ICD / ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION 2015-16 by University of Stuttgart

纺织技术在建筑尺度上的首次成功尝试

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由斯图加特大学的数字化设计学院和建筑结构设计学院联合设计,以片状木材为原料,运用自动化纺织技术手段装配而成的实验性蓬状结构近日落成,成为这种结构在建筑尺度上的首次成功尝试。此外,由来自建筑、工程、生物以及古生物等多个学科的学生和研究人员组成的设计小组还进行了一系列的实验,以挖掘数字化设计在建筑模拟和装配阶段的无限潜力。

The Institute for Computational Design (ICD) and the Institute of Building Structures and Structural Design (ITKE) of the University of Stuttgart have completed a new research pavilion demonstrating robotic textile fabrication techniques for segmented timber shells. The pavilion is the first of its kind to employ industrial sewing of wood elements on an architectural scale. It is part of a successful series of research pavilions which showcase the potential of computational design, simulation and fabrication processes in architecture. The project was designed and realized by students and researchers within a multi-disciplinary team of architects, engineers, biologists, and palaeontologists.

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仿生壳状结构 Biomimetic Investigation into Shell Structures 

这个蓬状结构的最大亮点在于分段式木板仿生结构与自动化纺织技术的结合。微弯的双层桦木板以沙海胆结构形态为原型,而自主研发的缝合技术将大大减轻木质结构体的整体重量,让分段式木板组合而成的壳状结构的性能得以发挥至最大。

The development of the ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2015-16 is characterised by a twofold bottom-up design strategy based on the biomimetic investigation of natural segmented plate structures and novel robotic fabrication methods for sewing thin layers of plywood. The project commenced with the analysis of the constructional morphology of sand dollars. At the same time, a fabrication technique was developed that enables the production of elastically bent, double-layered segments made from custom-laminated, robotically sewn beech plywood. Introducing textile connection methods in timber construction enables extremely lightweight and performative segmented timber shells.

▽ 轻薄的木板以细密针脚缝合,齿状咬合和系带连接结构将单元体连接在一起,robotic fabrication methods for sewing, finger joints and laced connections

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合作方以海胆为原型的前期研究已在一定程度上得出了生物结构转化原则以及相应木结构的营造法式。而来自斯图加特大学的建筑师和工程师与图宾根大学的生物学家开展跨学科合作,以进一步挖掘仿生结构的潜力。在经过对转化效率和可行性的综合考虑后,设计小组最终将研究范围限定在海胆与沙海胆间。

内部结构的图像和扫描结果显示,两种生物体分段式轻质结构的牢固程度不仅与板块的排布组合方式相关,也受其双层系统的几何形态以及具体材质的影响。而除了齿状咬合接头外,部分海胆的外壳还以纤维进行了加固。设计小组认为多重连接方式保证了海胆外壳稳定性,让其在危机四伏的海洋环境中得以安全成长。

▽ 模拟沙海胆生物结构的建筑结构,Biomimetic Investigation

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Together with the University of Tübingen, pictures and SEM scans (scanning electron microscopy) were performed on several species in order to understand the intricate internal structures of sea urchins and sand dollars. It was concluded that the performance of these segmented lightweight structures relies not only on the arrangement of its individual calcite plates, but also on the geometric morphology of a double layered system and the differentiation within the material. Most importantly however, the calcite plates of some sea urchin species are connected through fibrous elements in addition to the finger joints, and it can be hypothesized that this multi-material connection plays an important role in maintaining the integrity of the sea urchin’s shell during growth and exposure to external forces.

Previous studies on sea urchins by the research partners already led to the transfer of constructional principles and the development of new construction methods for timber plate shells. In this project, natural segmented shell structures were further analysed in an interdisciplinary cooperation between architects and engineers from Stuttgart University and biologists from Tubingen University in order to reveal additional relevant aspects. Within the taxonomic phylum of Echinodermata two species of the class Echinoidea (sea urchin) and the order Clypeasteroida (sand dollar) were identified as particularly promising for the transfer of morphological principles as well as procedural principles of growth for an integrative design process.

▽ 设计过程,design approach

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 符合材料特性的构筑方式 Employing the Material and Structural Logic of Wood 

基于对生物性构造原则和材料特性的考虑,建筑结构沿用了沙海胆的双层结构系统。超薄木条的肌理方向和排布方式与不同曲度所需的刚度相对应,并在预制过程中完成了相应的弯曲变形。自动化缝纫技术在此刻介入,缝制出151个各不相同的双层曲面单元体。鉴于曲面结构的特性,板块的交接节点只需考虑面内张力和剪力的传递。齿状咬合接头和类似海胆纤维连接物的系带连接结构也应运而生。

Based on both the biological principles as well as the material characteristics, the material system was developed as a double-layered structure similar to the secondary growth in sand dollars. The building elements consist of extremely thin wood strips. Instrumentalising the anisotropy of wood, these strips are custom-laminated so that the grain direction and thickness corresponds with the differentiated stiffness required to form parts with varying radii. Thus, the initially planar strips can be elastically bent to find the specific shape pre-programmed into their laminate. In this deformed state, the elements are locked in shape by robotic sewing. In this way, 151 geometrically different elements could be produced, which result in a stiff doubly curved shell structure when assembled.

As bending moments in the plywood strips due to external loads should generally be avoided, the joints between segments are designed for transferring in-plane normal and shear forces only. While the latter led to finger joints at the element edges, the former resulted in the distinctive articulation of laced connections that transfer the tensile forces between segments, which play a role similar as the fibrous connections between the sea urchins plates.

▽ 基于木材曲度与刚度的研究,analysis of grain direction, thickness and stiffness of varying radii

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▽ 结构体系,structure

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▽ 位移分析,structure analysis

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机械化缝合的木质单元体 Robotic Sewing for Segmented Timber Shells 

木材对机械化操作、纺织技术和多元材料接头有着极高的适应性。细密的“线脚”对于超薄多层夹板极其有效,甚至无需粘合过程中的大型压机或复杂的模架。缝合技术不仅能将单个木条组合成板块,同时也杜绝了潜在的脱胶现象。木条的切割、组合、弯曲和单元体的缝合过程由一台自动化机器设备和一台台式缝纫机包揽。

Timber exhibits excellent mechanical behaviour and high potentials for textile and multi-material joints outside the scope of conventional timber connections. Especially for thin layers of plywood, multiple continuous connections are generally preferable to larger singular ones. However, glued connections generally require either large presses or complex formwork to maintain the pressure necessary for lamination.

This project explores robotic sewing to not only join the individually bent plywood strips that form a segment, but also to prevent potential delamination. An industrial robot is employed for both assisting during the assembly and bending of the strips that make up one elements, and then locking the pre- assembled segment in shape by sewing them with a stationary industrial sewing machine. During fabrication the robot first moves the segment through the sewing machine so that the strips are connected. Then it guides the segment trough along its edge to secure the laminate and to attach the PVC covered polyester fibre membrane that form the lace connection between segments. The robot and the sewing machine are integrated and controlled through a custom software. This ensures that there is no lateral movement during needle penetration.

▽ 自动化生产过程,Robotic Sewing for Segmented Timber Shells

3_Robotic-Fabrication

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▽ 经过缝合的曲面单元体,sewn segments

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▽ 建筑装配过程,construction phase

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跨学科合作作品 A Demonstrator on the Intersection of Architecture, Engineering and Biology 

最终,这个蓬状结构由151个各不相同的单元体组成,而每个单元体又由三块分别压制的曲面木板缝合而成。其曲度和材料选择也参照了校园对建筑结构和体量形态的要求。纺织技术在结合处的运用让建筑无需任何附加的金属制成结构便可独立存在。这个高达9.3米,覆盖85平方米的建筑总重约780公斤,即每平方米的结构重量仅有7.85公斤。

建筑设计回应了校园场地现状。几道阶梯穿过这个半开放的结构体,成为了可供休息的台阶座椅,而面对广场的一侧则完全打开,保证良好的视野。这个实验性建筑证明了借用数字化手段设计而成的复合性空间结构比单一壳状结构对场地具有更高的适应性;也展示了数字化生物结构与材料、形式和自动纺织技术的结合创造出的全新木构营造方式。跨学科的合作不仅为我们带来了这个轻巧精致的建筑,同时也对木建筑的空间品质和构造手段做出了探讨和尝试。

The pavilion consists of 151 segments that were prefabricated by robotic sewing. Each of them is made out of three individually laminated beech plywood strips. Ranging between 0.5 and 1.5 m in diameter, their specific shapes and material make-up are programmed to fit local structural and geometrical requirements. The textile connections developed for this project allow overcoming the need for any metal fasteners. The entire structure weighs 780 Kg while covering an area of 85 m2 and spanning 9.3 meters. With a resulting material thickness / span ratio of 1/1000 on average, the building has a structural weight of only 7.85 Kg/m2.

The overall design responds to site-specific conditions on the university campus. It establishes a semi- exterior space that integrates the ground topography as a seating landscape and opens towards the adjacent public square. At the same time it demonstrates the morphologic adaptability of the developed system by generating more complex spatial arrangements than a simple shell structure. The research pavilion shows how the computational synthesis of biological principles and the complex reciprocities between material, form and robotic fabrication can lead to innovative timber construction methods. This multidisciplinary research approach does not only lead to performative and material efficient lightweight structure, it also explores novel spatial qualities and expands the tectonic possibilities of wood architecture.

▽ 建筑靠近广场侧完全打开,the structure opens towards the adjacent public square

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▽ 内部形成可供休息的台阶座椅,it integrates the ground topography as a seating landscape

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PROJECT TEAM

Institute for Computational Design (ICD) – Prof. Achim Menges
Institute of Building Structures and Structural Design (ITKE) – Prof. Jan Knippers

Scientific development and project management
Simon Bechert, Oliver David war, Tobias Schwinn, Daniel Sunday

Concept development, system development and implementation
Martin Alvarez, Jan Brütting, Sean Campbell, Mariia Chumak, Hojoong Chung, Joshua Few, Eliane Herter, Rebecca Jaroszewski, Ting-Chun Kao, Dongil Kim, Kuan-Ting Lai, Seojoo Lee, Riccardo Manitta, Erik Martinez, Artyom Maxim, Masih Imani Nia, Andres Obregon, Luigi Olivieri, Thu Nguyen Phuoc, Giuseppe Pultrone, Jasmin Sadegh, Jenny Shen, Michael Sveiven, Julian Wengzinek, and Alexander Volkov
With the support of Long Nguyen, Michael Preisack and Lauren Vasey

In collaboration with
Institute of Evolution and Ecology, Department of Evolutionary Biology of Invertebrates – Prof. Oliver Betz
Center for Applied Geoscience, Department of Invertebrate Paleontology – Prof. James Nebelsick University of Tübingen

Supported by:
German Research Foundation (DFG) as part of Project A07 of the SFB / Transregios 141 Getty Foundation as
BW-Bank
Edelrid
Frank Brunnet GmbH Forst BW
Groz-Beckert KG Guetermann GmbH
Hess & Co.
KUKA Roboter GmbH Mehler Texnologies GmbH

PROJECT DATA

address: Keplerstr. 11-17, 70174 Stuttgart
completion: April 2016
Area: 85 m2
surface: 105 m2
Number of modules: 151
dimensions: 11.5×9.5m

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