Topic: Atelier Deshaus – ChinaLong Museum West Bund

Awaken and stimulate visitors’ perception and imagination of space

Project Specs

Design Firm:
Location:
Materials:

gooood对一些机会和条件合适的项目推出深度报道,希望将项目更立体的表达展现。
今次gooood就大舍建筑Atelier Deshaus的最新作品:龙美术馆(西岸馆),十问大舍建筑主持建筑师柳亦春。

单纯的结构与材料铸就了纯粹而有力的空间。建筑本真之美直击人心。它脱离了建筑小圈子范畴,而实实在在激荡社会—–唤醒并激发访客对空间的感知与想象—-无论专业建筑人士还是非专业建筑人士。其展示艺术,承载艺术,本身也是艺术。
—-gooood编辑部评语

(出品人 Producer:向玲 XiangLing  王耀华Yaohua Wang)

▼东南立面 southeast facade

龙美术馆西岸馆位于上海市徐汇区的黄浦江滨,基地以前是运煤的码头,设计开始时,现场有一列被保留的上世纪50年代所建的大约长110米、宽10米、高8米的煤料斗卸载桥和两年前已施工完成的两层地下停车库。

新的设计采用独立墙体的“伞拱”悬挑结构,呈自由状布局的剪力墙插入原有地下室与原有框架结构柱浇筑在一起,地下一层的原车库空间由于剪力墙体的介入转换为展览空间,地面以上的空间由于“伞拱”在不同方向的相对联接形成了多重的意义指向。机电系统都被整合在“伞拱”结构的空腔里,地面以上的“伞拱”覆盖空间,墙体和天花均为清水混凝土的表面,它们的几何分界位置也变得模糊。这样的结构性空间,在形态上不仅对人的身体形成庇护感,亦与保留的江边码头的煤料斗产生视觉呼应。建筑的内部空间也得以呈现一种原始的野性魅力,而有着大小调节的空间尺度以及留有模板拼缝和螺栓孔的清水混凝土表面又会带来一种现实感。这种“直白”式的结构、材料、空间所形成的直接性与朴素性,加上大尺度出挑所产生的力量感或轻盈感,使整个建筑与原有场地的工业特质间取得一种时间与空间的接续关系。

地面以上的清水混凝土“伞拱”下的流动展览空间和地下一层传统“白盒子”式的展览空间由一个呈螺旋回转、层层跌落的阶梯空间联接,既原始又现实的空间和古代、近代、现代直到当代艺术的展览陈列,这种并置的张力,呈现出一种具有时间性的展览空间。

▼主入口main entrance

Long Museum West Bund is located at the bank of Huangpu River, Xuhui District, Shanghai Municipality, the site of which was used as the wharf for coal transportation. Before the commencement of the design, a Coal-Hopper-Unloading-Bridge of about 110m in length, 10m in width and 8m in height, which was constructed in the 1950s, is remained with a two-storey underground parking completed as early as two years ago.

The new design adopts the cantilever structure featuring “vault-umbrella” with independent walls while the shear walls with free layout are embedded into the original basement so as to be concreted with the original framework structure. With the shear walls, the first underground floor of the original parking has been transformed to an exhibition space with the overground space highlighting multiple orientations because of the
relative connection of the “vault-umbrella” at different directions; besides, the electrical & mechanical system has been integrated in the “vault-umbrella” structure. As to the overground space covered by the “vault-umbrella”, the walls and the ceiling feature as-cast-finish concrete surface so that their geometrical dividing line seems faint. Such structure cannot only shield the human body in conformation but visually echoes with the
Coal-Hopper-Unloading-Bridge at the wharf. Moreover, the building’s internal space can also represent a kind of primordial and tameless charm while the spatial dimension, large or small, and the as-cast-finish concrete surface with the seam among moulding boards and the bolt holes bring a sense of reality as well. The directness and simplicity resulting from this “literal” structure, material and space plus the sense of force or
lightness because of large-scale overhanging style enables the overall building’s continuation of the industrial property of the original site, not only in time but in space.

The flowing exhibition space under the overground as-cast-finish concrete “vault-umbrella” and the “white box” exhibition space on the first underground floor are connected with spiral ladders downward. The parallel tensility highlighting the space, primordial but realistic, and the art exhibition from the ancient, modern and contemporary periods, has displayed an exhibition space featuring the temporality.

▼当代艺术展览空间 第一层contemporary art gallery 1st floor

 

1
gooood: 请问如何确定结构,结构形式,还有材料的。

柳亦春:建筑设计从来不是必然分析的结果,很多时候,有项目的具体情况,还有建筑师一段时间的思想,二者交织在一起,形成一个选择。这个项目正处于我对结构从技术表现到空间作用之间状态的研究深感兴趣的时期。以结构的方式介入一个地形(场地),并与之形成一个整体的场所感,也正好和场地原有工业构筑物的一些特性相符合,所以确定结构、材料都是很快的事情。回想整个设计的过程似乎很简单,关键点就是如何将建筑的
问题转化成对结构系统的思考,在这个过程中对场地、功能的分析是同步进行的。比如说原来场地内地下室已经造好,而且是框架结构,现在要叠加的一个因素是美术馆,需要展览、展墙。通常的美术馆中,我们很容易想到用石膏板做展墙,但是这个时候我就想展墙能否与结构性的墙体合二为一,这会不会是一件更好的事情?对于我来说这个判断是很直接的,也正是我所希望的。所以设计的第一步就是想把原有的框架结构转换成墙体结构,以此来对应建筑由车库至美术馆的功能转换。

那么紧接着的关键问题是,上层新的墙体结构如何与下层原有老的框架结构进行转换。在这里还要解决新的墙体最终如何形成一个大空间的问题。综合这些因素,我们可能要抽掉一排柱,然后空间被分成两跨,那么这两跨间的空间如何被覆盖?这时结构问题就又变成覆盖空间的问题,即在结构站立的基础上再叠加一个关于空间的因素。当然这也意味着最后的结果不仅形成了覆盖,它其实还有一个架构,存在于空间之中。

这个过程,就是如何把一个基于结构的技术性要素,通过空间和场地的介入将它转换成空间的要素,再进一步转换成文化的要素的过程。当然这里的文化要素既包括建筑与原有场地的工业文明之间的延续性,也指涉整个建筑学的历史。在整个设计的过程中,对于这种转换的思考是有意识的,不过也只有到了最后,才变得明确。

确定了结构形式,与之力学性能以及建造方式相匹配的混凝土材料的出现,也是自然而然的事情。

 

2
gooood: 这个项目最大挑战之处?

柳亦春:最大的挑战之处就是整合机电设备吧。把空间收拾的纯粹,虽然空间的纯粹并不是建筑好坏的必然选择,但是选择了这样的方式,就得相对纯粹到底才行。这个在一开始,并没有十足的把握。

 

3
gooood: 对这个项目有觉得遗憾的地方吗?是什么?未来如何改进。

柳亦春:比较遗憾的是对于光线的处理还没能做到有效控制。对于建筑空间、光线等效果的控制,建筑师一方面需要依赖于经验,依赖于专业分工中的有经验者。另一方面一个团队不可能对任何情况都存在经验,比如对一种新透明度的彩釉玻璃的透光效果的了解,这时就需要通过实样和实验来判断。在这方面,这个项目一方面由于工期紧张,时间条件比较苛刻,另一方面对于如何利用并调动社会资源展开实验判断也是经验不足,丧失了一些比较和选择的机会。不过同一个遗憾应该不会出现两次,新的成就经常就在于相同的想法和做法在下一次得以成功。

 

4
gooood: 越纯粹也许越需要功夫去隐藏复杂,比如其它设备专业,这一点上请分享一些体验和心得。

柳亦春:对于建筑、结构和机电专业的整合,这个在我们的设计中一直是深受重视的。在国内的设计院中,专业之间的配合一直是建筑师常常抱怨的难题。长期以来形成的经验是,一般我们都替各个专业把系统线路等都想的差不多了,讨论妥当,然后一次性让他们画完,少让其他专业改图,前提当然是建筑师已经基本预先把各专业与建筑效果之间的事情都想清楚了。这要求建筑师对其他专业的关键知识比较了解,同时还得具有良好的协调能力,最关键的,他还得继续保有对建筑学概念的赤诚之心。不过这对于比较小规模的项目是有效的,规模一大就难说了。

 

5
gooood: 您提到了对结构系统的思考,以及用结构的形式介入一个地形,并与之形成一个整体的场所感。在龙美术馆中,通过您对场地的描述,我可以感觉到这种思考。那么你是否可以再举些类似结构思考的例子,比如,除了这个伞型结构外,您的结构研究族谱中,还有什么其他的形式,以及他们是怎么和其他的场地作用的。

柳亦春:并不是所有的项目都可以结构的方式介入,但结构作为建筑得以站立的“骨骼”在任何项目中都可以承担重要的空间作用,它也可以是隐于建筑的构件意义之后的,比如一堵墙究竟是分隔墙还是承重墙并非是需要分辨的。结构最终是应该退隐于空间的意义之后的,但设计中建筑师将结构置于怎样的地位,其设计的结果会有很大的不同。

大舍最近的一个步行桥的设计也关注了结构与场地相适应的方式,由于河流的两岸高差状况比较复杂,我们以三叉桥的形式去适应岸边的三个不同的高差,这三点就作为桥梁结构的三个支点,分别以不同的固定端、可滑动端以及相互的拉结来平衡桥梁的挠度和推力,所有结构构件在场地空间中的位置都与空间的各种要求有关,比如通航、过人、防汛、无障碍设计等各种要求,结构既适应了场地,它自身也是一个完整的结构体。

 

6
gooood: 关于这个伞型结构,在您眼中,这是否是唯一可以契合场地要求的结构系统,在设计时,是否对其他的系统也有过探讨?

柳亦春:这个伞形结构肯定不是唯一的答案,在设计时我们也做过拱形的结构比较,结构师认为伞形结构相较拱形结构更为合理。伞形结构不过是一个非常个人化的选择,它恰好可以解决一些问题以及建筑师对空间的诉求,不同的建筑师肯定会有不同的设计。就结构系统本身,随便什么框架结构肯定也都是可以契合场地的,但要形成现在的空间组织及其氛围,伞形结构是已经给出的答案。

 

7
gooood: 在大众点评网上,不少老百姓评论展品的同时,也对博物馆的建筑进行了评论,比如“上海最好”“很赞”。同时不少人提到整个博物馆中最有价值的一系列藏品(苏轼,祝枝山,文征明,司马光,张大千,吴冠中,溥儒,徐悲鸿,林风眠,慈禧,乾隆,齐白石,傅抱石,宋徽宗,吴彬等等)都被放在地下一层,而不是地面体积更大的空间中。为什么要进行这样的展示布局设置。相比地下,地面上体积更大的空间更适合什么样的展览,决定区别的原因是什么,设计博物馆的定位是什么样的?

柳亦春:这个美术馆在开始设计时是定位在当代艺术的展览,施工图已经完成后,才决定也将古代和近代艺术的展示放进来。古代艺术展品通常是放在玻璃展柜里的,对展出环境要求较高,近代的架上绘画也都是在传统的“白盒子”里以人工光源的方式展出模式较多,所以将这一部分放在已建成的地下一层空间里是很直接的选择。地上的空间则都留给了当代艺术,当代艺术展览形式多样,大尺幅的绘画、装置,等等,且不断涌现新的艺术形式及其作品,在艺术作品与空间互动上存在更多的可能性。很多当代艺术家看了这个空间之后都在计划为这个空间创作艺术作品,这也是建筑师在设计时所预计的结果。

▼古代艺术展示空间与下沉式庭院ancient art gallery and the sunken courtyard

 

8
gooood: 博物馆空间主材是清水混凝土。不久前,一名在其它事务所工作的驻场建筑师告诉我:在中国,清水混凝土通常被认为是无法做到国外优秀建筑那样的品质,主要环节出在加工时间原因,这是无法协调和不可协调的。他的话让我感到了清水混凝土在中国是一种会被回避的材料,即便他工作的事务所项目完成度很高,也会在施工现场被这样的难题困扰。博物馆项目大量使用了清水混凝土这个材料,关于这个材料,您可否分享多一点的经验,怎样才能实现完美的施工效果,如果出现瑕疵怎样修补,混凝土保护剂的选择和心得等等。

柳亦春:清水混凝土的浇筑过程有这样几个因素比较重要。第一,关于时间。清水混凝土的浇筑必须要保证从商品混凝土搅拌站混凝土搅拌完成运`输到工地在1小时内完成,然后不同车次的浇捣间隔不能超过3小时。如果说中间遇到交通堵塞等状况,混凝土浇筑就会出现问题。所以选择搅拌站、
运输时间和路线都是要考虑的因素。第二,关于色差。首先要满足使用的水泥是同一批次,实际上是和搅拌站商量好一个批次的混凝土只供给这个项目的工地,这个是需要特别沟通的。混凝土的批次确定之后,需要进行配料的研究,因为除批次影响外,混凝土表面会因不同的配料呈现不同的颜色、质感。龙美术馆的项目先由混凝土的施工单位根据他们的经验配了七八种,各有差异,我比较喜欢较浅、较白的颜色。于是向他们询问差距在哪里,最后发现是由于粉煤灰和矿粉比率不同造成的。他们通常都希望粉煤灰较多,以保证混凝土有较好的塌落度,不容易出现混凝土底部空鼓烂根。但是多加粉煤灰会使混凝土色质变深,我不是很想要。如果矿粉较多,颜色会变浅,但可能会出现浇捣不密实,产生一些小的砂眼,这是他们比较担心的,而我恰好觉得这样挺好。讨论中发现他们对质量的要求标准和建筑师是不同的,他们所担心的可能正是建筑师觉得好的,这时建筑师的判断就显得很重要。所以最后我选择了配料只有矿粉,而没有添加一点粉煤灰的配比,这时颜色最浅,也比较润,表面有一种透明感。

清水混凝土的浇筑是难免会出现瑕疵的,其实也不用太担心,现在的混凝土保护剂及其修补技术非常高超,浇坏的地方基本可以修补,其实有点瑕疵、色差有时反而更真实。清水混凝土施工过程最需要控制的是误差,因为通常门窗洞口不会再有抹灰去调节误差了,一堵墙的边缘、洞口不垂直或者不水平是最要命的,这个完全靠工人的质量控制和施工水平了,龙美术馆的施工误差最大到了6cm,这个给洞口里的门窗幕墙的安装带来了很大的困扰,不得不用其它办法来弥补校正,相比较日本的清水混凝土浇筑误差只允许5mm,不然就得敲掉重来

▼当代艺术展览空间 第二层contemporary art gallery 2nd floor

 

9
gooood: 6cm的最大误差在中国来讲真的是很小了。同时也没想到日本对待施工精度这么严格,差距5mm就要敲掉重来。在中国,施工队很难有这种意识,同时施工现场的很多难以控制的事情会让建筑师感到无力,除了上面提到的精度不高,材料偷换等情况也普遍发生。这使得理所当然的建筑完成度这种事儿在中国变得特别可贵。从建筑师在中国能够通过努力而实现高质量建筑的角度看,柳老师能分享多一些关于这个建筑现场的故事和经验吗?

柳亦春:在我国,确实很多时候不能依赖于施工单位能够按图施工去实现比较好的质量,特别是有特殊质量要求的,这时建筑师所能掌握的资源或者信息就很重要。比如一个我们以前经常使用的瓦楞穿孔板,其实并不贵,但施工总包有可能报出一个比较高的价格,导致业主可能会放弃使用这个材料,如果建筑师能够提供比这个价格低的质量好的信息,当然事情就会有转机。就像这个项目,我们知道中建八局清水混凝土做得好,然后推荐给业主,就有了现在的比较好的结果,如果当初不做这样的努力,结局很可能不是这样,施工质量做不好,建筑师压力也会很大,好像也是他犯的错误一样。建筑师在项目施工过程中投入比较大的精力,也会影响到工人,就像这个项目,清水混凝土第一块模板拆下来,工人们也很激动,之前之后干活的尽头和态度也有明显变化,他们也觉得在做一件不仅仅是挣到钱的工作,也觉得是一件对他而言前所未有的事情,他们也为他们的成果而自豪。

 

10
gooood: 通过这个建筑,柳老师现在对建筑哪些方面的问题感兴趣?为什么,是如何思考的?

柳亦春:我想通过这个建筑,一个是对建筑和结构之间的关系比较有了兴趣,不仅仅是技术上的,更多的是文化上的,空间背后的有关思考质量的问题,这个思考的质量如何反过来在空间营造中发挥作用。还有就是对于光线在空间中的作用,以及光究竟意味着什么有了更深的认识。不同的介质可以为室内带来怎样的光,不同季节、不同天气、不同方位的光可以为室内带来怎样的气氛,是很微妙的事情。

▼当代艺术展览空间 第二层contemporary art gallery 2nd floor

 

1
gooood: How to decide the structural form and materials?

LIU Yichun: Architectural design is never an inevitable outcome of analysis. In most cases, the solution is born from an interweaving of the specific conditions of the project and a long-time consideration of the architects. When working on this project, I was at a period deeply obsessed with the relationship between the technical performance and spatial performance of the structure. The architectural structure is inserted on site, integrating with the whole space and matching well with the characteristics of the existing industrial structures. Thus the structure and materials are quick to determine. Looking back, the whole design process seems very simple, where the key point lies in the transformation of thinking from the architecture to the structural system. During the design process, the analysis of the site and functions proceed synchronously. For example, the original site includes a basement parking, which is the frame structure. Now for the purpose of this project, a gallery shall be inserted for exhibition, and thus an exhibition wall is needed. It’s naturally to think about constructing the exhibition wall with gypsum board as widely practiced by most galleries. But at that time, I considered that why not integrate the exhibition wall and structural wall as one? Maybe it’s a better solution. For me, this decision just came to my mind very directly and as I wished for. After decision made, the first step is to consider how to transfer the original frame structure to the exhibition wall, thus to realize the functional transformation from the garage to the gallery.

Then, the following problem is the transformation between the new wall above and the old frame structure below. Moreover, how to form a large-scale space with the newly-added walls is another problem to be solved. In order to answer all these questions, we have to remove a row of column to separate the space into two spans. But how to cover the space between the two spans? Then the problem transfers from the structure to space-covering, i.e., a new spatial problem is added besides the original structural one. The final solution solves both problems in a perfect way, forming a cover for the space while creating a structure in the space.

Actually, this is a process changing the structure-based technical element to the spatial element with the involvement of space and site and then further changing to the cultural element. Here, cultural element includes the continuity of industrial civilization embedded in the building and the original site, as well as the entire history of architecture. The awareness of such changes goes through the whole design process, but only becomes
definite and clear when it comes to the end.

Once the structural form is settled, it’s very natural to choose concrete which is of mechanical property and construction mode matching to the structure.

 


gooood: What’s the biggest challenge of this project?

LIU Yichun: I think it’s the layout of mechanical and electrical equipment. I want to create a clear and pure space. Though purity is not the norm judging the quality of a building, since I choose it, I will achieve it to the utmost. However, I’m not so sure that I can do it perfectly at the very beginning.

 

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gooood: What’s your regret in this project? And how to improve in the future?

LIU Yichun: The lights are not well controlled. The management of architectural spaces, lights and other effects relies on the architects’ experience and the specialists in these fields. However, it’s not possible that a team has rich experience in all realms related, for example, we need samples and experiments to know more about the light transmission effect of the color glazed glass of new transparency. Owing to the strict time limit and the lack of experience in mobilizing social resources to do experiments, we lose some opportunities for better choices. But the same regret will know appear a second time. The new achievement is usually achieved based on the former failure.

 

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gooood: The more pure the building is, the more difficult to hide the complexity (e.g. mechanical and electrical equipment). Could you please
share your experience?

LIU Yichun: The integration of building, structure and mechanical and electrical equipment is highlighted through the whole design process. In China, we often hear architects’ complaints about the ineffective cooperation among these different fields. Referring to this problem, my experience is: generally, we will map out the wiring system first and then do some adjustment through discussion with the specialists, then ask them to finish the drawing one time to minimize further changes. Of course, the premise is that the architects have to figure out clearly the relation between the building itself and the other elements. This requires the architects have a good command of the key knowledges of the other fields, a good coordination capability, and most importantly, a sincere heart towards the architectural concept. I know this method is effective to the small-scale project. Whether it works on large-scale project? I have no idea either.

 

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gooood: You mentioned the reflection on structural system as well as intervening such “structure” into a space to form a unified whole. In this project, I can feel such reflection through your description of the space. Could you please share more similar examples from your structure research except for this “vault-umbrella” and how does the structure react with the space?

LIU Yichun: Structural intervention does not fit for all the projects. However, as the “skeleton” upon which a building stands, structure has a very important function in space for all projects. It may be hidden from the definition of structural members, for example, people do not need to distinguish whether a wall is built for partition or load-bearing. As a final result, it shall be hidden from the space. However, the design result will be greatly differentiated based on how the architect values the structure.

In our recent footbridge project, we also considered the integration between the structure and the space. The elevations between the two sides of the river are different and complex. To solve this problem, we designed a three-line bridge to accommodate the three different elevations and took the three points as the supporting points of the bridge to balance the deflection and thrust through different fixed ends, slidable ends and the force balance among the structures. The positions of all the structural members are related to the spacial requirements, such as passage, flood prevention, barrier-free design, etc. The structure shall be a complete whole while adapting to the site.

 

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gooood: In this project, is “vault umbrella” the only structure that fits to the site? Have you considered other structures during design process?

LIU Yichun: Definitely, the “umbrella” is not the only answer. We also considered the vault structure in the designing process, but the structural architect thought that “umbrella” was a more reasonable choice. The choice of this structure is very personalized since one thousand architects will present one thousand designs. In this project, “umbrella” is chosen to solve some problems and fulfill the architect’s expectation towards the space. Other structures can also fit to the space if we only consider the structure itself, but to form the current space organization and atmosphere, “umbrella” is the given answer.

▼当代艺术展览空间staged contemporary art gallery

 

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gooood: On dianping.com, people also comment on the museum building besides the items on display. Many people gave compliments like “the best museum in Shanghai”, “Wonderful!” Some mentioned that the most valuable collections in the museum (such as the works of Su Shi, ZhuZhishan, Wen Zhengming, Si Maguang, Zhang Daqian, Wu Guanzhong, Pu Ru, Xu Beihong, Lin Fengmian, Cixi, Qianlong Emperor, Qi Baishi, Fu Baoshi, Emperor Huizong of Song Dynasty, Wu Bin, etc.) are placed in the basement rather than the larger space on the ground, why? What kind of exhibits are more appropriate to be displayed in the upper space? What’s the reason for such arrangement? What’s the positioning of Long Museum?

LIU Yichun: This museum was originally designed to display contemporary artworks. The ancient and modern parts were incorporated after the completion of the construction drawings. The ancient artworks, which are usually placed in the glass showcases, have high requirements on the display environment. The modern paintings are placed in the traditional “white box” and lightened by the artificial light sources. So, it’s very natural to display these two parts underground while leaving the upper space to the contemporary artworks. The contemporary artworks are various in forms, such as large-scale paintings, installations, etc. Moreover, the emerging new art forms and works bring more possibilities for the interaction between art and space. Many architects, after visiting the space, plan to create artworks for it. This is the result we anticipated in designing process.

 

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gooood: The main material used here is bare concrete. Lately, an on-site architect from another architecture firm told me that: “In China, the quality of bare concrete is not able to reach the foreign standards. The core reason lies in the processing time, which is irreconcilable.” His words made me feel that the bare concrete is not favored and commonly avoided in China. Even though his architecture firm is good at high-quality projects, he is also harassed by such problems on site. Bare concrete is applied in this project. Could you please share more experiences regarding to this material, e.g. how to achieve perfect construction effect, how to remedy the defects, how to choose the concrete protective agent, etc.?

LIU Yichun: There are some influential factors during the concreting process. First, time. The time shall be controlled within one hour from the concrete mixed in the mixing plant to transported in the site. The concreting intermission time of different trucks shall not exceed three hours in case of the traffic jam which will lead to unfavorable results. Therefore, the site of the mixing plant, transportation time and routs shall all be considered. Second, color differentiation. To avoid this problem, the concrete used shall be the same batch. That is to say, you have to negotiate with the mixing plant to supply the same batch to this project. Besides, ingredient is another issue to be settled because different ingredients will result in different colors and textures. In this project, the construction company, based on their experiences, prepared about eight types of concretes of different colors and textures. I prefer the lighter and whiter one. I asked them about the reasons leading to such differences and was told that it was resulted by the different ratio of coal ash and mineral powder. Usually, they tend to add more coal ash to ensure a satisfactory slump, thus to effectively avoid emptiness, bloating and rotting at the concrete base. But more coal ash will darken the concrete, which is not what I want. More mineral powder brings lighter color, but they worried that it may lead to un-compactness and small air blisters. Well, on the contrary, I like the blisters. Through discussion, I found that they held different quality standards from the architects’. What they worry about may be exactly what the architects want. At this time, the architect’s judgment becomes very important. So in the end, I chose to use the formula only containing the mineral powder without a little bit of coal ash to gain the lightest color and most smooth texture which present a sense of transparency.

Defects are hard to be avoided in the process of concreting. Actually, it is not necessary to over-worry. Nowadays, the protective agent and repairing technology are greatly advanced. We can remedy the defects easily. Sometimes, defects and color differentiation make the structure more real. Error shall be strictly controlled in the construction process of bare concrete, because the open structures such as the door and window will not be plastered to offset the error. It is a serious problem if the edges and openings are out of the vertical or level. The error is determined by the quality control and skills of the workers. The biggest error of Long Museum is 6cm. That caused great trouble for the installation of doors and windows. We have to adjust the error through other ways. In Japan, the error of bare concrete shall be controlled within 5mm, or the concrete member shall be smashed and rebuilt.

▼当代艺术展览空间 地下一层contemporary art gallery B1

 

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gooood: Unfortunately, 6cm is already considered to be a little error in China. The stringency of construction in Japan is far beyond our imagination, that they will smash and rebuilt the concrete if the error is over 5mm. Chinese construction teams seldom have such strict construction consciousness. Additionally, there are many elements at the construction site which beyond the architects’ control. Apart form low construction accuracy, some constructors even replace building materials in construction. All these lead to a low construction completeness in China. Do you have any story or experience about how to improve the construction completeness to share with other architects?

LIU Yichun: Well, in China, we can never rely on a construction team to achieve good construction quality by just giving them a construction drawing, especially projects with particular construction requirements. Thus, the architect should master good resources or information. We used to use corrugated perforated plate in construction. it’s cheap indeed, however, the general contractor may offer a higher price in construction which may cause the client to give up on it. But things may turn around if the architect knows a corrugated perforated plate of low price and good quality. In this project, we recommended bare concrete of China Construction Eighth Engineering Division Co ., Ltd . to the client and it turns out good. We wouldn’t achieve such a good result without these efforts. Otherwise, if the construction quality is low, the architect may feel great pressure and guilty. The hard working of the architect will also set up a good example to the workers at construction site. In this project, the workers were excited to see the first building template of the bare concrete to be moved away, and they work harder after that, because they believe they were not just work for money, they felt pride for been part of the construction.

 

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gooood: After the construction of the building, which aspects of architect aroused your interest? Why and what’s your reflection on these?

LIU Yichun: Well, though the construction I began to research the relationship between architecture and structure. It’s not merely about technique, it’s more about culture, thinking of the problem of quality, and how this thinking affects space construction. Then the role of light in construction, and I got deeper understanding of the meaning of light in construction. Lights are different through different mediums, and lights of different seasons, different weather and different directions will bring different atmosphere to the house, it’s quite delicate.

▼西南立面southwest facade

▼从河流方向看建筑view from the riverside

▼西北立面northwest facade

▼入口门廊entrance porch

▼当代艺术展廊staged contemporary art gallery

▼当代艺术展廊一层contemporary art gallery 1st floor

▼当代艺术展廊二层contemporary art gallery 2nd floor

▼总平面Masterplan

▼一层平面1st floor plan

▼二层平面2nd floor plan

▼地下一层平面B1 floor plan

▼剖面sec-SE-NW

▼剖面sec-SW-NE

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