Jinlong Prefab School, Shenzhen, China by Crossboundaries

Accelerated architecture for a rapidly developing & thriving district

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背景:时间紧,任务重

深圳,作为一线城市和高科技之都,伴随着城市高速发展与人口的膨胀之间的冲突所带来的压力,其中就包括公立学校资源短缺。与另一个拥有1,500万人口的广州(拥有961所小学)相比,深圳只有344所小学。[1]

▼项目位置,location ©Crossboundaries

深圳坪山区位于“广深科技创新走廊”最东端,是深圳“东进战略”重要支点,承担着连接深汕特别合作区、辐射粤东经济圈枢纽的作用。2017年设立伊始,城市人口净流入突增,2018年秋季学位供应极度紧张,为早日缓解片区就学压力,区政府2018年火速立项,要用一年时间为本区新增一批学校。

2018年7月,Crossboundaries受中建科技有限公司邀请,在约1.6万平米的场地上,共同设计一所规模为36个班的公立小学。

▼锦龙学校,Jinlong Prefab School ©吴清山

建筑师们面临的,首先是功能多的巨大挑战,在实际场地面积仅约1.6万平方米的场地内,容积率接近于2.5 (一般学校建筑容积率为1左右)。校园设计必须满足教学、宿舍、活动等各种功能;同时,又有着紧迫的时间压力,从立项到交付学校,设计、建造周期仅仅13个月。要知道,就一般教育类建筑而言,一所高品质学校从设计到竣工,通常需要2-3年时间完成。

▼鸟瞰,aerial view ©吴清山

 ▼功能轴测,function diagram ©Crossboundaries

In 2018, Crossboundaries designed a 36-classroom school, to be located in the newly established Pingshan district in the Chinese metropolis Shenzhen. The venture was not only an attempt to maximize the potential of prefab architecture but also an opportunity to realize and to contribute to a project of significant social impact.

The Challenge: a scheduled opening date within about 13 months (which normally requires 2-3 years) and a relatively small site of roughly 16,000m2 for a school campus that has to cater to a manifold of functions.

Result: A multifunctional, predominantly prefab structure, with maximum flexibility and aesthetic personality through design accents whilst providing clever solutions for a high-density project.

▼时间轴,timeline

 

狗尾草:高密度下的冉冉生机

“时间有限,预算有限,场地更加紧张” Crossboundaries的联合创始人董灏说: “考虑到孩子将在这里度过六年的童年时光,我们希望能创建一所人性化、以人为本的学校,我们希望为在未来快速扩张的城市提供一种解决方案。”

Crossboundaries的建筑师们, 通过立体花园、多层通廊、趣味色彩等方式,破解着由于高密度带来的重复和压迫感,一片片的狗尾草,象征着高密度下,建筑师对生活要充满冉冉生机的坚持。

▼建筑外观,exterior view ©杨超英

 

立体花园:山谷幽兰 暗藏玄机

有别于传统校园布局——通常将体育场推到外围区域。在这里,建筑师为同学们创造了一个“高-低-高”的起伏山谷。

▼功能剖面图,programme section ©Crossboundaries

▼校园一角,campus view ©吴清山

体育场位于教学楼与宿舍楼之间,这不仅是在位置上进行功能划分,更是在楼群中心位置形成立体连接,这里既是交通枢纽,又呈现“中心舞台”感。

▼体育场视角,view from the sports field ©吴清山

为解决场地面积有限与功能多之间的冲突,建筑师将位于教学区和宿舍楼之间的体育场抬至3层高度,成为一个立体花园,在不同高度上,处处可见狗尾草和花朵。立体花园下面安排有对日照要求不高的体育馆、剧场和食堂等功能。

▼抬升空间,the elevated space ©吴清山

▼中心区域篮球场,basketball court ©吴清山

运动场跑道贯穿了整个校园,连接教学楼及宿舍,方便行人自由移动和交流。位于3层的运动场离不同楼层的教室更近,下课10分钟,孩子们最多上下2层,便可到达运动场进行休闲活动。体育上下的空间更优化了流线,公共走廊可便捷连接教学楼和宿舍楼。

▼优化的流线,an optimized circulation ©吴清山

三栋教学楼的中位于中间的一栋被简单的折叠了一下,使得建筑之间的开放空间变得不规则而独特,它们之间的院子形状现在被定义为有趣的多边形,而不仅仅是简单的正方形。

▼教学楼之间内院,inner yard ©吴清山

 

层层通廊:巧思设计,处处“南北变通途”

三栋教学楼中位于中间的一栋不仅在形体上被折叠,而且走廊也呈“S”形折线,以便与旁边另外两个教学区进行交流。

▼教学楼动图,teaching building gif. ©Crossboundaries

为了更顺畅地连接这三栋建筑里的行人,每栋楼的走廊都与主运动场的相邻场地相连,形成一个更大范围的通道网络,让学生在不同的教室里有更多的自由活动也增加了他们的互动。

▼中心区域大楼梯和宿舍大楼梯
the grand central stair and the dormitory stair ©吴清山

▼中心区域大楼梯,the grand central stair ©吴清山

走廊将教学楼在不同层次上相互连接,也与相邻的高架运动场的相邻区域相连。它们形成了更大范围的网络,促进行人的自由活动和学生在不同教室之间的积极互动。

▼交通空间,stair well ©杨超英

▼宿舍楼大楼梯,the dormitory stair ©吴清山

 

趣味色彩:黄蓝对比色运用

为增加学校设计的趣味性,建筑师用欢快的黄蓝对比色,作为功能区域的显著识别标志。蓝色表示路径与走廊,黄色表示停留与社交。

▼总体规划,massing  ©Crossboundaries

▼教学楼走廊,corridor of the teaching building ©杨超英

斜阳西下:南北通透的自然条件,蜜色阳光:穿过楼群,洒向操场,徐徐晚来风,孩童在其间嬉戏奔跑,轻拂过孩童脸庞。在各种色块的衬托下,运动活动中心色彩斑斓,宛如巴比伦空中花园一般自然绽放。

▼运动场看向北侧,view to the north from the sports field ©吴清山

▼欢快的黄蓝对比,a joyful contrast between yellow and blue ©吴清山

 

乐高学校:装配式下的趣味组合

“装配式,给人重复、无趣的刻板印象,我们的目标正是打破同一类型的刻板重复。” Crossboundaries的联合创始人蓝冰可 (Binke Lenhardt) 说: “我们看到了创造一种微妙但却有节奏感的立面的可能性,来对抗原本完全平坦的立面,我们通过利用多样的开窗方案、预制面板厚度和色彩搭配来实现。使用预制板,决不意味着一定要无趣!”

最终,在整个学校项目里,约75%的建筑面积是以装配式建设的,这极大地减少了现场建筑垃圾、劳动力投入,且所用工期仅为常规施工的1/2,节省了预算和时间。

在采用装配式结构的同时,Crossboundaries的建筑师们强调了最大的灵活性和美学性,同时又为高密度项目提供了巧妙的解决方案。这一大胆的设计,不仅是试图最大程度地发挥装配式建筑的潜力,并且为实现具有重大社会影响力的项目做出贡献的机会。

▼项目中约75%的建筑面积是以装配式建设的 ©杨超英
prefabricated structures were adopted to a maximum, for approximately 75% of the project

 

宿舍楼 – 让标准化不再呆板

宿舍楼——面朝锦龙大道。锦龙大道是通往学校的主要街道之一,从远处可以清晰地看到宿舍楼标志性的立面。建筑师采用了三种不同厚度和色调的预制面板组成了立面,最厚的面板为浅灰,中厚度的面板为中灰,最薄的面板为深灰。三种面板通过参数化设计,被分布于建筑的立面。

▼宿舍楼外观,dormitory building ©杨超英

作为校园宿舍楼不同层次的空间,建筑师在不同高度嵌入了大尺度的黄色公共空间活动区域,为住宿师生提供了交流和聚会的空间。它们打破了大量标准化宿舍单元的重复性所引起的拥挤和统一感。

▼宿舍楼动图,diagram gif.

▼运动场看向宿舍楼,view from the sports field ©吴清山

▼宿舍楼前的孩子们,children playing outside the dormitory building ©吴清山

 

教学楼:趣味组合的外立面

教学楼的窗洞,构成了节奏变化的立面。身处工业区,厂房与大片集装箱单调冰冷,在灵动开窗映衬下,学校凸显特别又毫无违和感。

▼节奏变化的立面,the facade varies in its rhythm ©杨超英

在三栋教学楼中,建筑师共采用了六种不同宽度的预制板,通过预制板错位排布,窗户大小尺寸交替变化,使教学楼立面产生了变化, 一些选定的窗户开口周围还设置了带有黄色突出金属框作为装饰,凸显视觉上的趣味性。

▼一些选定的窗户开口以黄色突出金属框作为装饰
some of the opennings are highlighted by yellow metal frames ©杨超英

朝向走廊一侧,设计考虑到了深圳当地的亚热带气候。许多学校大楼的公共区域保持开放状态,为了实现最佳的外观效果及空气流通,将由穿孔金属板构成的轻质外墙应用于教学建筑,这除了具有功能优势外,还赋予了其更多的视觉效果,并揭示了背后的色彩和师生的活动,也对空调室外机起到了隐藏作用。

▼穿孔金属板构成的轻质外墙,
the light facade built with perforated metal panels ©杨超英

▼穿孔板外墙整体,overall view to the facade ©杨超英

 

小结:对公立学校发展局限性的创造性

Crossboundaries已经不是第一次设计一所预算和土地使用都有限制的公立学校。依托以往专业积累,打破了固有思维模式,Crossboundaries大胆运用了预制+装配式设计,达到缩短建造周期、降低建设成本的目的。

▼夕阳下的校园,campus in the sunset ©杨超英

作为主流教育机构,公立学校服务于社会中的大多数的家庭,因此覆盖了更广泛的学生群体。Crossboundaries 所设计的锦龙学校不仅引入了最大化的交流与互动空间,也提出了一个应对未来快速扩张的特大城市的远见。

▼整体鸟瞰,aerial view ©杨超英

▼场地航拍,site aerial view ©吴清山

引注:[1] 数据摘自网络,为2018年数据。

 

Background

As one of China’s first-tier cities and hi-tech capitals, Shenzhen is facing some practical challenges due to its rapid population expansion, among them an overall public-school shortage. To put it into context, compared to Guangzhou, another Chinese megacity with a comparable population of 15 million with 961 primary schools, Shenzhen has only 344 primary schools.[1]

Shenzhen’s Pingshan District, which had been officially established in 2017, with large numbers of city dwellers moving into high-density residential areas nearby, was predicting for autumn 2018 highly exceeding enrollment numbers in its schools. A fact that led the government to approve quickly several Prefab projects at once, giving itself just a bit more than one year to add a few more schools to its district. Crossboundaries, having already made a name for itself with other school architecture projects in China, took on the Jinlong Project. Obligatory and part of the brief was the use of as many concrete prefab components and metal composite elements as possible.

“Looking at the briefing, there appeared to be so many limitations,” says Hao Dong, Founding Partner of Crossboundaries,” limited time, a limited budget, a potentially limited creativity due to the mandatory use of prefab, a very small site area, with all those functions to integrate. Then again, we were extremely intrigued to take on this project, to create a human, people-oriented school within all those limitations, and at the same time to still be as creative as possible, in designing a space that provides a solution for a realistic problem that we all have to face in quickly expanding cities in the future.”

Infusing flexible individualization into repetitive standardization.

In the Jinlong School Project, Crossboundaries adopted prefabricated structures to a maximum, for approximately 75% of the project. This dramatically reduced on-site construction waste, required wet construction, labor input and the necessary construction period, thus saving budget and time. Due to the use of a local, Shenzhen based prefab elements factory, transportation costs were kept to a minimum. Additional advantages such as energy conservation, environmental friendliness and earthquake resistance were also incorporated.

The architects managed to give the school a distinctive aesthetic quality, its very own individual design character, whilst also paying attention to people-oriented spatial relationships. The overall complex hence represents a concise layout solution, with a compact conceptual approach. Modular applications are mainly used in the residential and educational buildings (e.g. dormitories, teaching and other classrooms) whereas public spaces and some other areas are configured in more conventional construction methods.

Crossboundaries integrated and introduced a combination of variations in an overall unified façade. For the three teaching buildings, the architects applied six kinds of prefab panels, with different width and different arrangements of window openings. Although the classrooms on each floor share the same layout, each of them has a different external wall.

This becomes especially evident on the outside, with the windows appearing in an alternating rhythm in sizes, vertical and horizontal rectangular shapes, also resulting in a change in density on the façades. Additional accents are set with yellow, protruding metal frames around selected window openings.

The color concept further defines circulation areas (paths and corridors) in blue and meeting hubs for children/students (e.g. in the dormitory) in yellow. Yellow is therefore indicating zones where people stay and socialize, and move less.

“We aimed to break the rigid repetition of the same paneling, and to incorporate visually appealing highlights for the campus. We saw the potential to create a subtle, but rhythmic rise and fall of elements, to work against the otherwise totally flat façade surface of the dormitory building for example. We achieved this in making use of available window opening panels, in different panel thicknesses, and through color accents of course. Using predominantly prefab doesn’t necessarily mean having to be dull!” explains Binke Lenhardt, Crossboundaries’ Partner and Co-Founder.

The middle wing of the three teaching buildings was twisted a little, thus making the open spaces between buildings a bit more irregular and more unique, the shape of yards in between them are now defined as intriguing polygons, instead of being just simply square shaped.

For the dormitory building – highly visible from afar and facing Jinlong Boulevard, one of the main access streets to the school – the architects composed the façade out of prefab panels in different thicknesses and different color hues. The most protruding ones are the brightest, the most set back ones the darkest. Evenly distributed openings function as balconies with a setback façade for the dormitory rooms behind them and allow for more depth in the overall appearance of the surface.

Clever Interventions in a high-density space.

With a construction area of more than 50,000m2 and a site area of only around 16,000m2, the plot ratio of the Jinlong project is almost 2.5, representing a quite high index for a school. Due to the high density of the project, coupled with the extremely tight deadline and the demand to accommodate a manifold of functions, it was essential to design the public spaces following practical and at the same time clever considerations, trying to avoid repetitiveness and a sense of oppression as well as to set aside space for future educational innovation.

Because of the small site area and the high demand of functions, some areas of this school are elevated to arrange more public and common spaces on the lower levels. In conventional campus layouts the sports field is pushed to the peripheral area, disconnecting it from the learning spaces. The Jinlong campus positioned the running track in the middle of the campus between the residential and educational zones and is lifted up on a platform to allow for other sport areas, art, library and multifunctional spaces below. At the same time the sports field with its recreational qualities is in closer distance to the higher classroom floors, optimizing circulation.

The lower level becomes the cross-connection for the campus, a public corridor that runs through the whole length of the site, linking the educational and residential quarters, while on the site’s wide stretch bringing together the entrance zone on one side with the adjacent future neighborhood on the other.

Corridors connect the teaching buildings on different levels to each other and also to adjacent areas of the adjoining, elevated sports fields. They form a larger scoped network, facilitating pedestrian’s free movement and student’s active interaction out of different classrooms.

In the dormitory building, incorporated at different heights and emphasized in yellow, are multiple large-scale public spaces, to provide communication and meeting spaces for the dormitory’s residents. They break the crowded and uniform feeling, the density evoked by the repetitiveness of the large number of residential units.

The school campus’ design also takes into account the local, subtropical climate in Shenzhen. A lot of the school complex’s public areas remain open and were not closed off like the classrooms, labs or other special areas. In addition, in order to allow for optimal air circulation, light facades composed out of perforated metal panels were applied to the teaching buildings, which – apart from their functional benefit – giving it additional visional qualities, revealing colors and movements behind.

A creative, human response to the limitations of public-school development

It was not the first time, that Crossboundaries designed a public school, with budget and land use limitations. Actually, these public projects are more common than school projects backed by abundant budgets. As mainstream educational institutions, public schools serve the majority of families in a society and therefore reach a much broader group of students. The design, together with the educational philosophy are targeted to a much larger audience and have potentially far more impact on future education – which made it such an intriguing project.

Crossboundaries responded to the challenge, to an imminent, realistic problem of the school shortage due to expected enrollment numbers. Space and budget limitations, the obligatory use of prefab components led the architect to deal in a most creative way with possible variations and modular explorations within the (at first glance) rigid given parameters. Crossboundaries delivered with the Jinlong Prefab Primary School not only a human space for education and with substantial social impact, a hub for communication and interaction – but also a future vision on how to deal with similar projects in tomorrow’s quickly expanding mega cities.

[1] Source: He Huifeng in South China Morning Post, China Economy
https://www.scmp.com/economy/china-economy/article/3024730/shenzhen-set-be-chinas-new-model-city-why-are-parents-losing Published: 29 Aug, 2019

▼一层平面图,plan level 1 ©Crossboundaries

▼剖面图,section ©Crossboundaries

项目名称:深圳市坪山区锦龙学校
地址:中国,广东省,深圳市,坪山区
客户:深圳市坪山区建筑工务局
场地面积:16,172 m2
建筑面积:54,465 m2
学生总数:1,620人 (预测2025年学生数)
设计周期:2018年7月-11月
建设周期:2018年11月-2019年8月
建成时间:2020年1月
设计方:Crossboundaries, 中国,北京
项目负责人:蓝冰可 (Binke Lenhardt),董灏
设计团队:高旸,甘力,侯京慧,David Eng,Silvia Campi,Eric Chen, 王旭东
合作设计方/施工方:中建科技有限公司
摄影/摄像:吴清山、杨超英 

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