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Appreciation towards Farmerson Architects (contact：firstname.lastname@example.org) + China New Rural Planning and Design for providing the following description:
We have been committing ourselves to the practice and exploration of public space in the countryside in recent years. In the process of urbanization and global economic integration, the rural space, however, still retains the pattern of farming period, characterized by the emergence of some new modernized houses and aging with time of the old houses, with rare phenomena of “radical transformation”. Nevertheless, the people, or the population pattern in rural areas changes dramatically. Youths and children are rarely seen, with only some elderly people and women being left behind, in the rural area due to the withdrawal and the relocation of the education and medical systems, the population reduction caused by “family planning” and the increasingly convenient transportation and communication. As a result, the rural areas become increasingly inanimate. Therefore, it is recommended to start with the issue of how to improve the rural “population pattern” concerning the renovation and revitalization of rural areas.
To renovate and build out public spaces, especially those which are visually appealing and high quality, is a crucial step to improve such pattern. In traditional rural areas each piece of land is owned by someone, while the collectively owned land is commonly used for production purposes, leaving little public space for cultural, leisure and life purposes. This kind of public space differs in rural areas of different developmental levels due to spontaneous and conscious or special planning. As a social place that anyone is admitted to, public space is of great significance in either forging more intimate neighbourhood in rural areas and building rural public cultural life or attracting non-native population and thus achieving urban-rural symbiosis.
▼舞台概览，view of the mountain stage
A pair of wing-shaped mountain gates will be placed on a dam near the village that leads to the mountain, and a stage with spread wings will be installed by the built pool. These are two ideas for the rural renovation design of Shantou Village, Zhoucun District, Zibo City. The village is characterized by unified style, clean streets and nearly perfect infrastructure, but the quality of public space still needs to be improved and the more vitality needs to be added to it. We hope to arouse the enthusiasm of the people to participate in public activities and revitalize the village by virtue of designing buildings with dynamic images.
▼山门概览，view of the mountain gate
The public tends to evaluate the architecture starting with their “forms”. That explains why building nicknames such as “Big Pants”, “Bird’s Nest” and “Boiled Eggs”, are often more popular in the mass communication. In fact, on the other hand, it also highlights the high popularity enjoyed by those buildings. Thus, the designer dares to design the landmark mountain gate and stage right by Shantou Village at the foot of Fenghuang Mountain in Zhoucun District starting directly from the “form”. Then, the designer designs these two buildings with the starting point of highlighting the formal dynamics, offering them fervent colors and arousing the vitality of the site.
▼标志性的山门——设计以彰显形式张力，放任色彩热烈，激活场地活力为出发点，iconic mountain gate-designer designs these two buildings with the starting point of highlighting the formal dynamics, offering them fervent colors and arousing the vitality of the site
▼激发乡村活力的舞台，the stage intimates the village
The Shantou Village is named after a hilltop called “Fenghuang Mountain”. It is neither tall nor special in appearance. Many citizens from the nearby Zhoucun District, however, still come here and climb in their spare time as there are plenty of trees. Zhoucun is located in flat plain, and Fenghuang Mountain is precious because of the nearest distance. Shantou Village is the only way which must be passed to climb the mountain. The word “山 (mountain)” in Chinese is a pictographic character with two wings on both sides. “Fenghuang (Phoenix)” depicts the image of flying, with wings spreading. The combination of the word “山 (mountain)” and the image of spread wings form the image which spreads wings in both sides and raised in the middle. This is the image motif for the buildings. After studying Chinese ancient architecture for years, the designer has gotten the essence of the overhanging eaves in Chinese ancient architecture — just like a bird or a pheasant with its wings spreading (Quoted from the “Book of Songs · Xiaoya”). Compared with the Western architecture which tends to be decorous and solemn, the Oriental ancient architecture represented by Chinese wooden architecture seems to be more plain yet elegant. The rather plain and light design is focused on by the designer. Therefore, in contrasting with the ancient Chinese hip roof and gable roof and other images ,this light image and the form of wings spreading are recognized by the designer.
▼建筑展翅形象构思，conception of the buildings with wings spreading
A certain span in the middle is required for the stage. The entire roof needs to be supported by pillars on both sides: a typical freely supported structure. From the point of view of mechanics, if a freely supported beam is subjected to uniform load, its bending moment diagram will be a concave arc upward on both sides. Then, if the roof structure is designed in a shape similar to the bending moment diagram of freely supported beams, will the beams be subjected to uniform load and bending? On the spot, the architectural image of the arch upward against the sky is presented on the top of the dam according to the cambered suspension bridge.
▼舞台受力分析，load analysis of the stage
▼山门设计草图，sketch of mountain gate design
▼设计师在现场透过弧形的悬索桥画下了弧形反宇向天的建筑形象，on the spot, the architectural image of the arch upward against the sky is presented on the top of the dam according to the cambered suspension bridge
Chinese ancient architecture is particularly about not only the image of roof, but also the setting of the pedestal. The dam with pools in the front and back on which the mountain gate of Fenghuang Mountain is located serves as the pedestal of the mountain gate, equipped with base for water to flow through. The pedestal of the stage is setted by seven-step high brick platform, with steps that can either be used for walking or as benches, which makes the stage become more functionally inclusive.
▼砖台作为舞台的基座，可走可坐，brick platform, as the base of the stage, can either be used for walking or as benches
▼舞台主体为木制双梁结构，屋顶斜撑逐级抬高，形成双翼，the stage is designed with the double-beam structure and braces for the roof are raised step by step to form the image of two wings spreading
The structure is the image, free from garish decorations. The extended bent structure, four pillars and three bays layout is adopted for both the stage and the mountain gate. The stage, with a span of more than 8 meters, is composed of wooden structure solely. The upper and lower beams are adopted, the roof is diagonally braced with short pillar which is encased with double boards in depth to achieve the stability in a larger span and form the stable structure. In addition, each bent is designed with three wooden sway braces reaching out step by step from different angles to enable the load to be transferred between the beams and the pillars. Gradually varied cant beam and sway brace contribute to the vivid image of the building which is concise, clean and charming. Such form of cant beams raising step by step is also adopted for the two wings of the mountain gate that are made of steel structures and extend in a large span.Rainwater will flow into the middle as it is high on both sides. The middle is raised, with two drainage ditches, to drain rainwater off. The middle of the stage is designed with the double way gradient，forming a bird house image. The mountain gate is designed with a steep double way gradient nearly independent of anything else, braced by several staggered sway braces, thus forming the visual center of two wings spreading.
▼山门中亭与两翼间亦形成排水沟，in the mountain gate ，drainage ditches are also formed between the pavilion in the middle and its wings
▼门两翼利用斜撑逐级抬高，构成展翅形象，the wings of the mountain gate are also raised step by step with sway braces to form the image of wings spreading
The public space is required to have a comfortable place for sitting and resting inside. With wooden benches on both sides of the stage, the stage plays the role for villagers to rest on as “veranda” does. The mountain gate narrows the distance between the two pillars in the middle, with a passable road on both sides and benches in intervals in the middle. The mountain gate allows villagers to sit and enjoy the scenery and chat together.
▼山门中间两柱间距变小用来设置座凳，the distance between the two pillars in the middle of the mountain gate narrows and benches are setted up
▼山门木制座凳设靠背，四面可坐，便于观景、闲坐，the wooden benches at the Mountain gate are designed with the back which allows villagers to sit on all sides for sightseeing and sitting
To pay tribute to tradition, the designer has designed and personally inscribed plaques and couplets for both structures. The stage and nature are taken into account for the design of lighting. The wooden structure of the stage is painted in coffee while the Mountain gate in bright red. To follow the tradition and reject the normcore.
▼设计师为山门匾额题字，the plaque of the mountain gate is inscribed by the designer
显形|Appealing wings spreading
As the sun rises from the distant horizon from the east, the main facades of the mountain gate and the stage are facing east. These two wing-shaped structures seem to echo with the sunrise and spread gently, thus revealing their vivid postures. The water at different heights on the east and west sides of the mountain gate reflects the visible wings, sometimes quiet, sometimes rippling with the waves. The middle-aged or elderly female villagers dressed in green come here and dance jovially, and the red corridor and green shadows add a lot of vitality to the silent mountain village.The public space in the village begins to play a significant role.
▼日出、晨光、山门、水面、倒影，静谧和谐，The sunrise, morning light,mountain gate, water surface and reflection contribute to a quiet and harmonious scene
Although we agree that traditional culture should be expressed and reconstructed from a more in-depth perspective rather than deliberately formalized and symbolized., so as to give up the entanglement of forms and dig deeper connotation.However, in the folk, especially in the countryside, how to use simple and plain language to express the respect for tradition, and make common villagers easily understand and love,this starting point is more attractive to us. Although the “normcore” spreads from urban areas to rural areas, we continue to firmly follow the trend of the “lively style”. We firmly believe that gaudy and showy as well as noisy and complex style and varieties in forms should not be excluded from the space constructed by architects.
▼夜晚的舞台，stage at night
▼山门的展翅形象在夜晚更具韵味， wing-spreading image of the mountain gate at night has special charm
▼红色山门倒映在水中，the red mountain gate at night is reflected in the water
▼夜晚的山门、水面与凤凰山，mountain gate, water surface and Fenghuang Mountain at night
Symbiosis is required. Our attention has been paid to the symbiosis of space, of man and nature, of urban and rural areas, of human beings and of man and objects. Globalization urges us to shout to the world: to strive for symbiosis together!
▼舞台透视，perspective of the stage
▼舞台构造逻辑，construction logic of mountain gate
▼山门构造逻辑，construction logic of the gate
▼山门平面，mountain gate plan
▼舞台东立面，elevation of the east facade
▼舞台北立面，elevation of the north facade
▼山门北立面，north elevation of mountain gate
▼山门东立面，east elevation of mountain gate
▼山门剖面，mountain gate section
项目设计 & 完成年份：2018.02—2018.11
Project name: Mountain gate and Stage Design of Fenghuang Mountain of Shantou Village
Design: Urban-Rural Symbiosis Studio (CRNPD)
Contact e-mail: email@example.com
Design year & Completion Year : Feb. 2018 — Nov. 2018
Leader designer & Team: Leading architect: Fang Musheng
Project Execution Host: Su Yaling
Complete List of the Design Team: Wu Yun, Liu Wenwen, Ma Jiale, Sun Jiaoyang, Wang Langkun and Zhao Junlong
Project location: Shantou Village, Southern Suburb Town, Zhoucun District, Zibo City, Shandong Province
Gross Built Area (square meters): 320 square meters
Photo credits: Fang Musheng, Su Yaling and Ma Jiale
Clients: People’s Government of Zhoucun District of Zibo City, People’s Government of Nanjiao Town of Zhoucun District and Shantou Village Committee of Nanjiao Town