The Supreme Court of the Netherlands by KAAN Architecten

Finding a balance between conflicts and contradictions

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Appreciation towards KAAN Architecten for providing the following description:

KAAN Architecten设计的荷兰最高法院坐落于海牙市优雅的中心历史街区。这个长104米,宽22米它,高28米的巨大建筑,将为350名工作人员提供18000平方米的办公空间。建筑规则却又充满变化的立面将为城市带来更多的吸引力。沿Korte Voorhout街道一侧的前广场摆放了六座荷兰法学者的铜像,顺着种有悬林木的宽阔人行道一路向东,将会到达荷兰的议会大楼。入口大厅看起来像是从整块的大理石中挖凿出来一般轮廓分明,坚实的石材让立面上瘦长的玻璃幕墙和金属框架看起来稳固而可靠。大量看似对立的材质和建筑手法被组织在一起,正如最高法院本身的工作内容一样,在各种冲突和矛盾中找到平衡。尊贵而实用,厚实而空灵,粗野却精雕细琢——荷兰国家最高法院新址将展现建筑开放性和周全性的紧密关系。

Architecten has been decidedly integrated into the elegant historic city centre of The Hague. The building, which houses a staff of 350, verges on large: 104 meters long, 22 meters deep and 27 meters tall. These dimensions, with the measured vibrancy of its facades, add some allure to this part of the city centre. The plane trees and six legal scholars in bronze seated on pedestals make for a wide gateway on the Korte Voorhout, a royal route leading to the buildings from Parliament. The entrance hall seems to have been chiseled from a solid block of marble. It serves as a sturdy base for the superstructure of glass panels and slender latticework. These and other ostensible contradictions seem to reflect the work of the Supreme Court itself. Open and closed, distinguished and functional, hard and ethereal, rough and refined – all exist alongside routine business, on which judgments are passed with great clarity of mind.

▽ 从Malieveld park 看建筑,The building from the Malieveld park  © Sebastian van Damme

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▽ 从Malieveld park 近看建筑, A closer look at the building from the Malieveld park © Sebastian van Damme

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▽  Korte Voorhout 街道立面,Façade on Korte Voorhout © Fernando Guerra | FG+S(上,upper) © Sebastian van Damme(下,lower)

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▽ Gietkom运河和建筑,Façade overlooking the Gietkom canal © Fernando Guerra | FG+SG

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▽ 建筑主入口,Main entrance © Fernando Guerra | FG+SG

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▽  Smidsplein广场立面, Façade on Smidsplein © Fernando Guerra | FG+SG

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法院建筑的空间结构较为复杂,必须在有限的空间内组织出多条不交叉的流线,让前往旁听的城市居民、法院内部的工作人员以及需要出席审判的涉案人员互不干扰。进入建筑后直通办公空间的道路,连接法官工作区和法庭的道路,甚至卷宗运输的独立路线,这些建筑内部看似理所当然的不同流线其实是建筑师的心血结晶。法院作为公共建筑,不仅需要面向公众开放,建筑内部也需要有服务于群众的设施,比如法庭内的旁听坐席和法庭外的等候空间。但同时,建筑内也需要有让工作人员不受打扰的办公空间,让他们可以全神贯注地处理审判前后期的工作内容。

建筑师经过谨慎和小心的设计,确定了建筑的形态及其与外界的关系。铜像被整齐地排列,放置在建筑前方低矮的平台上,成为建筑与街道间的过渡空间。通透明亮的建筑立面让建筑在这个井然有序的市中心突出而不突兀。通过单个建筑小尺度的空间变化,达成大尺度城市设计中需要的空间效果。通过局部体量的凸起,建筑与周边环境产生了呼应。内部空间层数的划分在立面上也清晰可见。在一层,6米通高的落地玻璃让城市和建筑底层空间仿佛连为了一体。

A court building is by definition a complex structure, because it must have various routes of circulation that cannot intersect. Routes for the public sitting in on sessions, for the Council and Procurator General staff, and for the detainees escorted for their sessions in court; all are separate from one another. The staff have their own entrance that opens onto their workspace. The justices have their own way to the courtrooms. Even the dossiers have their own route. It is a mark of achievement that a solution was designed that allowed all the routing to seem completely natural.

Given the public nature of jurisdiction, court buildings need to be accessible to the public. They are not only open to the public, they also have facilities for the public, visitors galleries in the courtrooms and waiting areas in front of them. On the other hand, court premises must also provide excellent conditions for work that requires a high degree of concentration and work that takes place behind closed doors.

The positioning of the building in regard to its location was chosen resolutely and with care. The low plateau with its row of scholars creates a subtle transition. Through this zone the building attaches itself to the street and its breadth is moderated. The way in which the top line has been sutured ensures a soft presence and inclusiveness within the orderly roofscape of this part of the city. Larger-scale urban design is successfully achieved by way of smaller-scale architectural choices. The so-called ‘backpack’ is also an example of subtle insertion. This extension at the building’s back reaches out and connects with the surroundings. The glazing fits into the same story. The six-meter high windows on the ground floor pull the space of the entrance hall into the city.

▽ 设计分析图design diagram(体量,volume; 建筑入口和公共区域,entrance location and public area; 建筑形象,glass conscience; 公园侧视角,from the Malieveld park; 城市与建筑,the city and the Supreme Court; 公共活动区域,public space)

01_volume   05_entrance location     08_glass conscience

 

04_Malieveld     06_the wood in Supreme Court     07_public space

▽ 6座荷兰法学者铜像,背景为拉丁语的“当公正的法律陨落时,社会将迎来动荡。” Six bronze statues. On the background the Latin phrase “UBI IUDICIA DEFICIUNT INCIPIT BELLUM” by Dutch legal scholar Hugo de Groot (1583-1645) founder of international law and maritime law. English translation: “Where the methods of justice cease, war begins.” © Fernando Guerra | FG+SG

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▽(左,left)6座荷兰法学者铜像,Six bronze statues of Dutch legal scholars;(右,right)Joan Melchior Kemper铜像, Bronze statue of Dutch legal scholar Joan Melchior Kemper (1776 – 1824) © Fernando Guerra | FG+SG

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建筑一层的公共空间包括入口大厅、法庭和媒体中心,皆为两层通高的大型空间,横跨了整个建筑。高大的玻璃模糊了外侧街道与内部空间的界限。大堂内的地板部分上抬形成低矮的体块,既活跃了空间,又为访客提供了休息的座位。地板和墙面选用了具有天鹅绒般质地的浅灰色石灰石,散发着亲和力。

The entrance hall of the Supreme Court with courtrooms and the press area form the public area, a space double the floor height covering the full length of the building. The street zone of Korte Voorhout seems to flow through the six-meter tall glazing into the entrance hall. The floor of the hall has a geometric pattern in low-relief and is a landscape of sitting opportunities, dotted with loose, dark brown leather cushions, which meant that couches and chairs were unnecessary. The floors and walls are of a light grey limestone that exudes a velvety sensation.

▽(左,left)入口大厅和Korte Voorhout 街,左侧为荷兰画家Helen Verhoeven的油画“最高法院”Grand foyer space overlooking Korte Voorhout. On the left side the oil on canvas painting “Hoge Raad” by Dutch artist Helen Verhoeven; (右,right)玻璃幕墙细部,Glass façade © Fernando Guerra | FG+SG

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容纳400人的大法庭和80人的小法庭内的地板、护墙板和工作台都是橡木制成的,而法官身后,公众面对的背景墙则选用了具有棕色斑纹的透光汉白玉。

The large courtroom with public seating for around 400 visitors and the small courtroom for around 80 visitors have floors, wainscoting and an oak wood bench. The walls behind the justices in both courtrooms, which the public face, are of brown- veined translucent alabaster.

▽ 大法庭和透光汉白玉和背景墙面,Large courtroom with rear wall of alabaster stone © Fernando Guerra | FG+SG

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▽ 小法庭,Small courtroom © Fernando Guerra | FG+SG

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在入口大厅中央,两个法庭中间的方形内庭里,悬挂着来自荷兰画家Helen Verhoeven专门为此建筑创作的油画“最高法院”。这个4 x 6.5米的巨型作品反映了最高法院在荷兰社会历史中的地位。而这幅油画背景中的画作,则揭示着没有法律约束时社会的混乱景象。正如悬挂在大厅墙上,最高法院的箴言所说的:”当公正的法律陨落时,社会将迎来动荡。”

In the middle of the entrance hall, on the wall of the square inner courtyard between the two courtrooms, is a surprising painting by Helen Verhoeven commissioned for the spot. At 4 by 61⁄2 meters, this monumental work is quite a bit bigger than Rembrandt’s Nightwatch in the Rijksmuseum. Titled Hoge Raad, the populous painting gives an impression of the history of the Netherlands as a society and state, and the place of the Supreme Court within this. The paintings represented within the painting refer to the consequences when orderly justice is absent. This touches on the Supreme Court’s motto, words penned by Dutch legal scholar Hugo de Groot (1583-1645), founder of international law and maritime law: UBI IUDICIA DEFICIUNT INCIPIT BELLUM. Loosely translated the motto says: where legal justice falls short, armed struggle begins.

▽ 入口大厅和Korte Voorhout 街, Grand foyer and Korte Voorhout © Fernando Guerra | FG+SG

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▽ 入口大厅,Grand foyer © Fernando Guerra | FG+SG

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▽ 荷兰画家Helen Verhoeven的油画“最高法院”,  Painting “Hoge Raad” by Dutch artist Helen Verhoeven © Johannes Schwartz

03_Helen Verhoeven_installation photo close

在建筑的上层部分立面为全玻璃幕墙,以90厘米宽的玻璃面板和10厘米宽的连接部位组成。立面上的支撑结构和玻璃的接缝部位相一致,远远看去建筑立面仿佛是无需支撑,独立存在的。而这一切都建立在一个精心设计的细节上。

The windows on the floors above are of unified glazing, in panels of 90 centimeters with 10-centimetre joints, stretching the full height of the upper façade. There is an even division of vertical planes over the whole facade and the slender columns per window disappear in the radical rhythms of the frontage. From outside the facade seems to have no supporting columns. The entire concept is grounded in a single design detail.

▽ 立面细节,façade details © Fernando Guerra | FG+SG

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办公室的门框内置抽风装置,将屋内浑浊的空气抽到公共区域,再通过排风扇排出建筑。这套新型的抽风系统解放了屋顶空间,保证层高的办公区域在三米以上,宽敞而舒适。而门框复杂的结构也保证了走廊和办公室空间的隔音效果。

上层空间划分为两个不同的行政功能,一为理事,二为检察。两个部分的中央皆有自然光通过数个天窗进入建筑,各个部门围绕天井被串联在一起。这两个部分通过使用不同的材料得到辨识。在理事部建筑师选用了马尔马拉水平线大理石(Marmara Equator );在检察部建筑师选用了线条有机的天际线大理石(Skyline)。柔和的自然光线和耐用而体面的大理石让人回想起海牙历史建筑的内部空间。各层的中庭空间周围皆设置了包含茶水间和书柜的休憩空间,工作人员可在此坐着用茶或咖啡。此处,光从天窗倾泻下来,并提供了开阔的视野,为同事间的交流和非正式聚会提供了绝佳的场所。

All workspaces have regal ceiling heights of at least 3 meters. Usually in office buildings spent air is pumped away through air pipes that take up a lot of room in ceilings. In the Supreme Court building the jambs of the doorframes evacuate this air from the rooms to the open areas and ventilators above these transport the spent air out. A labyrinthine construction in the frames prevents sound leakage between workrooms and hallways.

Daylight in the heart of the building is very important, but the light wells and open atriums serve another important purpose for the building’s users. They form the core of the distinct domains of the Council and Procurator General. At the circumference of the openings each floor has pantries with coffee machines, seating and bookcases. The various departments are forged into unity around the central points of the building. The light, the sightlines across and up and down, and the open perspectives stimulate greetings and encounters, encourage an exchange of thoughts and opinions, advance the sharing of insights, and allow for informal relations in an infectious working environment. The balustrades around the opening are clad, on the open sides, with vertically striped marble. The series of balustrades one above the other, the stone flooring and the beautiful natural light recall the interiors of the historic townhouses found on Lange Voorhout or the Vijverberg. They also have associations with longevity and respectability.

▽ 检察部办公室中庭天井,Void in the Procurator General Office domain © Fernando Guerra | FG+SG

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▽ 大会议室入口和办公区走廊,The entrance to the large Council chamber and one of the office spaces © Fernando Guerra | FG+SG

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▽ 大会议室入口上方的大理石地图,The entrance to the large Council chamber with the historical map “’s Gravenhage en de omgelegen landstreek” etched on marble and originally illustrated by C. Sepp, after Cruquius (1757) (original kept at the Haags Gemeentearchief) © Fernando Guerra | FG+SG

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▽ 理事部工作区,Council domain  © Fernando Guerra | FG+SG

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▽ 理事部工作区的天井和休息区,Skylight in the Council domain with seating area at the circumference of the void © Fernando Guerra | FG+SG

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▽ 理事部下层休息区,seating areas on different levels of the Council domain © Fernando Guerra | FG+SG

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▽ 图书馆和学习区,Library and study places © Fernando Guerra | FG+SG

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▽ 最高法院和总检察长办公室区域,President of the Supreme Court and Procurator General office domain © Fernando Guerra | FG+SG

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在一天当中,法院的三个立面暴露在阳光下。这些立面采用了具有气候控制功能的中空玻璃面板。这些中空玻璃在隔热保温之余,还能隔绝室外交通的噪音。若需要,各窗户能单独打开,遮阳也能单独调节。这种可控的双层 保护为立面增添了层次感,使立面平整却又突出,以一种微妙的方法为整个建筑增添了优雅。

Three sides of the building are exposed to sun over the course of a day. These facades are climate controlled through the use of a spacious cavity in the glass casings: glass boxes that not only keep out the heat and cold, but also the sound of traffic outside. Nonetheless, the windows can be opened if desired, while still keeping wind and noise out of the interior. Sun blinds and light filters can also be individually regulated – the sun blinds are behind the first window and the light filters are behind the second. This individually controlled double protection produces a layered facade, flat and yet canted, a subtle nuance that adds even more elegance to the whole.

▽  Korte Voorhout 街道立面,Façade on Korte Voorhout © Fernando Guerra | FG+SG

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▽ 餐厅,Restaurant © Fernando Guerra | FG+SG

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在2016年4月23日周六,荷兰最高法院将迎来它的首个开放日,对公众全面开放。

The Supreme Court of the Netherlands will open to public on Saturday, 23rd March, 2016.

 

▽ 立面图,elevations

ckr573 hogeraad_gevels_zuid_

ckr573 hogeraad_gevels_oost_

地址:荷兰海牙市Korte Voorhout街8号 客户:荷兰中央政府不动产部 (Rijksvastgoedbedrijf)
建筑设计:卡恩建筑事务所(主持建筑师Kees Kaan, Vincent Panhuysen, Dikkie Scipio)
设计团队:Allard Assies, Luca Baialardo, Christophe Banderier, Bas Barendse, Dennis Bruijn, Timo Cardol, Sebastian van Damme, Marten Dashorst, Luuk Dietz, Willemijn van Donselaar, Paolo Faleschini, Raluca Firicel, Michael Geensen, Cristina Gonzalo Cuairán, Joost Harteveld, Walter Hoogerwerf, Michiel van der Horst, Marlon Jonkers, Jan Teunis ten Kate, Marco Lanna, Giuseppe Mazzaglia, Ana Rivero Esteban, Joeri Spijkers, Koen van Tienen, Noëmi Vos
设计周期:2012年12月至2014年1月 建造周期:2013年9月至2016年1月
主要承建商:“海牙之门”联合体:BAM PPP公司、PGGM公司、BAM建造与技术公司、荷兰ISS公司及卡恩建 筑事务所
结构工程:奥雅纳荷兰
电气工程:BAM建造与技术公司
机械工程:奥雅纳荷兰
施工监督:卡恩建筑事务所、BAM建造与技术公司
机电安装:BAM建造与技术公司
防火、舒适性、声学、安保:DGMR公司
空间声学:Level Acoustics公司
监造:CBB
停车:Wim van Vlierden
用地面积:2500平方米
总建筑面积:18000平方米(含地下停车场)
造价:5900万欧元
艺术作品:“最高法院”(布面油画,400*647cm, 2015) 艺术家Helen Verhoeven

Location: Korte Voorhout 8, The Hague (The Netherlands) Client: Rijksvastgoedbedrijf
Architect: KAAN Architecten (Kees Kaan, Vincent Panhuysen, Dikkie Scipio)
Design team: Allard Assies, Luca Baialardo, Christophe Banderier, Bas Barendse, Dennis Bruijn, Timo Cardol, Sebastian van Damme, Marten Dashorst, Luuk Dietz, Willemijn van Donselaar, Paolo Faleschini, Raluca Firicel, Michael Geensen, Cristina Gonzalo Cuairán, Joost Harteveld, Walter Hoogerwerf, Michiel van der Horst, Marlon Jonkers, Jan Teunis ten Kate, Marco Lanna, Giuseppe Mazzaglia, Ana Rivero Esteban, Joeri Spijkers, Koen van Tienen, Noëmi Vos
Design phase: December 2012 – January 2014
Construction phase: September 2013 – January 2016
Contractor: Consortium Poort van Den Haag: BAM PPP B.V., PGGM, BAM Bouw en Techniek B.V., ISS Nederland B.V. and KAAN Architecten
Structural engineering: Arup Nederland
Electrical engineering: BAM Bouw en Techniek
Mechanical engineering: Arup Nederland
Site supervision: KAAN Architecten, BAM Bouw en Techniek
Constructor mechanical + electrical installations: BAM Bouw en Techniek
Fire, comfort, acoustics, security: DGMR
Spatial acoustics: Level Acoustics
Building control: CBB
Parking advisor: Wim van Vlierden
Site area: 2.500 m2
Total floor area: 18.000 m2 (including underground parking)
Cost: 59.000.000 € (realisation)
Artwork: “Hoge Raad” (oil on canvas, 400 x 647 cm, 2015) by Helen Verhoeven

Drawings: KAAN Architecten
English Text: Ruud Brouwers
Chinese Text: KAAN Architecten/ gooood

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