THE SWATCH AND OMEGA CAMPUS by Shigeru Ban Architects

Shigeru Ban‘s latest completed wood work-Building for the Well-being of People and the Planet

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普利兹克奖得主建筑师坂茂在2019年10月3日为瑞士比尔的斯沃琪-欧米茄园区揭幕,该仪式标志着历时8.5年设计、施工加建造的项目的彻底完工。园区占地46,778㎡,是迄今为止坂茂建筑设计完成的体量最大、类型最为丰富的木结构建筑项目,也是全球最大的混合类大型木构建筑之一。除剪彩庆典外,此次活动还正式回应了一个全球意识范围内的里程碑式的问题:“为何使用木材”以及“为什么是现在”。通过参与救灾工作,坂茂亲历了气候变化和自然灾害对人类及地球造成的不利影响。面对气候变化的严峻挑战,人们必须从生活和建筑两方面着手:减少能耗和降低碳排放量。然而,当下的建设施工并不考虑地球的未来和人类的福祉。为此,建筑师坂茂倡导以木构作为具有环保意识的典范建筑。木材是最古老的建筑材料之一,同时也是未来最具潜力的一种待开发材料。

On October 3, 2019, Pritzker Prize-winning architect Shigeru Ban is inaugurating one of the world’s largest wood building projects, the Swatch and Omega Campus in Biel, Switzerland. The opening of the Swatch and Omega Campus is a momentous occasion, marking the culmination of 8.5 years of design, engineering, and construction. At 46,778 sq m (503,514 sq ft), the project is Shigeru Ban Architects’ largest and most exuberant hybrid mass timber project to date, and one of the largest hybrid mass timber projects in the world. Beyond a celebratory ribbon cutting, this date marks a milestone in our global consciousness, answering the questions, “Why wood?” and “Why now?” Through his disaster relief work, Shigeru Ban has experienced firsthand the direct impact of climate change and natural disasters causing adverse effects on both people and the planet. Climate change is a reality that must be addressed both in how we live and how we build: our individual decisions to reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions can change the world. However, building construction in its current state does not responsibly consider the future and well-being of our planet. To this end, Shigeru Ban Architects promotes building in wood as a model for environmental consciousness. Although timber is one of the oldest building materials, it is also one which holds much promise for the future.

▼项目概览,overview

 

园区 | The Campus

斯沃琪-欧米茄园区是一个深具纪念意义的木结构建筑项目,由以下三座建筑组成:斯沃琪总部——斯沃琪跃层办公空间;欧米茄工厂——欧米茄手表的生产中心;时光之城——斯沃琪和欧米茄的博物馆与展示厅。这些建筑物共享同一种设计语言、材质色调以及环境氛围,体现了斯沃琪-欧米茄品牌的统一形象,同时通过结构形式的差异表达了每座建筑物的独立个性。

The Swatch and Omega Campus is a monumental timber building project, comprised of three buildings: 1) The Swatch Headquarters – Swatch’s multistory office space 2) The Omega Factory – the production center of Omega watches 3) Cité du Temps – the Swatch and Omega museum and conference hall The buildings share a design language, material palette, and environmental ethos, reflecting the unified brands  of Swatch and Omega while expressing each building’s individuality through contrasting structural forms.

▼欧米茄生产中心,the production center of Omega watches

 

建筑物 | The Buildings

斯沃琪总部充满趣味、新鲜感和刺激性,其网壳屋顶结构由7700块经过专业开发程序计算的独特木片拼接而成。所有木片均精确到0.1毫米,以确保能在现场完成拼装。相较之下,欧米茄工厂是一座严肃、精准以及坚硬的直线型建筑,其无菌空间的建设对于木结构建筑来说更是空前绝后。而拥有18个独立子品牌的时光之城,在外观和意义上充当了斯沃琪与欧米茄之间的接口:建筑物在顶端与斯沃琪总部的顶棚交汇。

▼斯沃琪总部的网壳屋顶结构,the gridshell roof of the Swatch Headquarters

The Swatch Headquarters is playful, innovative, and provocative. Its gridshell roof structure consists of 7,700 unique timber pieces, designed by a specialized computer program to promote efficiency and minimize errors. All wood pieces were fabricated with a precision of 0.1 mm (0.003 in), allowing each piece to fit perfectly on site. In contrast, the Omega Factory is a strict, precise, and rigid rectilinear building. Its clean-room construction is unprecedented for a timber building. Cité du Temps, which is owned by the Swatch Group, unifies 18 unique subsidiary watch brands and acts as an interface between Swatch and Omega both figuratively and physically: the building intersects with the Swatch Headquarters’ canopy.

▼网壳屋顶结构由7700块独特的木片拼接而成,the gridshell roof structure consists of 7,700 unique timber pieces

 

从纸管到木材 | From Paper to Wood

坂茂的全球人道主义工作始于1994年,当时他将纸管作为一种理想的可回收、轻质和廉价的结构材料应用于卢旺达的难民住房。次年,他成立了一个自愿建筑师联盟的非政府组织,通过该组织他参与了将近25年的包括住房、社区中心、音乐厅和小学等广泛援助项目的建筑设计工作。在每个项目中,他重点关注建筑物的材料和最终生命周期。坂茂将木材作为主要的建筑材料使用,不仅因其巨大的开发潜能和高效利用率,还凭其作为一种天然的可再生材料具有固碳减排的效用。在过去二十年中,坂茂在木材和大木构的设计及建造领域取得了非凡成就。他早年间对纸管结构的实验延伸出一系列轻便高效的创新木结构设计,包括今井敦纪念体育馆(日本秋田市,2002年)和家具屋(1995年至2006年)。而从蓬皮杜梅斯中心(法国梅斯,2010年)始,他的兴趣逐步转向发展尺度更大、技术难度更高的大木构建筑。最新完工的斯沃琪-欧米茄园区即是这一阶段的总结,充分说明了木材在具有环保意识的建筑实践中的可建设规模及潜力。

▼总部入口大厅,the entrance hall

Shigeru Ban’s global humanitarian work began in 1994, when he applied his understanding of paper tubes as an ideal recyclable, lightweight, and inexpensive structural material to refugee housing in Rwanda. The following year, he established the Voluntary Architects Network, an NGO through which he has provided a wide array of relief projects for nearly 25 years, including housing, community centers, concert halls, and elementary schools. In each project, careful attention is paid to the lifecycle of both materials and resultant buildings. Shigeru has since turned to wood as a primary building material not only for its creative potential and material efficiency, but also for its qualities as a natural, renewable material which has the capacity to sequester carbon and help heal the planet. Over the past two decades, Shigeru has advanced the field of wood and mass timber design and construction. His early experiments with paper tube structures led to a series of innovative lightweight and efficient wood structure designs, including the Atsushi Imai Memorial Gymnasium (Akita, Japan, 2002) and Furniture Houses (1995-2006). These projects led to the development of much larger scale advanced wood and mass timber structures, beginning with the Centre Pompidou-Metz (Metz, France, 2010). The recently completed Swatch and Omega Campus marks another milestone, demonstrating the scale and capacity of timber in environmentally-conscious building practices.

▼内部空间,interior space

 

木结构的优势 | The Benefits of Building in Wood

斯沃琪-欧米茄园区的木构建筑向社会大众展示了木结构的众多益处,诸如:木材是为数不多的完全可再生的建筑材料之一,也许是构成大型建筑物主结构的唯一可行的可再生材料;妥善地管理森林资源和采用先进的加工技术能为社会带来经济价值,有利于城乡经济链的和谐发展; 木结构建筑有助于减少建筑物的碳排放量,而在高排碳的建筑中一半以上是混凝土结构,1/3为钢结构。如果采用可持续的固碳方式,即能实现建筑物零排碳甚至负碳;木结构的集成设计和运输过程可促进建筑师、工程师和施工团队之间的协同合作,从而缩短施工时间和成本,并保证施工现场的安静及整洁;除木结构自身的建筑优势外,研究表明身处在木构环境中的人显得更健康、更快乐、更富创造力。这三座建筑总共由100%经认证的4,600m³瑞士木材建造而成,而基于瑞士森林的生长速度,这批木材仅需10个小时即可在国内重新生产!

▼身处在木构环境中的人显得更健康、更快乐、更富创造力,occupants are happier, healthier, and more productive in wood environments

The Swatch and Omega buildings demonstrate the numerous benefits of timber construction, for both humans and the planet: • Wood is one of the few completely renewable building materials, and perhaps the only viable renewable material available to comprise a large-scale building’s primary structure. • Well-managed forests and the production of new advanced timber construction materials create value in our natural resources and establish important relationships between urban and rural economies. • Timber construction can help significantly reduce a building’s carbon footprint, with half of the emissions of concrete and one third the emissions of steel. When sustainably sourced, it has the capacity to sequester carbon, and bring us one step closer to the goal of making buildings carbon neutral, or even carbon negative. • Timber’s integrated design and delivery process facilitates coordination among architects, engineers, and construction teams, leading to reduced construction durations and costs, as well as clean and quiet construction sites. • In addition to the architectural merit of timber buildings, studies have shown that occupants are happier, healthier, and more productive in wood environments. Collectively, the three buildings were constructed from 4,600 m³ (160,000 ft³) of 100% Certified Swiss timber. Considering the growth rate of Swiss forests, it would only take 10 hours to regrow this quantity of wood domestically!

▼三座建筑总共由4,600m³瑞士木材建造而成,the three buildings were constructed from 4,600 m³ of 100% Certified Swiss timber

 

为了人类和地球的福祉 | Well-being – for People and the Planet

除木材的生态效益之外,斯沃琪-欧米茄园区内还制定了许多其他的环保策略。为实现低能耗和更优质的工作环境,建筑采用了最先进的技术以实现无空调通风,如集散热辐射的自动式天花板,预埋到混凝土板中的水管、地暖等。三座建筑物的屋顶均装有光伏电板。该项目引进的每项技术策略旨在减少建筑物对环境的影响,同时作为所有未来建设的标准。除上述技术特征外,三座建筑物的设计均考虑到员工的日常体验,在增进办公空间舒适度的同时提高了工作效率。众所周知,木质环境有助于促进使用者的幸福感,欧米茄工厂则在一种洁净无菌的房间内试图融入木质的温暖。休息室配有全幅落地玻璃百叶窗,形成鲜明的开放空间。 斯沃琪总部宽阔开敞,整个建筑不仅造型立体、视线通透,还在增进沟通的同时促成开放与团结。得益于精湛的声学设计,工作区即使设置在同一个办公空间内也能保持适度的安静。

▼开放办公空间,open workspace

In addition to the ecological benefits of wood, the Swatch and Omega Campus has numerous other environmentally-conscious strategies. To achieve low energy consumption and a better working environment, state-of-the-art technologies such as radiative cooling and heating with activated ceiling panels are employed, as well as water pipes cast into concrete slabs, which allows for draft-free air conditioning. Ground water is used as a heat source in order to achieve a significant reduction of both heating and cooling power. The roofs of all three buildings are equipped with photovoltaic panels. Each technological strategy introduced into the project is intended to reduce the building’s impact on the planet, and serve as a benchmark for all buildings in the future. Beyond the aforementioned technical features, the three buildings are designed for employee comfort, promoting both well-being and productivity. Wood environments are known to contribute to greater occupant happiness. Whereas most clean rooms have a sterile aesthetic, the Omega Factory incorporates the warmth of timber. Its break rooms are equipped with full-height glass shutters, creating an indooroutdoor space. The Swatch Headquarters is vast and open, with three-dimensional physical and visual continuity throughout the building, promoting a feeling of openness and solidarity while improving communication. Thanks to its carefully tuned acoustic design, workspaces maintain comfortable noise levels even with a full office.

▼展示厅,showroom

 

面向未来的建造 | Building for the Future

坂茂从事木材的设计及建造已逾25年,并一直倡导采用可持续的建造方式。事务所目前的工作包括文化、艺术、商业和住宅设计等项目,每个项目都鼓励着人们重新思考建筑。斯沃琪-欧米茄园区的设计及施工同时关照到了使用者及地球的需要,其独特的建筑形态体现并传达了斯沃琪-欧米茄以及坂茂建筑设计的共同价值观。

Shigeru Ban Architects has been designing and building in wood for over 25 years, and continues to advocate for a sustainable approach to building. The firm’s current work includes timber cultural, arts, commercial, and residential projects, each with the capacity to change the way we think about building. The design and construction of the Swatch and Omega Campus carefully considers the needs of both the building inhabitants and the planet, resulting in a unique set of buildings that reflects the values of Swatch and Omega, as well as Shigeru Ban Architects.

▼木构细部,construction details

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