Prefabricated modules for Baitasi Sharing Courtyard, China by dot Architects

Fabricated quadrangle

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非常感谢 度态建筑 将以下内容授权gooood发行。更多关于他们:dot Architects on gooood.
Appreciation towards dot Architects  for providing the following description:

度态建筑最近完成了为北京市白塔寺胡同区域设计的杂院预制模块。四合院是中国传统的合院式建筑,也是北京旧城最具有特点的民居形式。1950年代以来,四合院的居民为了改善居住条件,开始在院落中加建房屋,也就是所谓的“私搭乱建”。经过几十年的自发生长,居民搭建的结构跟四合院生长在一起,共同形成了“大杂院”,造成了胡同街区的衰败和旧城风貌的恶化。白塔寺杂院预制模块,就是为了解决私搭乱建问题作出的设计尝试。

dot Architects has created several prefabricated modules for a sharing courtyard in Baitasi ancient hutong area, Beijing.Being a traditional unique folk house in the hutongs, Beijing courtyard has a long history in Chinese architecture. Since 1950s, the ownership of courtyard house was converted from private to public, therefore the residents started to self-build illegal constructions inside the courtyards. These sheds attached to the old courtyard house, functioned as kitchen, toilet and outdoor storage to ameliorate the shortage of basic living facilities. After decades of spontaneous growth, courtyard house are infiltrated by self-built sheds, led to a cluster of irregular constructions which is named “Da Zayuan”, or Sharing Courtyards. The sharing courtyards have deteriorated the ancient hutongs, what once was traditional heritage site now becomes slums. Baitasi prefabricated modules aim to solve this problem by offering temporary living facilities to replace the illegal construction.

▼预装配式卫生间外观,prefabricated bathroom exterior view

私搭乱建的房屋改善了居民的生活条件,但是违反了政府部门对于胡同四合院管理的法规。建筑师必须要协调这两方面的冲突:满足老百姓对于生活质量提升的要求,还要遵守监管部门对于旧城更新的规章制度。最终的设计结果是一系列预制的装配式功能模块,放置在原先违章建筑拆除之后的院子里,用来实现卫生间、储藏等多种使用功能。

dot Architects has to address two seemingly contradictory issues: local residents want more space in the courtyard, and governmental agency has to remove all the illegal constructions. The design outcome is a set of prefabricated modules, placed in the sharing courtyard where those illegal sheds were once stood, and functioned as living facilities for those people living there.

▼从院子看卫生间,looking bathroom from courtyard

集成的卫生间和淋浴间是一个智能硬件模块,内有各种传感器,这些传感器连接控制了卫生间内外的设施。温控传感器可以感知室内温度,然后自动开启暖气加热设备。也可以通过手机端随时联网监控温度,并调整暖气的工作时长,控制室温。红外传感器能够感知室内是否有人使用,并控制门上的圆形液晶玻璃窗的透明度。当卫生间无人使用时,圆形液晶玻璃窗断电,显示为透明;当有人使用时,玻璃窗通电且半透明,阻隔视线,保证隐私。

The cylindrical bathroom is a wifi-controlled smart cube which has an integrated sanitary ware inside. The cube has a sensor to monitor interior temperature and operate the radiator if heating is necessary. Administrative staff of local community can constantly survey the thermal condition of any connected cube via their cellphones. There is a round shape window on the front door. This window uses liquid crystal glass, which is transparent when galvanized, translucent when the power is off. A motion sensor controls this shift of transparency. When nobody is inside the bathroom cube, the window appears to be a clear glass; when the toilet is engaged, an obscured window preserves the privacy of the user.

▼当卫生间无人使用时,圆形液晶玻璃窗断电,显示为透明,When nobody is inside the bathroom cube, the window appears to be a clear glass

▼当有人使用时,玻璃窗通电且半透明,阻隔视线,保证隐私,when the toilet is engaged, an obscured window preserves the privacy of the user

智能卫生间模块的设计突出整体感,外形向工业产品学习,采用了Unibody的设计语言。外墙采用工厂一次浇筑成型的超高强度混凝土板(UHPC板),并预先装配好保温材料和结构龙骨。内侧的卫生间采用独立的整体式卫生间产品。智能卫生间模块的长宽尺寸均为1.5米。在胡同狭窄的空间里,紧凑的外形尺寸让模块部件易于运输,装配流程也大大降低了施工时间和工作强度。

The smart bathroom looks like a piece of home appliance with an unibody outlook. It has an envelope made of prefabricated sandwich panels (insulation layer with UHPC cladding). The integrated bathroom/toilets inside is assembled onsite. The module has an overall size of 1.5×1.5×2.4 meter(WxDxH). The compact dimension facilitates the transportation and installation of the cube. This is very important in the narrow alleys in hutongs.

▼卫生间室内细部,bathroom interior view

现场在两个杂院内部布置了储藏模块。储藏模块同样采取装配式设计,把原先的违章房屋变成了现场可移动的大型组装家具。装配式结构以WikiHouse体系为原型,并根据胡同的条件和功能需求做了简化和修改,实现了工厂生产组件,平板包装运输和现场非专业人士装配。WikiHouse的建造体系可以适应各种场地,这样的储藏模块就可以适应不同杂院的空间条件,根据场地和功能需求灵活的变化。

There are two more street furniture placed in other courtyards. They are outdoor storage. These storage modules are compatible with the Wikihouse system, optimized for hutong context, digital fabricated, flat-packed and fast-assembled onsite. While the bathroom module is designed as an industry product, the wikihouse-storage module proposes a new dimension: open source, digital fabrication and self-build with new technology.

▼预装配式储藏空间#1,prefabricated storage space 1

▼平时关闭柜门节省空间,Closing doors to save space at ordinary times

▼使用时打开柜门变化形态,Opening doors to change the shape when using

▼细部,details

以上各种预制模块有不同的设计,满足不同的功能,但是都具备同一个特点:装配式结构。这些装配式的模块可以在胡同里快速搭建,无需专业工人和大型设备介入,可以通过互联网控制设备和监控使用。更重要的是,装配式的模块摆脱了传统房屋的结构和造型,具有产品性、非永久和可移动的特点,在满足居民生活需要的同时,也符合政府部门对于胡同四合院改造的政策要求,为多方介入的城市更新尝试提出了新的可能和方向。

All these prefabricated modules have different designs and fit into different scenarios. They have one thing in common: prefabricated structures. They can be fast-assembled in hutongs, do not rely on professional workers or construction equipment. Most importantly, these prefabricated modules are functional for the local residents, and legitimate for the administrative department. They offer a new dimension to the urban renewal of Beijing Hutongs, where the confrontation between the supervisor and the supervised could only be ended by multiple participation and mutual cooperation.

▼预装配式储藏空间#2,prefabricated storage space 2

▼柜门打开状态,Cabinet door open mode

▼柜门细部,Cabinet door details

项目信息
项目甲方北京华融金盈投资发展有限公司

模块设计度态建筑点造
完成时间:2017
项目地点: 北京白塔寺片区
设计团队朵宁张龙潇白玉明周正
院落整体更新设计清华大学_张悦
摄影孙海霆

Project Info
Client: Beijing Huarongjinying Investment and Development Co. Ltd

Project Design: dot Architects, dot Make
Completion Year: 2017
Project Location: Beijing, China
Design Team: Duo Ning, Zhang Longxiao, Bai Yuming, Zhou Zheng
Courtyard Renovation: Tsinghua University_Zhang Yue

Photographer: Sun Haiting

More: dot Architects更多关于他们:dot Architects on gooood.

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