All climates like exceptions. Warmer when it is cold. Cooler in the tropics. People do not resist thermal shock well. Nor do works of art. Such elementary observations have influenced the Louvre Abu Dhabi. It wishes to create a welcoming world serenely combining light and shadow, reflection and calm. It wishes to belong to a country, to its history, to its geography without becoming a flat translation, the pleonasm that results in boredom and convention. It also aims at emphasizing the fascination generated by rare encounters. – Jean Nouvel
设计 | Design
Pritzker-prize winning architect Jean Nouvel sought inspiration for the concept of Louvre Abu Dhabi in traditional Arabic architectural culture. Taking a contextual approach to the site, Nouvel designed Louvre Abu Dhabi as a ‘museum city’ in the sea. Its contrasting series of white buildings take inspiration from the medina and low-lying Arab settlements. In total, 55 individual buildings, including 23 galleries, make up this museum city. The façades of the buildings are made up of 3,900 panels of ultra-high performance fibre concrete (UHPC).
▼博物馆设计融合了阿拉伯建筑文化的内涵（渲染图）， the design was inspired by traditional Arabic architectural culture（renders）
▼“光之雨”是整个设计的核心所在，the rain of light created by the vast dome is one of the defining features of the concept
A vast dome, 180 metres in diameter, covers the majority of the museum city and is visible from the sea, the surrounding areas and Abu Dhabi city. This dome was constructed by the Austrian company Waagner Biro who specialize in steel structures. The dome consists of eight different layers: four outer layers clad in stainless steel and four inner layers clad in aluminium separated by a steel frame five metres high. The frame is made of 10,000 structural components pre-assembled into 85 super-sized elements, each weighing up to 50 tonnes.
▼直径达180米的巨大圆形穹顶覆盖了博物馆之城的主体，a vast dome, 180 metres in diameter, covers the majority of the museum city
The dome’s complex pattern is the result of a highly studied geometric design. It involved close collaboration between the architectural design team at Ateliers Jean Nouvel and the structural engineers at BuroHappold Engineering. The pattern is repeated at various sizes and angles in the eight superimposed layers. Each ray of light must penetrate the eight layers before appearing then disappearing. The result is a cinematic effect as the sun’s path progresses throughout the day. At night, it forms 7,850 stars visible from both inside and out. Named the ‘rain of light’, this effect has been the subject of many models and mock-ups over the years and is one of the defining features of the concept.
▼穹顶近景，a close view of the dome
▼穹顶共包含8层结构，the dome consists of eight different layers
▼穹顶结构拆解分析，the dome layers
The dome is supported by only four permanent piers, each 110 metres apart. These are hidden within the museum buildings to give the impression that the dome is floating. The interior dome elevation is 29 metres from the ground floor to the underside of the cladding. The highest point of the dome is 40 metres above sea level and 36 metres above ground floor level. The museum design is a collaboration between traditional design and modern construction techniques. The tranquil environment encourages visitors to enjoy the ever-changing relationship between the sun and the dome and between sea, buildings and land. The complex engineering concept made Louvre Abu Dhabi one of the most innovative and challenging museum projects to be built in recent times.
室内展览空间 | Interior exhibition spaces
The interior exhibition spaces, comprising museum galleries, temporary exhibition spaces and Children’s Museum, make up 8,600 square metres. The museum galleries incorporate approximately 6,400 square metres and showcase approximately 600 artworks. The two-stories-Children’s Museum completes the ensemble with approximately 200 square metres specially laid out for Louvre Abu Dhabi’s youngest visitors.
▼功能区域分布示意， museum programme
博物馆画廊 | Museum galleries
Specially designed by Ateliers Jean Nouvel, the floors, walls and ceiling surfaces of the museum galleries re-enforce the palatial dimensions of Louvre Abu Dhabi. The floor paving is made of stone modules framed in bronze: throughout the galleries, the choice of stone responds to the period of the artworks on show. The walls provide hanging flexibility: all subsidiary equipment may be concealed within special wall slots.
▼画廊内部，interior of the museum gallary
▼自然光经过穹顶的过滤形成梦幻的效果，the filtered natural light brings a cinematic effect as the sun’s path progresses throughout the day
▼天花细部，detail of the ceiling
Filtered natural light can be present in all the galleries, either from lateral windows with views onto the surrounding environment or through zenithal lighting. This involves the use of glass mirrors to capture sunlight and direct it into the gallery spaces while also scattering rays to avoid glare. There are 17 glass ceilings within the museum galleries. Each is made up of 18 different types of glass panels. In total, there are over 25,000 individual pieces of glass. These glass ceilings incorporate both natural and artificial lighting to provide an optimal lighting system for the artworks on display.
▼地面石材呼应了展品诞生的年代，the choice of paving stone responds to the period of the artworks on show
▼墙壁提供了灵活的挂画系统，the walls provide hanging flexibility
▼玻璃天窗将光线捕捉并导向画廊内部，glass mirrors are used to capture sunlight and direct it into the gallery spaces
The display cases were also specifically constructed by Meyvaert in Ghent, Belgium for Louvre Abu Dhabi. They incorporate state-of-the art materials and have been designed to adapt flexibly to the rotation artworks on display.
▼特别定制的展柜，the display cases were specifically constructed for Louvre Abu Dhabi
To meet stringent environmental control requirements within the museum galleries, the design team developed a system which cannot deviate by more than one degree from 21 degrees centigrade or 5% humidity range. This guarantees exceptionally stable environmental conditions for artworks and visitors. Fire detection and suppression systems within the galleries require special measures in order to avoid damage to the artwork.
▼温控系统使艺术品免于受到损害，control systems require special measures in order to avoid damage to the artwork
环境 | Environmental features
Passive design techniques use the natural form of buildings and inherent properties of materials to improve climatic conditions. Together, these techniques achieve the following benefits: 42% reduction in solar gain; 27.2% reduction in energy use; 27% reduction in water use; Louvre Abu Dhabi’s design is targeting a LEED Silver rating and has achieved a 3 pearl Estidama Design Rating. At the beginning of the construction process, the museum was built within a dry dock. Construction of the dry dock began with the installation of a rock embankment, technically known as a revetment. This created a new, temporary coastline on the south-west corner of Saadiyat Island, which was then backfilled using sand pumped from the sea bed. Louvre Abu Dhabi is protected from the open sea by approximately 280 marine piles as well as concrete breakwaters, tidal pools and a specially designed ‘wearing wall’ system.
▼穹顶下方平面图，plan without the dome
▼首层平面图，ground floor plan
▼永久展厅平面图，plan of permanent galleries
▼永久展厅剖面图，permanent galleries sections
Built up area 97,000 M²
All gallery spaces 8,600 M²
Permanent galleries 6,400 M²
Exhibitions 2,000 M²
Children’s Museum 200 M²
Auditorium 420 M² / 250 seats
Concept Design: 2006 – 2007
Design Development Phases: 2007 – 2012
Construction: 2013 – 2017
LOCATION: Saadiyat Island, Abu Dhabi
OWNER:TCA (Abu Dhabi Tourism & Culture Authority)
CLIENT: TDIC (Tourism Development & Investment Company)
CLIENT ADVISOR:AFM (Agence France-Muséums)
ARCHITECT/ MUSEOGRAPHY: Jean Nouvel (Ateliers Jean Nouvel – Paris, FR)
PARTNER ARCHITECT: Hala WARDE (HW architecture – Paris, FR)
ARTISTIC COMMISSION: Jenny HOLZER, Giuseppe PENONE
PROJECT LEADERS: Achitecture / Interior Design / Museography : Jean-François BOURDET, Anna UGOLINI
Design: Sabrina LETOURNEUR, Frédéric IMBERT
Construction: Damien FARAUT, Athina FARAUT
SENIOR ARCHITECTS: Rolando RODRIGUEZ-LEAL, Mireia SALA FONT, Anne TRABAND, Michal TREDER, Natalia WRZASK
Concept phase: Raphael RENARD, Reda SLAOUI, Youssef TOHME, Qiang ZOU
Design Development phases:
Project Manager: Stefan Zopp, Kris GELDOF
Roula AKIKI, Alessandro BALDUCCI, Jessica CALDI, Camille DAUTY, Mark DAVIS, Stacy EISENBERG, Marion FOUCAULT, Steven FUHRMAN, Virginie HECKLE, Stéphanie MENEM, Abel PATACHO, Miguel REYES, Reda SLAOUI, Kathryn STUTTS, Jordi VINYALS, Sébastien YEOU
Construction : Mariam ABUEBEID, Sara AL SAWI, Kelly ANASTASSIOU, Donna ASHRAF, Jessica CALDI, Daniella DE ALMEIDA, Fay EL MUTWALLI, Steven FUHRMAN, Maryam HOSNY, Zaina KHAYYAT, Stéphanie MENEM, Youmna NAJJAR, Miguel REYES
Floriane ABELLO, Lucas DUMON, Isabella GARBAGNATI, Jaiyao HUANG, Tanguy NGUYEN, François ZAB
Artefactory (Eric ANTON)
Jugulta LE CLERRE (HW), Clément OUDIN, Raphael RENARD
Rafaelle ISHKINAZI, Marie MAILLARD, Léo GRUNSTEIN, Clovis VALLOIS
Esquisse Concept Design: ARUP
Phases d’etudes Schematic Design: BuroHappold, Transsolar
Façades : Andrew SNALUNE
Chantier Construction: BuroHappold
Museography: Renaud PIERARD
Graphic design, signage: Philippe APELOIG, Kristian SARKIS
Lighting Design: 8’18”
Scenography, multimedia: dUCKS scéno
Landscape: Michel DESVIGNE, Jean-Claude HARDY
Interior Design: Eric Nespoulous / JND
Acoustics: Studio DAP
Cost Consultant: MDA Consulting
Photo credit: ©Roland Halbe © Louvre Abu Dhabi ©Jean Nouvel Architecte ©Giuseppe Penone
Chinese text: gooood