Jincheng Multi-Purposed Space, China by Studio Dali Architects

An architectural practice on constructing rural cultural identity

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Appreciation towards Studio Dali Architects for providing the following description:

你有好久没有吃过坝坝宴了?

在四川,每一个乡村,每逢过年过节,婚丧嫁娶,红白喜事,都会上演“坝坝宴”的日常。一个平凡的村庄,一处聚集人气的坝坝,一起乡村大型社交活动,村落伴随着大喜大悲的文化记忆,热火朝天的蔓延传承开来……

In the Sichuan region of China, everyone is familiar with the “open feasts”. Whenever there are holidays, weddings or funerals, or major events of a family, the villagers will find a flat open space, put public banquet, and invite all the neighborhood of the village. In such banquets, community communication, neighbors’ emotions, and cultural traditions are passed on from generation to generation.

▼项目概览,project preview ©存在建筑

 

01. 一个极度“现实”的需求,居然有点欲望
An extremely realistic demand

从古到今,四川的农村从来不缺坝坝,经历了2008年汶川地震的小石村(现金城社区),大量房屋坍塌,也带走了坝坝空间。经过震后重建的集中安置,住在“单元楼式”小区里的小石村村民,得到震后慰藉的同时,也失去了以前的“多余”空间。

Every traditional rural village in Sichuan has such open spaces to accommodate public events. But things changed after the 2008. The Wenchuan earthquake took away a lot of houses. The villages that were quickly rebuilt after the earthquake, while the public space disappeared. This kind of rapid construction of resettlement has solved the urgent needs of the villagers’ living space, but it cannot meet the surplus farming needs. For example, there is no place to dry the grain and no place to stack farm tools. The public communication space is also very narrow.

▼小石村芭蕉苑小区,housing estate in Xiaoshi Village

而与此同时村民以农耕为主的生活方式仍在继续。目前的公共空间满足不了村民生产生活的需求:粮食没有地方放,也没有地方晾晒,有时只能占用公共道路,农具堆在公共楼梯间…….面对这样种种矛盾,村书记最本能的浮现一个想法,向我们提出:“村民需要一个空间,同时满足农具存放、谷物储存、洗衣晾晒、红白喜事、谷物晾晒的5个功能,考虑到丧事,需要一个单独的停丧房”。

收到一份这样“魔幻的极度现实”的设计任务书,在浮想联翩的同时,也让我们开始思考在“城市化进程”中,乡村的身份迷失。“单元楼”小区在乡村的出现,邻里之间的“不熟”社交的注入,社会性质开始发生变化。而这种“新与旧”的冲突,来源于城乡二元的冲突,需要被谨慎而平衡的对待。这类混杂的空间不能被简单的分类,更多的时候,它不仅容纳了村民生活、交往活动、农事农物等,更加容纳了村民的情感。

Faced with such a contradiction, the village head put forward an extremely realistic request to the architect: Can a space be designed to meet the five functions of farm tool storage, grain storage, wedding celebration, funeral, and laundry at the same time? The funeral space needs a separate morgue.

After receiving such a design request, we also began to think that in the process of urbanization, the identity of the village began to be gradually lost. When the dual conflict between urban and rural areas began to intensify, the original culture and social structure of the village was impacted by the new order, and while the original structure was broken, there was no new space to buffer the changing lifestyle, as well as traditional culture and villagers. The production, the emotion of the community.

▼占用公共道路的粮食(左);五统一原场地(右)
the grain blocked the public road(left); the original site (right)

 

02. 从公共空间出发,找回乡村消失的“熟”文化
Retrieve the lost culture and start from the public space

如何呈现这个“乡村情感容器”?如何打造一个可以链接村民情感、促进社区交流、延续文化传承的空间?我们在乡建的实践中,不断地探索这个答案。在小石观察“乡村空间无序”的现象,是个体性,也是普遍性。在很多乡村你会发现,当地社区没有公共空间的意识:自己家的东西和门口收拾的干干净净,一旦出了自己的院子,外面就没有人管了。没有公共空间的意识就意味着公共空间没有人来维护,但社区对公共空间的需求很多,比如红白喜事等集体性质的活动。在传统的村落里,这些公共活动有传统公共空间文化的支撑,比如“祠堂”、“庙”等等,是有一个公共秩序在里面,现在这个传统的秩序消失了,而新的秩序和新的文化都尚未确定。

消失的传统秩序的载体,即乡村的公共空间。乡村的公共空间是乡村民众在长期集体生活过程中形成的区域文化和集体记忆的共同载体,同时是民众文化意识和精神力量之源,也是重要的“文化记忆场所”。

我们希望通过创造新的公共空间,来促进共同的交流、生产、民俗、仪式等,进而形成具有地方特色的集体记忆。对于小石村这类空心化严重、陷入身份失语困境的农村,通过社会记忆的方式,来记录、印刻、传递当地独有的风土人情、民居风貌、地方民俗等可识别的文化形式,从而形成一个新的“文化记忆场所”来抵御地域文化身份认同的逐渐消失。

How to create a rural emotional container? In one space, it accommodates the villagers’ emotions, community communication, and cultural heritage. We explored the answer in the construction practice of Xiaoshi Village. The “disorder of rural space” here is a common phenomenon in Chinese rural areas. We observed that many areas lack awareness of public space. For example, the doorway of one’s own home is cleaned, and the sanitation of public space is not maintained.

In traditional villages, there is a traditional cultural structure to maintain the order of public activities. The ancestral halls and temple spaces serve as public places for major events. In respect of ancestors and gods, people will spontaneously maintain public order. In modern times, traditional orders are gradually scattered, and new public orders have not yet been established.

We hope that by introducing new public spaces, we can promote community communication, production, folklore, rituals, etc., so as to form collective memories with local characteristics, and elicit unique local customs, architectural styles, and folklore activities. Inheritance of the culture, thus forming a new “cultural memory place” to reconstruct the cultural identity of the village.

▼节庆和民俗活动,the traditional festivals and events in Xiaoshi Village

 

 

03. 建筑上跑着山脊和阳光
Ridge and sunlight on the roof of the building

一切设计源于最本质的需求,五统一的选址,遵循着粮食晾晒和洗衣晾晒的基本需求,阳光的方向。为了最大限度的空出晾晒和坝坝宴的场地,建筑紧靠山体,繁茂的植被影响到室内的采光,不需要刻意的手法,自然顺应折线的方向开窗,让室内被自然照亮。站在室内,抬头看见树林,低头看见阳光,营造出在建筑上跑着山脊和阳光的景观。

整个场地靠着一座山和一片树林,建筑就着与“山”、“树林”的关系,形态因此产生,平面上的折线和立面上的折线放到一起,形成了“横看成岭侧成峰”的姿态。

▼五统一总平面图,master plan ©时地建筑工作室

All design forms are derived from essential needs. The location of the building follows the basic needs of drying and gathering: the direction of sunlight. In order to maximize the space for drying and open banquets, we arranged the building close to the mountain on the south side, exposing the empty field in the north to the sun. The whole building is close to undulating mountains and woods, and its form is naturally connected with the mountains. Both the plane and the elevation adopt the form of broken lines according to the mountain terrain, forming different visual postures from different angles.

▼五统一建筑外观,exterior view of the multi-purposed space ©存在建筑

▼平面上的折线和立面上的折线放到一起,形成了“横看成岭侧成峰”的姿态 ©存在建筑
both the plane and the elevation adopt the form of broken lines according to the mountain terrain, forming different visual postures from different angles

我们将建筑布局在“单元楼”式的芭蕉苑小区南侧,为此小区做公共空间配套。建筑靠青山,面向小区,呈开放拥抱式形态,利用这种空间导向,将邻里空间放大、拉长。希望下楼的村民可直接看到五统一里发生的场景,促进交流,为各种文化事情的产生埋下了一颗种子。

通过和村民的长期相处,也了解了一些民俗:如“村里的传统是停丧的流线一定要是单向的,不走回头路嘛”。采取“折线式”的动线设计,除考虑传统习俗之外,还希望把谷仓、农具、清洗池、坝坝等空间彼此相连接而又相互独立。

▼五统一平面图,plan ©时地建筑工作室

The building site is on the south side of the residential building, backed by the green hills, facing and embracing the community. This spatial form can enlarge the neighborhood communication space, make it easier for people to notice the public space, thereby increasing its frequency of use.

▼“折线式”的动线设计,a dynamic form of circulation ©存在建筑

▼檐下活动空间,the sheltered activity space ©存在建筑

©时地建筑

▼谷仓、农具间和清洗池,barn, farm tools and cleaning area ©时地建筑

在乡建营造中最经常遇到关于“造价”的问题,五统一设计中,第一位考虑是符合功能需求,第二考虑就是造价。建筑屋顶和结构,都采用最简洁的方式。屋顶的材料最初考虑用小青瓦,后来因为尽量减少结构承重,换成了沥青瓦,使整个结构比较轻盈,强调了建筑动态的感受。在实际建造中还是会因为工艺技术做一些调整,比如座凳从叠涩出挑换成了现浇,吊顶从竹子换到了竹席等等,包括一些小器件的选择也会因地做一些调整和妥协。

In addition to the professional design of architects, we also consider the villagers’ local cultural needs, such as designing the funeral flow line, designing the process of grain drying and farming tools, and connecting various functions independently and with each other.

▼竹席吊顶, bamboo mat ceiling ©时地建筑

▼现浇坐凳,cast-in-situ bench ©时地建筑

▼稻草漆墙面,straw paint wall ©时地建筑

 

04. 存放农具的最高境界,就是把脸“存上”
“Save your face”

五统一的功能植入,也融合了对现代生活方式的思考,在城乡发展和理想乡村的探讨中,村书记也提出基础设施的等值化和现代化。在小石村应用了许多先进设备,例如人脸识别系统,在五统一中设置了通过“刷脸”进入农具存放和谷物存放的空间的智能门锁,这样一来保障了村民财产的安全,二来缩小城乡基础设施体验的差距,甚至乡村在某些方面走在了前面。

▼人脸识别系统,face recognition system

其实在五统一之前,考虑到目前小石村目前的现状:老龄化和留守老人等情况,村里给80岁以上以及重度残疾的村民配备了一个“智能手环”,在文化大院的显示器上,可即时获取老人的位置。若有突发状况,可以及时支援。

The functional design of the building incorporates technologies of modern lifestyles. In the discussion of urban and rural development, our owners, that is, the village government, proposed the equivalence and modernization of infrastructure. Many artificial intelligence devices are used in Xiaoshi Village, such as a face recognition system. In the building, to enter the storage space of farm tools and grain storage, the smart door lock with face recognition must be used to ensure the safety of the villagers’ private property. Taking into account the fact that there are more left-behind elderly in the village, the elderly over 80 are also equipped with smart bracelets, which can instantly obtain the location of the elderly on the display screen in the building. If there is an emergency, we can provide timely support.

▼小石村智能设备&主控室,the intelligent device & the master-control room

 

05. 从“身体记忆”流淌,形成文化记忆
Cultural memory flowing from the body

五统一作为整村更新的实践项目之一,和文化大院是一个互补的空间,如若说文化大院呈现出场景是“村民檐下喝茶”、“健身”、“学习”等,那五统一则是整合了村子琐碎的生产、生活的空间。在这里进行“谷物晾晒”、“坝坝宴”等,让已形成经验的生产劳作、日常生活、传统工艺、民间习俗、民间仪式等。

由生产、生活、民俗、仪式等等产生的“身体记忆”,在特定的空间场景,通过原住民的世代参与,形成代际传承的符号化集体记忆。符号化集体记忆不仅保持村落的乡土气息,也体现村落的乡村性,它所折射的文明,也将得到“生命”的延续。

As one of the series of architectural practice projects for the whole village renewal, here and the previously built Community Center are complementary functions. If the Community Center is a space of recreation, learning, and communication under the same roof, this building is rather a space that unifies the trivial production and life of the villagers. Grain drying, open banquets and other activities are carried out here, so that “cultural activities” such as production, traditions, customs, ceremonies, etc., can form new traditional behaviors through specific spatial exercises, and then become collective memories for inheritance, thus reconstructing the rural cultural identity.

▼谷物晾晒,grain drying ©时地建筑

▼生产劳作,the production

在小石“身份特征的挖掘,身份识别的研究、身份认同的构建”的建筑旅程中,五统一的实践是乡村空间的小实验,看似不是惊人之举,但了解到:在建筑还未完全建成时,有一对新人在此举行了婚礼。作为设计团队,希望它能穿透时间,逐步形成小石村当地的文化身份认同……

In the process of discovering and constructing the identity of Xiaoshi Village, this architectural practice is a small experimental space in the bigger picture. Before the building was completed, a couple of newlyweds held a wedding here. As designers, we hope it can penetrate time and gradually form the local cultural identity of Xiaoshi Village.

番外小石记录:在中国这么复杂的社会局面,有各式各样的发展。我们尝试的方向,在我们设计村庄时,从村民的生活和社区本身出发,与将乡村资源面向城市的方式是有区别的。我们希望不是去发明,而是去发现,去激发内在的生命力。我们去发现场所既有的价值和潜质,通过空间设计,留下一个种子、一片土壤,让它自己发生。只有让价值自己发生出来,它才是真正根植于农村。——李烨(时地建筑设计工作室主理人)

Under the complex social situation in contemporary China, villages in different states have different development directions. The architectural practice we tried is just one of the explorations: starting from the villagers’ lives and communities, to discover the local potential of the village, rather than invent out of thin air. By discovering the existing local value and designing the space, leave a seed and a piece of soil, and let it happen on its own. Only when the value of architecture occurs on its own can it truly belong to the local area and nature.

▼五统一一层平面图,1F plan ©时地建筑工作室

▼五统一顶层平面图,roof  plan ©时地建筑工作室

▼五统一立面图(靠山体面),facade (mountain side) ©时地建筑工作室

▼五统一立面图(靠小区面) ,facade (residence side) ©时地建筑工作室

▼五统一剖面图1-1,section 1-1 ©时地建筑工作室

▼五统一剖面图2-2,section 2-2 ©时地建筑工作室

项目名称:金城社区五统一公共空间
项目类型:公共建筑
项目地点:四川省彭州市金城社区
设计单位:时地建筑工作室
主持建筑师:李烨
项目主管/项目建筑师:李烨
设计团队:张寻、杨丽君
业主:彭州市金城社区
五统一项目造价:60万
建成状态:建成
设计时间:2019.7-2019.8
建设时间:2019.9-2019.11
五统一用地面积:972平方米
五统一建筑面积:520平方米
结构顾问:毛永强
社区治理顾问:岳付飞
驻场建筑师:张寻、杨丽君
主要材料:钢结构、稻草漆(外墙)、沥青瓦、竹席(吊顶)

Project Name: Jincheng Multi-Purposed Space
Project Type: Public Building
Project location: Jincheng Community, Pengzhou City, Sichuan Province
Design unit: Studio Dali Architects
Architect in Charge: Li Ye
Project Supervisor/Project Architect: Li Ye
Design team: Zhang Xun, Yang Lijun
Client: Jincheng Community, Pengzhou City
Project cost: 600,000 RMB
Built status: built
Design time: 2019.7-2019.8
Construction time: 2019.9-2019.11
Land area: 972 square meters
Building area: 520 square meters
Structural consultant: Mao Yongqiang
Community governance consultant: Yue Fufei
Resident Architects: Zhang Xun, Yang Lijun
Main materials: steel structure, straw paint (outer wall), asphalt shingles, bamboo mat (ceiling)

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