gooood访谈专辑第三十期 – 魏春雨

现代意识去发现传统中的现代因子,创造出属于自己的识别性语言

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gooood团队采访世界各地的有趣创意人,欢迎您的推荐和建议。第30期为您奉上的是 地方工作室(联系邮箱:48109308@qq.com) 创始人和主持建筑师 魏春雨 的访谈,更多关于他,请至:Regional Studio on gooood

gooood team interviews creative from all over the world. Your recommendations and suggestions are welcomed! gooood Interview NO.30 introduces Wei Chunyu, Founder and Chief Architect of Regional Studio(Contact:48109308@qq.com). More: Regional Studio on gooood

出品人:向玲 | Producer: Xiang Ling
编辑团队:陈诺嘉,武晨曦 | Editor: Chen Nuojia, Wu Chenxi

 

 

Interview
gooood x 魏春雨

 

 

▼魏春雨
Wei Chunyu

 

 

_____________
“地方”与地域类型学
“Regional” and Regional Typology

 

“即便是非常普通的民居,都拥有十分清晰的空间逻辑,我们要用现代意识去发现传统中的现代因子。”

“Even very ordinary folk houses have a very clear spatial logic, and we need to use modern consciousness to discover the modern elements from tradition.”

 

1.
“地方”二字对你而言有着怎样的含义?您所说的“地域类型学”如何解读?
What does the word regional mean to you? What do you mean by “Regional Typology”?

我把工作室这些年的理念都浓缩在了“地方”二字上。地方字面上指的是一个区域,很容易对应英文的Local。但实际上它是两个字合起来的一个词,“地”指“在地性”,是建筑的自然向象度;而“方”则指建筑本体的内在逻辑。地方工作室的设计不能简单归为某种风格,我希望它一直有一种内在的自治性,通过地域类型和图示研究最终超越所在的“地方”。

I have condensed the studios philosophy over these years on the word regional (地方), which literally refers to a region, and can easily correspond to the word local. In fact, it is a combination of two characters: “地”(Di) refers to locality, which means the natural dimension of architecture; while “方” (Fang) refers to the inner logic of architecture itself. Regional Studios projects can not be simply classified as a certain style, since I personally want it to always have an inherent autonomy, and ultimately transcend the region in which it is located through the continuous research and practice of regional typology.

▼地方工作室,Office of Regional Studio

学习建筑,绕不开类型。我们有意无意都会借助类型这种操作模式和手段。之所以研究地域类型学跟我所在的湖南关联比较密切。从纬度上讲,湖南比传统江南还要靠南,接近热带、亚热带。湖南民族很多,有汉族、土家族、苗族、侗族等;此外湖南地景肌理丰富,有内陆平原、山地、丘陵、湿地等不同地形地貌。湖南属于楚文化圈,有着很深的巫文化脉络,认为阴阳相通,敢用浓重的色彩。在这种文化的影响下,湖南建筑不似北方建筑有严谨的秩序,也不像江南、岭南建筑有精细、温润的细节,往往有一种反传统的张力。由于民族、文化、地形,甚至气候特征的差异,湖南产生了很多有特色的地域类型建筑,诸如边庭、底部架空窨子屋等,这些都是对当地气候的主动性适应。我们在湖南做民居调查的时候,发现这些类型建筑在民间已经发展得十分成熟和稳定。

Typology is unavoidable in studying architecture . We all make use of it as a mode or a tool of operation, whether consciously or not. The reason why I study Regional Typology is closely related to Hunan, where I live and work. From the perspective of latitude, Hunan is even further in the south than Jiangnan (south of the Yangtze River) regions, and closer to the tropics and subtropics. There are a large number of ethnic groups living In Hunan, including Han, Tujia, Miao, Dong, etc. Hunan also has rich texture of landscape, varying in topography like inland plains, mountains, hills and wetlands. Hunan belongs to the Chu () culture circle with a deep lineage of Wu (, witchery) culture, with a belief in the integration of Yin and Yang, and dares to use dense and strong colors. Having been influenced by such kind of culture, Hunan’s buildings are not like that in north China with a strict order, nor are they like those in Jiangnan or Lingnan, that has refined and mellow details. It has a kind of anti-traditional spirit. Due to the differences in ethnicity, culture, topography and even climate changes, Hunan has become home to numerous distinctive regional buildings such as side-courtyards and elevated “Yinzi” dwellings (窨子屋),  which are all results of actively adapting to the local climate and environment. When we were doing a residential survey in Hunan, we found that these types of architecture have become quite mature and stable in the domestic context.

▼湖南传统民居与转译的建筑类型,Typical Residence in Hunan Province and the architectural type interpreted from it
(左)湘西“吞口屋”,(left) Typical Residence West Hunan “Tun Kou Wu”
(右)“ 吞口屋 ”盒子,(right) “ Tun Kou Wu ”BOX

这些年来,人们习惯性认为传统和现代是相对的,导致向传统学习,经常只是拷贝了一些符号,沦为一种苍白无力的模仿。我认为泛泛所谓“传统建筑”是一个伪命题。中国太大、太丰富了,很难说什么是传统。我建议在建筑学意义上用地域类型取代简单定义传统建筑,因为传统太容易形式化。我们研究了湖南的吊脚楼、风雨桥等建筑形式,发现即便是非常普通的民居,都拥有十分清晰的空间逻辑,其空间原型比现在街上80%的所谓现代建筑更现代。我们要用现代意识去发现传统中的现代因子。我现在的许多设计就源于湖南的地域类型。

Over the years, people have become accustomed to the idea that tradition and modernity are opposite. This leads to a situation that when we talk about learning from tradition, we are often just copying some traditional symbols , which eventually becomes a pathetic imitation. In my opinion, the so-called traditional architecture is a false proposition. China has vast territory and rich culture, and therefore it is hard to describe tradition. Tradition is too easy to become formalized, so I suggest to replace the simple definition of traditional architecture with regional typology in the architectural sense. We studied various architectural forms in Hunan like Stilted House Buildings and Wind and Rain Bridges, and found that even very common folk houses have a very clear spatial logic, and their spatial prototypes have more modernity than 80% of the so-called modern buildings that we can find in the cities today. What we need to do is using modern consciousness to discover the modern elements from tradition. Many of my current projects are based on Hunans regional types.

▼从传统民居转译而来的天井空间,Patio space interpreted from traditional residence

 

2. 
如何进行地域化表达?请详细谈谈您在地域类型学方面的研究与实践。
How can regional be expressed? Please talk about your research and practice in Regional Typology in detail.

当对地域类型研究到一定程度时,就会遇到原型的问题。阿尔多·罗西就认为建筑空间原型已经足够应对城市设计了,问题只是在于如何组合。这个说法比较偏激,但是我认为对于当下的中国也许有一定的警示作用。这些年我们过于强调建筑与社会的对接,以及政治、经济和文化对建筑的影响,而在操作层面,却沦为一种新的形式“八股”,消解了建筑的本体。我们需要抛开简单的片段和符号,去寻找建筑的原型。功能类型与形式类型应该可以分离,建筑应该回归建筑本体。

When the study of regional types reaches a certain point, prototype issues will be encountered. Aldo Rossi believes that the spatial prototypes of architecture are sufficient for urban design, the only problem is how to combine them. This is a rather radical statement, but to some extent I think it can serve as a warning for Chinas current situation. Over the years we have put too much emphasis on the connection between architecture and society, as well as the influence on architecture from politics, economy and culture, while at the operational level, it has been reduced to a new from of stereotype, dissolving the very nature of architecture. The prototype of architecture should be discovered by abandoning the superficial symbols and fragments. While functional and formal types can be separated, architecture should return to architecture itself.

 

“关注建筑地域类型的能动性的适应,希望通过对地域类型的研究创造出属于工作室自己的识别性语言。”

“Focus on the dynamic adaptation of regional typologies of architecture, trying to create the studios own identifying language through our study.”

 

首先,有必要对传统地域类型的空间原型进行现代转译,回归建筑的本体。第二,湖南地形地貌丰富,我们的设计强调抓地性,跟所在的土地紧紧锚固在一起,不漂浮。第三是线性空间。中国很多传统建筑空间逻辑是简单的线性秩序,但是蕴藏着仪式感、伦理等丰富的内涵,许多酷炫的空间只能相形见绌。第四,我经常使用内凹的空间,它不仅与许多空间原型对应,而且表达了建筑既不封闭、又不扩张、自成气候的性格。当然,由于也没有条件运用新锐的材料,我更趋向使用原朴、本质的建筑材料,如水刷石、模板混凝土、清水混凝土、青红砖等。

我们的研究从界面空间,拓展到地域类型,再提炼出空间原型;根据空间原型设计的建筑落地后,我们会进行地景分析,研究建筑如何适应湖南的地形地貌特征。最近我们关注场所语意,即建筑精神属性在空间中的表达。我们的工作不是一蹴而就的,而是摸着石头过河,慢慢体会总结,希望最后得出的本真。另一方面,关注建筑地域类型的能动性的适应,希望通过对地域类型的研究创造出属于工作室自己的识别性语言。

First of all, it is necessary to interpret the spatial prototypes of traditional regional typologies in a modern way, returning to the essence of architecture. Secondly, Hunan has a rich topography, thus our practice emphasizes on ground-gripping which means to firmly anchor to the land where it is located, not floating. Thirdly, creating the linear space. The spatial logic of many traditional buildings in China is linear and simple, but it contains rich connotations of ritual and ethics, comparing to which may so-called stylish spaces will be overshadowed. Fourthly, recessed spaces can be frequently found in my project, corresponding to different spatial prototypes, expressing the character of buildings that are neither closed, nor expanded, but have their own quality and spirit. Of course, since there are limited opportunities to use cutting-edge materials, I tend to use simple and rustic materials like brushed stone, concrete and black/red bricks.

Our research expands to regional typologies from interface spaces, and then refines the spatial prototypes; after the building designed according to the spatial prototypes is constructed, we will analysis the landscape to explore how it adapts to the topography and landform characteristics of Hunan. Recently, we have paid attention to the semantics of place, that is, the expression of spiritual attributes of architecture in space. Our work is not a one-step process, but moving onwards steadily, learning from the experience to finally come up with the truth. On the other hand, we are focusing on the dynamic adaptation of regional typologies of architecture, trying to create the studios own identifying language through our study.

▼部分地方工作室项目,Selected projects of Regional Studio

 

“建筑可以不是简单地受政治、经济、社会和技术等因素牵引,而是像我们的人格一样拥有一种内在的完善的自我体系,从而抵抗当下的浮躁。”

“Architecture could not be directed by political, economic, social and technological factors, but have an inherently self-system like our personalities, thus resisting the impetuous era.”

 

3. 
您如何理解建筑的“自治性”?“自治”与“在地”是否矛盾?您是如何处理二者之间的关系的?

上面提到过,我们所受正统建筑学教育体系,根深蒂固地认为建筑必然受到政治、经济、人文、地理的影响,一定不是独立的,过于谈论建筑本体仿佛成为了一种逆反。对此,你有时会感到无所是从,因为自己一直在追求的“建筑”似乎并不存在。当代中国有许多尺度十分夸张的建筑,体现了城市形象等多方面的诉求。对此,我不禁要问:建筑的主体性是否已经丧失殆尽?我们的建筑表面上风光无限,各显神通,但其本体已经很大程度上被上异化了。我们可能要冷静下来,呼吁建筑自治性的回归。建筑可以不是简单地受政治、经济、社会和技术等因素牵引,而是像我们的人格一样拥有一种内在的完善的自我体系,从而抵抗当下的浮躁。

在地方习俗、地形、气候特征等影响下沉积而成的空间原型是可以自治的,那些发生变化的部分都是外在的东西。在地性恰恰是要找出这种空间原型,找出建筑的空间基因。可以说,在地性与自治性这两个概念其实是相互关联的,在地性包含建筑本体在地的自治性表达,不会轻易受到外界潮流以及多种物欲的功能性影响。

▼建筑自治性 – 谢子龙影像艺术馆,室内入口大厅:“锥塔与街区”(点击这里查看更多
Autonomy of Architecture – Xie Zilong Photography Museum, lobby at the entrance: “Cone tower and Street” (click HERE to view more)

▼建筑自治性 – 田汉文化园:艺术学院内天井(点击这里查看更多
Autonomy of Architecture – Tian Han Culture Park: Inner Well of the Art college (click HERE to view more)

 

 

______
设计项目
Projects

 

“我们可能需要压制某种常态的功能,站在认知的角度去理解建筑,刻意塑造特定指向的场景仪式感。”

“We may need to suppress some common functions and understand architecture from the angle of perception, intentionally creating space with particular sense of ceremony.”

 

1. 
在湖南大学天马校区项目中,您提到了契里柯“形而上”作品的气氛,能否具体谈谈你对这种“形而上”的认知,以及它对你的设计语言形成的影响。
In the project of Tianma new Campus of Hunan University, you created a Chirico metaphysical work of the atmosphere. Could you please talk more specifically about your understanding of ““metaphysical and its influence on your design language?

我在研究生时期对契里科的画作很感兴趣。他是形而上画派的代表。他画建筑,画面中有一种静谧忧郁的场景感,十分动人。他的语言极其单纯,就是用空间的原型,通过局部和片段让人联想到整体,呈现出某种原型性。在他的画中,影子投向观者,这种处于阴影中的状态让我们仿佛成为了画面的一部分。一般的绘画只是去欣赏,形而上画派则是用瞬间表达永恒,用局部表达整体,用光影表达空间。形而上不是简单的现代主义,它强调历时性,你总能从中看到传统的影子。从建筑语言上讲,这可以反映在环境语意的沉淀中。在任何环境做设计都要寻找其背后的语义。

I had a huge interest in Chiricos paintings when I was a graduate student. He is a representative of the Scuola Metafisica, and the buildings in his work present a sense of tranquility and melancholy, giving a very impressive and touching feeling. With the use of spatial prototypes, his language is extremely pure, reminiscent of the whole through parts and fragments, indicating a certain prototypical feature. In his paintings, the shadows cast towards the viewer, and this state of being in the shadow makes us feel as if we are part of the picture. Ordinary paintings are created to be observed and appreciated, while metaphysical paintings express eternity with moments, the whole with parts, and spaces with light and shadow. Metaphysics can not be classified as modernism, it emphasizes diachronism, from which you can always find the shades of tradition. From the aspect of architectural language, it can be reflected in the sediment of environmental semantics. Designing in any environment requires to find the semantics behind it.

▼契里柯代表画作:春天的杜林
Work of Chirico: Turin in Spring

湖南大学没有围墙,整体十分开放。天马校区旁边是麓山南路,两侧全是商业街,热闹非凡。但是我认为商业街并不适合教学区,校区应该与其有意切割。现在国内很多高校校园主流是,讲究功能轴线,场所性更多是依附在功能基础之上,只要好用并且符合现代审美就可以了,但是感觉不到大学的精神。我把校园建筑组群中的功能类型尽量摒弃掉,用同一种语言逻辑去组织,核心是营造某种契里科式的场景。学生在这里会受到一种莫名的制约,让他们回到学习的氛围中去,本能地放低声音、规范举止。在这种场景下,学习转化成了某种仪式,这也是我对于建筑过于强调功能性的抵制。我认为功能是人基于现在的理解提出的,它很可能是临时性的,甚至是不合理的。我们可能需要压制某种常态的功能,站在认知的角度去理解建筑,刻意塑造特定指向的场景仪式感,让人感觉到敬畏,感觉到某种强大的场所精神。这也与我所追求的自治性表达一致,不仅没有淡化建筑,甚至强调了它的存在。

The campus of Hunan University is very open without enclosing walls. Tianma New Campus is located on South Lushan Road, which is bustling with commercial streets on both sides. I felt that commercial streets didn’t fit the teaching area and the campus should be intentionally separated from them. The main trend in campus design in China is to focus on the fuctional axis. Function is the basic need of the space. As long as it works and fits the contemporary aesthetics, it doesn’t pursue the spirit of universities. I removed as many as the functional types in the campus buildings and organized them in a unified linguistic logic. The core idea was to create a scenery in Chirico’s style. When students step in this campus, they will feel an inexplicable constraint, urging them to lower their voice and behave themselves, returning to the atmosphere of study. Under this condition, study is transformed into a ceremony, which reflects my resistance to the overemphasizeing on function in architectural design. I believe that function is based on people’s understanding of current environment and it is highly possible to be temporary, even unreasonable. We may need to suppress some common functions and understand architecture from the angle of perception, intentionally creating space with particular sense of ceremony, which makes people to feel the strong place spirit and experience it in awe. It is also in consistence with the self-consistency I have been pursuing, which emphasizes the existence of a building instead of weakening it.

▼天马校区轴测图(点击这里查看更多
Axonometric of the Tianma New Campus (click HERE to view more)

▼天马校区建筑群,Buildings in the Tianma New Campus

▼研究生院庭院,Courtyard in the graduate school

▼研究生院天台小剧场,Amphitheater in the graduate school

▼具有仪式感的学习空间,space for study with a sense of ritualism

 

“仪式性就藏在日常性里,二者相互关联。”

“Ritualism is just hidden in the dailiness and the two are correlated with each other.”

 

2. 
“日常性”和“仪式性”是两种截然不同的东西,在田汉文化园项目中,您是如何表达这两种空间和两者之间的关系的?
“Dailiness” and “Ritualism” are totally different. How did you embody them in the project of  Tian Han Cultural Park and how did you deal with the relationship between them?

田汉文化园项目位于田汉村的田汉故居旁,周边都是农田,散落着一些民居;为了符合环境逻辑,我需要做一个与地面贴合的建筑。但是田汉作为国歌的词作者,是中国近代文化重要的奠基人之一,要如何表达其中的力度?日常性和纪念性之间应如何拿捏?实际上,日常生活里处处有纪念性。特别是在中国的农村和小城镇中,日常生活中的仪式性保留得很好。例如偏远山区,赶集是日常的,但是人们在赶集的时候要穿上新衣服,并且看一场戏。赶集成为了他们生活中一种重要的社交活动,极具仪式性。一间日常起居用的普通乡宅,无论多么小,一进门就可以看到照壁,再往里两侧是堂屋,供奉着一些牌位,天然形成一种仪式感。仪式性就藏在日常性里,二者相互关联。

Tian Han Cultural Park is located beside the former residence of Tian Han in Tianhan Village. It is surrounded by farmlands with farmers’ houses scattering around. We had to build closely to the ground in order to follow the environmental context. However, how could we express the strength of Tian Han as the lyricist of the national anthem of China and one of the pioneers of modern Chinese culture? How to balance the dailiness and ritualism of the building? In fact, we can find ritualism in our daily life everywhere. Especially in the countryside and small towns in China, the ritualism in the daily life has been well remained. Take going to the market in the remote regions as an instance. Although it is a common event, people would put on their new clothes and watch a play on the market day. It has become an important social event in their life and highly ceremonial. An ordinaly house for daily living, however small it is, must have a screen wall at the entrance. Going further into the space, you can find rooms on either side with memorial tablets to worship, naturally creating a sense of ceremony. Ritualism is just hidden in the dailiness and the two are correlated with each other.

▼田汉文化园总平面图(点击这里查看更多
Master plan of Tian Han Culture Park, nestling up to the ground (click HERE to view more)

▼田汉文化园外观,贴地面而建,External view of Tian Han Culture Park, nestling up to the ground

▼艺术学院主入口,Main entrance of the art college

简单的文化建筑都是轴线对称,但是在田汉文化园项目中,为了不破坏旁边的灌溉渠和地下的石油管道,必须把建筑做得错落有致。在这个项目里,我们采取了三种措施。第一,建筑完全水平贴地;第二,建筑之中设置有原型的空间与形态,如“天井”;第三,使用朴素的材料,砌筑的时候叠色处理,形成一些光影,并且用砖头砌一些围墙,产生匍匐的感觉。这三种日常性的设计结合在一起,形成了一种富有仪式感的空间。有仪式感的原型又源于日常生活,二者之间便是这样相互转化。

Ordinary cultural buildings are axial symmetric. However, in Tian Han Cultural Park, in order not to destroy the irrigation canals and underground oil pipes, we had to put the architecture in an irregular arrangement. There were three methods we used in this project. Firstly, the building was completely horizontal and nestled up to the ground. Secondly, we applied prototypical spaces and forms in the building, including patios. Thirdly, we chose plain materials in the project. When we were laying the bricks, we intentionally combined different colors together, creating some light shadow effects. In addition, we built some brick walls to form a feel of crawling. When these three common design methods integrated, a space with ritualism was generated. On the other hand, the ritual prototypes are also originated from the daily life. It is how the ritualism and dailiness thransform themselves into each other.

▼艺术学院入口及剖面图,从传统建筑的天井中转化出的空间
Entrance and sections of the art college, space interpreted from the patios in traditional dwellings

▼艺术陈列馆轴侧,Axonometric of the art gallery

▼建筑立面采用朴素的砖材,Bricks used for the facade of the building

▼艺术陈列馆剖面图,Sections of the art gallery

 

▼艺术陈列馆,富有仪式感,Interior space of the art gallery with a sense of ceremony

 

3. 
谢子龙影像馆和李自健美术馆等项目中光影的处理想法是如何产生的?
How did you come up with the idea when you were dealing with the light and shadow in Xie Zilong Photography Museum and Li Zijian Art Museum?

针对影像艺术馆设计,我们想做一个时光的容器。摄影艺术是用光的艺术,而入口需要遮风挡雨,于是很容易联想到在立方体中做一个椎体的切削,从上方照下一束光。这种手法我在一个未实现的教堂设计里也有使用,区别就是教堂中的形式是反向的。随着一天之中的时间变化,光影在形体间游走。让光成为了建筑师,塑造出了一种独特的场景感。

Considering the design for a phtography museum, we wanted to create a vessel for time. Photography is the art of using light. As the entrance need to provide a shelter for the visiters, we easily came up the idea of cutting out a cone in the cube and shining a light down from above. I had used this method in an unrealized church project. The difference was that the form of the latter was reversed. The light and shadow moved in the space according to the position of the sun. Light became the architect to create a unique scenery.

▼美术馆设计概念(点击这里查看更多),Design concept of the museum (click HERE to view more)
(左)设计草图,(left) design sketch
(右)“形而上的三角形”,契里柯,(right) “Metaphysical triangle” by Chirico

▼艺术馆室内外参观路径,Visiting path in and out of the building

▼谢子龙影像艺术馆外观,external view of Xie Zilong Photography Museum

▼入口,从立方体上挖去一个圆锥,Entrance, cutting off a cone from the cube

▼建筑倒映在水面上,Building reflected on the water

▼剖轴测图,Axonometric section

▼入口门厅,Entrance lobby

▼室内外参观路径,光塑造场所感,Visiting paths in and out of the building, light creating unique scenery

李自健美术馆比谢子龙影像馆设计得更早。这个项目最大的价值就是,我们把传统美术馆的大厅消解掉,在室外做了一个大平台。平台上做了一个类似日晷的圆环,光透过圆环在场地中形成时光轮回的游走。人站在平台上,前面是湘江,后面是洋湖湿地公园,水平方向仿佛无限延展;通过“日晷”光照而下,水平与垂直两个向度在此交汇,最终形成了一种功能性的门厅无法诠释的独特意象。

Li Zijian Art Museum was designed and completed earlier than Xie Zilong Photography Museum. The greatest value of this project was that we replaced the traditional museum lobby by a large outdoor platform. We built a circular ring like a sundial above the platform, through which sunlight shines on the ground and moves in time cycles. When people stand on the platform, they would find Xiang River unfolding before their eyes and Yanghu Wetland Park on the back, extending infinitely in the horizontal direction. With light shining through the sundial, the horizontal and vertical dimensions intersect and finally create a unique image that cannot be seen in functional lobbies.

▼美术馆外观,external view of the art museum

▼李自健美术馆设计构思,开放的平台取代大厅,Design sketch of Li Zijian Art Museum, replacing the lobby by an open terrace

 

“用现代材料表达传统,要体现在建筑的肌理、光影的变化,以及从不同空间距离上观察时建筑与环境的融合。”

“The use of modern materials to express tradition should be reflected on the architectural texture, the change in light and shadows, as well as the integration of the building and its environment from different spatial distances.”

 

4. 
中国书院博物馆的设计以中国传统“斋”为原型,在材质细部上却使用了现代元素,如屋面用陶杆,瓦当使用核桃木。您如何看待这种传统与现代之间的表达?
China Academy Museum takes “Zhai”as its prototype, while using modern elements in materials and details, including ceramic rods as roofs and walnut wood as tiles. What is your perspective on this kind of expression between tradition and modern times?

中国书院博物馆是我十几年前做的一个项目。设计的压力特别大。第一,它在岳麓山,国家风景名胜区下面;第二,它在岳麓书院里面。稍有不慎,就会对两者产生破坏。在岳麓书院里建一座新博物馆,很容易做成两个极端。一种是做一栋完全仿古的建筑,里面装点功能,这违背了寻找空间原型的需求;另一种是做一个纯现代的建筑,这与环境是脱离的。我当时对设计的定位有两点:一是做配角,二是不做一个假古董。如果在岳麓书院做一个仿古建筑,会让其他人以为整个书院都是假的,因此新建筑一定要和老建筑拉开某种时空距离。为此,我们研究岳麓书院的空间类型,发现了一种狭长的线性天井空间,并将其命名为“斋”。斋的尺度十分小,没有任何装饰,特别原真,其中能够感到扑面而来的文人气息。我们将其移植到了书院博物馆中,自成体系。完成这套自治的体系之后,随便使用现代材料代替了传统材料,依然可以给人一种穿越回古代的感觉。

China Academy Museum was designed more than ten years ago and it gave me a lot of pressure. First of all, it was located in Yuelu Mountain, just under the National Scenic Area. It was also in the site of Yuelu Academy. A tiny mistake would cause destruction on both the environment and the historic building. It would have tended to go into two extremes when designing a new museum in Yuelu Academy. One was to create a completely pseudo-classic building and fill it with some functions, which would violate the requirement of finding out the prototype of the space. The other was to build a pure modern building, which would be isolated from the context. There were two points in our design: play a supporting role and avoid making a fake antique. If we built a pseudo-classic building in Yuelu Academy, people would assume the whole academy was fake. Thus the new building had to keep a distance from the historic buildings, on both time and space. We studied the different types of spaces in Yuelu Academy and discovered a narrow linear patio space, which we named “Zhai”. It was in very small scale and was authentic with no decoration, creating strong literati atmosphere. We transplanted this kind of space into the Academy Museum and developed it into its own system. After completing this self-consistent system, even though we casually replaced the traditional materilas by the modern ones, it could still create a sense of history.

▼中国书院博物馆,书院八景,China Academy Museum, eight sights of the academy ©麓野工作室

▼从岳麓山俯瞰书院博物馆,与环境相融合,Aerial view of the museum from Yuelu Mountain, being harmony with the environment

我们用陶杆作瓦,胡桃木与铝合金结合做水平杆件,看上去与书院里的木结构相一致。阳光透过树木落在相互隔开的陶杆屋面上,形成斑驳的光影,与远处的小青瓦分毫不差。十几年过去了,它依然是我设计生涯中最重要的作品之一。首先,它是我的责任,我在湖南大学应该为岳麓书院贡献一份力量。其次,在设计中我思考了许多传统与当代的关系,在空间基因上寻找原型,在材料细节上强调构造细部。有时这样做并未奏效,原因可能是在尺度和构造细节上没有精准拿捏。用现代材料表达传统,要体现在建筑的肌理、光影的变化,以及从不同空间距离上观察时建筑与环境的融合。

We replaced the tiles and horizontal structures by ceramic rods, walnut wood and aluminum alloy, while keeping them consistent with the wooden structure in the historic academy. Sunlight ran through the trees and shone on the roof made of separated ceramic rods, creating rich light and shadows which looked the same as the Chinese-style tiles in the distance. More than ten years have passed, China Academy Museum is still one of the most important projects in my design career. Firstly, it was my responsibility to make contribution to Yuelu Academy as a member of Hunan University. I considered a lot about the relationship between tradition and contemporary in the design. In the spatial genes, I tried to find the prototype. While in the material details, I emphasized construction. Sometimes this method would not work because of inaccuricy in scale and constructional details. The use of modern materials to express tradition should be reflected on the architectural texture, the change in light and shadows, as well as the integration of the building and its environment from different spatial distances.

▼以现代材料代替传统材料,与传统建筑在时空上脱开一定距离,replace the traditional materials by modern ones, taking a distance from the historic building on both time and space


________
地方工作室
Regional Studio

 

1. 
地方工作室的规模与工作方法是怎样的?通过工作室,项目的高完成度是如何控制和实现的?
What is the size and working mode of Regional Studio? How can you control and achieve high qualities in your projects?

地方工作室以老师、博士生和研究生为主体,这样的人员构成一方面会不断有新鲜血液涌入,另一方面难以稳定地对项目进行系统性把控。我们的设计模式主要是由我出概念,然后带博士生反复推敲,基本确定之后交给助手带下面的同学继续跟进,最后由我对材料和细节把关。我们有长期合作的室内、景观,以及钢结构、幕墙等团队,相互之间默契度较高,可以一定程度保证项目的完成度。

Regional Studio is mainly a gourp of teachers, doctoral students and graduate students. On the one hand, this composition ensures a constant influx of new members. On the other hand, it is difficulte to sysmetically control the projects in a steady way. Generally, when we start a project, I will come up with a concept and let the doctoral students deliberate it again and again. After the concept is decided, my assistant will keep on developing it with the fellow students and I will control the materials and details at the end of the design. We have long-term collaboration with teams in interior design, landscape design, steel structure, curtain walls, etc. We are familiar with each other, ensuring the projects to reach a certain quality.

▼地方图示作品展 · 北京
Exhibition of Regional Studio · Beijing

这几年我们持续举办小型展览,工作室也会不定期地举办学术沙龙,以加强和国内同行之间的交流。同时,我在湖南大学教建筑解析,当然讲不了别人的作品,只能分析我自己的设计。我们希望每次设计无论结果如何,都能做一次学术盘点,挖掘这个项目的学术价值,发现新的含义。学院更多是教学任务,设计院更多是产值压力。在学院里开工作室,让我既可以不用让工作过度束缚自己的设计,又可以游离在教学评价体系之外。我们希望通过自己的作品,探讨建筑的本质内涵,同时对设计院和学校都产生一些良性影响。

▼谢子龙影像艺术馆展览·长沙
Exhibition in Xie Zilong Photography Museum · Changsha

 

 

________________
中国建筑实践与建筑教育
Architectural Practice and Education in China

 

1. 
请谈一谈您眼中中国二三线城市建筑实践的现状,与一线城市相比,它们有哪些发展的机遇?

在信息时代,二三线城市受到了一线城市创作思潮的巨大影响,甚至在某些方面已经与一线城市没有明显差别,这为二三线城市带来了很多机会。另一方面,二三线城市的创作环境要明显差于一线城市,审美认知和产业链的配合均有明显不足,因此产生了很多比一线城市还追求标志性,但是细节配套跟不上的公共建筑。但是我们也能看到积极的一面:一线城市建筑师之间都是高手过招,大家可能互相影响,反倒产生了某种趋同性;而二三线城市由于没有这么强大的设计资源,可能可以留下一些让设计师自由发挥的空间。我们有时会发现长沙比它下一级的城市更保守,很多国内建筑师的成功项目都建在常德、湘西等小城市,那里反而可以保证某种建筑的原真性。

 

2.
谈谈您对目前中国建筑学科以及建筑学教育的看法

我们是当事者,直接或间接参与到建筑学教育之中。我认为中国建筑教育和我在学院里做设计一样,处于一种制约下游离的状态。任何学科都不会像建筑学这样,一直在寻找专业的本质属性和内涵。这些年中国建筑教育的评价体系是偏离于建筑学本身的专业属性的,导致学建筑需要去应对很多从专业来讲并不相干的评价指标。当然,研究性是有必要的,但是我担心研究最后变成了简单的指标上的追求。如果要回归建筑本体,我认为有必建立中国建筑学科自身的话语权。我有一个很极端的想法,就是把建筑学教育肢解。一个边界清晰的建筑学是不存在的,不如让建筑的不同分支分别去对应不同的学科。本体在设计领域,建筑技术与理工科结合,另外一些则与社会人文学科合并,分别按照不同所在学科的标准去评判。这些分支形成了一个独立的联合体,可以不受单一标准的限制,不断自我完善,而建筑学也许就可以借此复兴。

 

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