生其本身的行为需求及其所对应的空间要求。

所以我们在设计实践过程中,不断的尝试从使用者行为的角度出发,对高密度环境下的中小学设计方式进行探索,并总结出“小尺度”“亲用户”“做连接”这三大设计策略及其细化的应对解决方式。

▼零壹城市事务所代表项目
(上排)杭州未来科技城海曙学校(点击查看更多
(下排)义乌新世纪外国语学校(点击查看更多

 

 

 

你心中理想的教育建筑是什么样的?

 

 

OPEN建筑事务所:

一个能够激发学习兴趣和探索欲望的地方,一个头脑和身体都能够健康和自由生长的场所。

 

 

Crossboundaries建筑事务所:

我理想中的教育建筑,在100年前,已经由杜威大师(John Dewey)定义了。他反对传统的灌输和机械性训练的教育方式,主张从实践中学习,提出教育即生活,学校即社会的口号。

如果真的能畅想,我所理想的教育建筑应该是没有任何一堵围墙,当人们进入到学校当中,学生和老师,是自由发散的聚合或独立存在。学习的场景,发生在任何地方

 

 

零壹城市建筑事务所:

我们认为理想的教育建筑应该是真正以用户为导向的,在有效保证教学需求的同时让孩子们能借助建筑空间形成更好的互动和成长,也就是能为孩子们带去快乐的空间,承载学生不同年龄、尺度的差异化行为与个性化需求,激发学生的探索精神与好奇心。教育建筑在充分满足和不局限于授课功能的同时,最大程度地实现个体独立和自由,强调对儿童心理、生理及社会性自然发展的尊重,得到不同的学习经验,最终让个体在与环境和社区的互动中进行自我心理建设,逐渐形成个人意识和责任感。

 

 

 


请分享一个最满意的教育建筑项目,或项目的某一部分,并谈谈原因。

 

 

OPEN建筑事务所:

最满意的项目永远是未来的吧。但目前我们最有幸福感的时刻,是每年看到北京四中房山校区的孩子们在屋顶农田收获劳动果实的照片。

▼北京四中房山校区屋顶麦田(左)校园鸟瞰(右)(点击查看更多

 

 

Crossboundaries建筑事务所:

最满意的永远是下一个。

如果说让我比较难忘的,是北沙幼儿园。她没有任何一道围墙,无论是心理还是物理。面对开阔的乡村环境,北沙幼儿园采取了拆分式的“组团式建筑”,若干“小屋式”结构分解了幼儿园所需的总建筑体量,并以一片多功能的户外活动场地将每栋“小屋”集结在一起,分散而又发生着链接。自2018年建成以来,这座幼儿园不仅是孩子们的乐土,亦成为村中居民喜欢的社交场所。父母或祖父母们聚集在此,在接送孩子之余,有了更多融洽的交流,实现了我理想中的教育建筑。

北京北大附中朝阳未来学校也是一个对我有特别意义的项目。该校教育者相信,“教育无处不在”。我们从一开始就将景观也纳入考量。围绕学生的真实需求和体验,将传统高度分割而封闭的“刻板空间”,化解成更加开放而连续的“自由空间”。除了技术和硬件层面,校方在课程安排及师资配比上真正做到了“学校即社会”,大胆积极利用各方社会资源,为学生拓展视野,丰富人生经验。

▼完全没有围墙阻隔的北沙幼儿园(左)(点击查看更多),北京北大附中朝阳未来学校(右)(点击查看更多

 

 

零壹城市建筑事务所:

在杭州未来科技城海曙学校中,15栋小体量的单体就有15个双坡屋顶,创造了15种屋顶下的空间状态、增加了15个课外游戏场:如躲猫猫、种植园、小剧场、阅览室、跑道、观星室、眺望台等等。这些屋顶通过楼梯与下层连廊联系,形成屋顶活动场系统。在屋顶遮挡下,学生活动不受天气影响。洞口界面的变化引入天光与自然,剖面丰富高差带来活动方式的拓展,平面隔断与围合方式差异带来平面流动性:这些都是划分小尺度,增加空间多样性,让学生自己发掘使用方式。

学生的天性好动,他们能把一块平地当做游乐场,能在狭小的空间玩捉迷藏。现代的学校虽然有室外操场,活动场,但这些整齐划一的场地经常因为尺度过大而让学生产生距离感,它们单一的空间状态也缺少满足学生好奇心去发现游戏方法的可能性。我们发现教学楼的屋顶除了满足建筑基本的遮风挡雨、抵抗重力及包络形态之外,如果把屋顶上下表面理解为空间,屋顶的上层空间可以容纳景观绿化与运动场地;屋顶的下层空间可以容纳活动。让屋顶与学生的行为发生连接,也就增加了“一层”,这一层是提供学生个性化活动的空间。对于一般四层的教学楼建筑,在不增加楼层数与建筑密度的情况下增加了25%的活动场地面积,让运动在剖面上展开 。

▼杭州未来科技城海曙学校,屋顶与学生的行为发生连接点击查看更多

 

 

English Text

 

1.What are the challenges that you usually encounter in the practice of educational architecture design and how do you solve them?

Crossboundaries:Firstly, a main consideration should be how we can use our environment to educate people. “We shape our buildings, thereafter they shape us.”- that is how Churchill defined the educational influence of architectural space on humans. The building should not just be a shelter or a functional place. Architecture itself can become the subject of education, which is what I see as a core value of educational architecture. Therefore, when designing educational spaces, we always put “users” and the way they receive and react to spatial qualities at the highest in our considerations. There will always be challenges, indeed. The way we design architecture reflects the way we understand the world. From past to present, throughout western and eastern world, architects continue to articulate their propositions and opinions by implementing certain values into their design. Crossboundaries’ design reflects what we believe education should offer to our future citizens: a profound understanding of “freedom” and “civilization”. Secondly, the challenges are about how to achieve all these ambitious goals through technical and professional skills.

Our solutions: for me, the first step is to make the right choices, often with a hint of luck, when recognizing clients who share the same values and believes with us. Once a perfect match is established at a broader level, all the remaining issues are rather technical, which could be solved within our professional scope.

LYCS Architecture: One of the challenges is that with the further concentration of urban resources, the density of a large number of Chinese cities continues to increase, which has further increased the density of primary and secondary schools and the number of teachers and students.As a result, the problems of insufficient land use and limited space for activities in campus planning continue to stand out. At the same time, the intensiveness caused by high density has also largely limited the design of primary and secondary schools in terms of spatial scale, streamlines, behavior patterns, etc. But high density is not the root cause of the above problems. In fact, it is a rendered result. The core problem is the structure organization which determines the space organization: the inherent hierarchical system of school education management makes the campus design often start from the top-down thinking mode of managers, and pursues effective management and management security. The system level forms a planning level, and a series of design methods such as axis, dynamic and static division, teaching movement and living area planning are all responses to this design thinking mode. However, this starting point just ignores the behavior and space requirements of the students who are most practical users.

Therefore, in the process of design practice, we constantly research on the design methodologies of primary and secondary schools in high-density urban environment. From the perspective of user’s behavior needs, summarize three strategies: 1) “small scale” at planning level, “pro-user” at the architectural elements level 3) “loop connections” at the architecture level.

 

2. What is an ideal educational architecture in your opinion?

Crossboundaries:What I believe to be the ideal educational architecture model had been defined by Mr. John Dewey 100 years ago. Dewey criticized traditional pedagogy of one-way injection of knowledge and repetitive training; what he proposed was to learn from hands-on practice. “Education is not preparation for Life; education is life itself”.

I remember the first time I heard about Dewey and his ideas was back in my grad school seminar in Pratt Institute: my professor and my lifetime mentor Mr. Jack Travis, fellow of AIA (American Institute of Architects), referred to Dewey’s quote “Education is not preparation for Life; education is life itself” during a seminar discussion. Jack and his seminar had great impact on me. Upon his inspiration, I went to the library and checked out several books by Dewey. The whole semester I was fascinated by Dewey’s believes. It was during the early years of my U.S. experience. The tremendous cultural difference between east and west also shocked me.

If I were to imagine freely: an ideal place for education should be a place without fence or other means of boundaries in terms of security consideration. School and the society are not to be separated. When people enter the school, students and teachers would voluntarily gather around or be introspective. Learning scenes could happen anywhere.

LYCS Architecture:  We believe that the ideal educational architecture should be truly user-oriented. While effectively ensuring the teaching needs, children can use the building space to form better interaction and growth, that is, It ’s a space that makes children happy. The space considers the different behaviors and individual needs of students at different ages and scales, which stimulates students’ exploration spirit and curiosity.While fully satisfying and not limited to the teaching function, the educational building achieves the highest degree of individual independence and freedom. It emphasizes respect for the natural development of children’s psychology, physiology and society, and gains different learning experiences. Finally, individuals are allowed to build their own mentality in the interaction with the environment and the community, and gradually develop their personal consciousness and sense of responsibility.

 

3. Please share us an educational architecture project that you believe to be most satisfying, and why?

Crossboundaries:The best is always yet to come. In fact, in all the projects we have done so far, we managed to achieve the two goals I mentioned in answering the first question: the ideal level and the technical/professional level. And the specifics differ for each project, depending on the context, client needs, etc. It is really difficult to choose one to be the best.

I would say, Jiangsu Beisha kindergarten would be an impressive one that fulfilled Mr. Dewey’s imagination for an ideal education model. Beisha kindergarten is free from physical or psychological boundaries. With the rapid development of China’s economy in the last two decades, Beisha, like many other China’s suburb areas, is facing social problems such as: deterioration of rural societies, migrate workers leaving the elderly and the children behind, dissatisfaction of rural kindergarten faculties with the existing environment, and so on. When I first visited the site in the vast plain of Jiangsu suburb, I was quite touched by the complex situation. And I realized, a kindergarten is not merely a building, but a representation that calls for attention to children. A second home in their homeland. Our design for Beisha consists of a cluster of village-like building blocks, surrounded by playful outdoor playgrounds. The building masses are individual, yet connected. As we strongly suggested, this kindergarten has no physical fence. It blends in perfectly into the surrounding nature. Since its completion in 2018, this kindergarten is not only a playground for children but also a social place for residents in the village. Parents or grandparents gathered here while picking up their children and communicating. It is my dream educational architecture come true.’

Beijing Chaoyang Future School also has many special values to me. After the school commissioned Crossboundaries to renovate its teaching space, gymnasium and art center in 2016, they requested us again to renovate the landscape of the core area of this old campus. Although a renovation project, we had a chance to completely reassess the landscape, façade and interior, even the signage design of the campus as a whole.

Crossboundaries and the school shared a common believe of “education happens everywhere”. Learning doesn’t just happen in the classroom but throughout the campus, exponentially raising the value of this tight urban area. Formulating a crossover of the in and out and the public and private, the school creates a village that delivers to individual needs, catering to both students and teachers where they will eat, sleep, play, study, learn, and explore. The interior of each building is given freedom to breathe. Previously confined spaces are opened up with new connections that allow for activities and subjects to crossover. Architectural interventions open floors and walls to expand volumes and give way to new opportunities for creativity and inspiration. Crossboundaries’ design was really successful in offering a holistic experience to all users of the school.

Aside from the technical interventions, what really touches me is the school’s true free spirit when it comes to building a close connection between the school and the society. When designing the curriculum, the school did not hesitate to invite prestigious professionals in various disciplines from society, to offer the students sources of knowledge and experience from real life. It breaks the boundary between the school and the real world in intellectual and psychological levels, which is very progressive in today’s education.

Chaoyang Future School is an excellent example of a student-centered education model. When both the educator and the designer share the same believe of Mr. Dewey’s “Education is not preparation for Life; education is life itself”, the ideal architecture almost happens naturally during the process of realization.

LYCS Architecture:  In the Hangzhou Haishu School of Future Sci-Tech City, there are 15 double-slope roofs in 15 small-volume units, creating 15 types of space under the roof and adding 15 extra-curricular playgrounds: such as hide-and-seek cats, plantations, theater, reading room, runway, stargazing room, gazebo and so on. These roofs are connected to the lower corridor by stairs to form a roof field system. Under the roof, student activities are not affected by the weather. The rich elevation of the profile brings the expansion of the activity method. While the difference between the plane partition and the enclosing method brings plane fluidity: these are divided into small scales to increase spatial diversity and allow students to discover their own usage methods.

Lively students can use a flat land as a playground and play hide and seek in a small space. Although modern schools have outdoor playgrounds, the neat fields often give students a sense of distance because of the large scale. A single state of space is also lacking to stimulate student curiosity.We found that in addition to meeting the building’s basic shielding, resistance to gravity, and envelope shape, if the roof surface of the building is considered as a space, the upper space of the roof can accommodate landscape greening and sports venues, while the lower space can accommodate activities.The practice of connecting the roof to students’ behaviors adds a “floor”, a space that provides students with personalized activities. For a general four-story teaching building, the area of the event space was increased by 25% without increasing the number of floors and building density, allowing the movement to expand on the section.

 

了解更多请点击 Click here for more information
OPEN建筑事务所 OPEN Architecture on gooood
Crossboundaries | Crossboundaries on gooood
零壹城市 LYCS Architecture on gooood

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