《Roberto Burle Marx Lectures：Landscape as Art and Urbanism》由哈佛大学景观设计硕士专业主任加雷斯·多尔蒂教授编著。其著作中涉及的领域众多，例如《新地理3：色彩的都市主义》探讨了身份、性别、权利以及通过颜色进行的空间设计等议题；《生态都市主义》深入阐述了城市化与艺术、环境、政府、公共健康、社会、技术、生态等各个方面之间的关系，并且探讨了生态都市主义理论的内涵和应用。
Roberto Burle Marx Lectures：Landscape as Art and Urbanism is edited by Gareth Doherty, assistant professor of landscape architecture and senior research associate at the Harvard University Graduate School of Design, where he is also director of the Master in Landscape Architecture Program.
Roberto Burle Marx Lectures：Landscape as Art and Urbanism
by Gareth Doherty (Editor)
Paperback: 256 pages
Publisher: Lars Müller Publishers (February 27, 2018)
研究Roberto Burle Marx就是研究景观。从Gareth Doherty研究他的演讲中可以看到Burle Marx思想维度上的景观和Gareth Doherty多向性的复合景深。
To study Roberto Burle Marx is to study landscapes. From Gareth Doherty’s study of his speech, we can see the landscape in the dimension of Burle Marx’s thoughts and the multidirectional, compound depth of field.
Roberto Burle Marx说：“一个好的园林一定是一件艺术品，对比、结构。尺度和比例等，都是很重要的原则。但首先他必须先拥有思想。”Gareth Doherty编著的Roberto Burle Marx Lectures：Landscape as Art and Urbanism一书，从编辑开始就是一项思想创作，编辑是他另一种写论文的方式，或者说两者在同一个维度上。Roberto Burle Marx Lectures一书并非只是对Burle Marx 的思想作梳理、阐释和解读，而是景观创作与实践的必要性参与。在这个意义上，这本书不只是著作，也是景观的实践，或者说是纸上的景观实践或信息中的景观设计。并未实现的研究与实现的方案是高度一致的，对于景观领域而言，Gareth Doherty不只是景观领域的学者，也是一位“学者式景观建筑师”——他为景观建筑师们带来了无数崭新的起点和付诸行动的方向。他所有的研究和思考的方法都是已实现项目中的构成部分，并且突破了严酷现实可能带来的“推迟诞生”。
Roberto Burle Marx said: “a good garden must be a work of art, contrast, structure. Scale and proportion are important principles. But first he has to have minds. “Roberto Burle Marx Lectures: Landscape as Art and Urbanism”, edited by Gareth Doherty, is an idea creation from the beginning. Editing is another way for him to write papers, or they are in the same dimension. Roberto Burle Marx Lectures is not only to sort, explain and interpret Burle Marx’s ideas, but also a necessary participation in the landscape creation and practice. In this sense, this book is not only a book, but also a landscape practice, or a landscape design on paper or information. The unrealized research is highly consistent with the implemented program. In the field of landscape, Gareth Doherty is not only a scholar in the field of landscape, but also a “scholar landscape architect”, who brings numerous new starting points and directions for landscape architects to put into practice. All of his research and thinking methods are components of realized projects, and break through the possible “deferred birth” of harsh reality.
Roberto Burle Marx( 1909-1994)是景观领域历史上最重要的景观设计师之一。他将景观作为艺术和城市化，独特而广受赞誉的作品在许多资料中都有特色和参考，但 Burle Marx自己的话却很少发表。这是Gareth Doherty编著本书的独特观点，在常见主题中考虑视角偏向作为切入点。Burle Marx的演讲具没有一种固定的模式，他的知识含量巨大，来自多个领域，具有不确定性和即时效能，他的演讲和他的景观草图过程是同步的思考轨迹，Gareth Doherty在书中分类、梳理和定格了Burle Marx那些流动性的思想轨迹，给景观界带来捕捉Burle Marx思想灵光的契机。Gareth Doherty对演讲稿和设计稿件的编辑让我们看到“塞尚一个苹果的结构”，也让我看到表象世界的多个立面，带我们深入Burle Marx演讲稿的隐秘性、密而不宣以及真实性等平时被严重遮蔽的那些思考过程。有时，即兴性的演讲就是设计师的手稿，这本演讲集让我们进入Burle Marx具体创作的园林情境之中，以“体验重现”（embodied reenactment）的形式尝试掌握其思维的全过程。对演讲的研究与追问，会对Burle Marx的现实中原作提出意想不到的问题，会对原作上曾经“被覆盖的东西”和最初的动机有更大的发现与挖掘。真实性的需求，对景观史的矫正起到不可忽略的作用。即使Burle Marx演讲中的某个突如其来的观点的肇端几乎总是与一种晴空霹雳般的因素有关，那些形状在一闪之间记录并传达它们确切无误的存在，而这种天生的、迅疾的转向也是自然和社会所诱发的事物。Gareth Doherty对演讲的编辑让时间退回到Burle Marx思考的时刻，似乎让读者回到听讲座的时间，他的论文式编辑方法对应着现实中的、世界结构里的任何事物。
Roberto Burle Marx(1909-1994) is one of the most important landscape architects in the history of landscape. His unique and acclaimed work of landscape as art and urbanism is featured and referenced in many sources, but Burle Marx’s own words are rarely published. This is Gareth Doherty’s unique point of view in writing the book. In common themes, he takes the perspective bias into account. Burle Marx’s speeches have not a fixed mode, he has a wide range of knowledge of multiple fields, with uncertainty and real-time performance. His speech and his process of landscape sketches is a reflection of the synchronous thinking track. In the book, Gareth Doherty classes, combs and formulates Burle Marx’s flowing intellectual trajectory, offering the landscape industry an opportunity to capture Burle Marx’s thought inspirations. Gareth Doherty’s editing of the speeches and designs allows us to see “the structure of Cezanne as an apple”, and I are often heavily obscured by Burle Marx’s speech. Sometimes, impromptu speech is the manuscript of the designer, the speeches let us get into the Burle Marx’s specific creative landscape context, in the form of “experience” (embodied reenactment), trying to grasp the whole process of mind. The study and inquiry of speech will raise unexpected questions about the original works in the reality of Burle Marx, and have a greater discovery and exploration of the once “covered things” and the original motive in the original works. The need of authenticity plays an indispensable role in the correction of landscape history. Even an onset of a sudden idea in Burle Marx’s speech is almost always associated with a clear thunderbolt, the shapes that record and convey their unmistakable presence in a flash are natural and social induced matters. Gareth Doherty’s editing of speeches takes time back to the moment when Burle Marx was thinking, and seems to take the reader back to the moment when he was listening to a lecture. His essay edit corresponds to anything in the real world.
在书中，Gareth Doherty巧妙地把Burle Marx做过笔记的演讲稿作为连续阅读的书页，而非插图来编辑，把真实的思考过程巨细无遗地呈现出来。这些讲座描绘了一幅Burle Marx的灵魂肖像——他不仅仅是一个园丁、艺术家和植物学家，还是一个景观设计师，他的抱负给城市和社会带来根本性的变化。在书中，也编辑了设计手稿。手稿研究是西方美术史潜藏和隐匿的部位，而在景观史或建筑史上，手稿常常作为建筑师的首位展示作品，甚至还有建筑师热衷于把手稿的真实性外化成现实中的建筑——弗兰克·盖里那些看起来一团乱麻、语无伦次、甚至不可名状的狂草式设计手稿，比很多充满偶然性的艺术手稿具有更多的无法预测和不可知，很多人看完他的草图都找不到方向，同时也被很多人奉为膜拜的天才之作，是一种无法模仿的视觉方法论。Gareth Doherty通过两种即时性的行为——演讲稿和设计稿——的互文关系加重了这种无法模仿的思考方法论。
In the book, Gareth Doherty ingeniously presents Burle Marx’s notes of speech as pages for continuous reading, rather than as illustrations, giving an exhaustive account of the actual thought process. The lectures paint a portrait of Burle Marx’s soul – not just as a gardener, artist or botanist, but as a landscape architect whose aspirations have brought fundamental changes to the city and society. In the book, the design manuscript was also edited. Research manuscript is the concealment in western art history, and in the history of landscape or architectural history, manuscripts, often as an architect’s first show, and even the architect is keen on the authenticity of the manuscript in a fit of externalization into reality in the building. Frank Gehry’s cursive design manuscripts, which looked mess, incoherent, and even unexplainable, has more unpredictability and unknowable idea than many accidental art manuscript. A lot of people can not find direction after watching his sketches, but also a lot of people worship them as works of genius, a kind of visual methodology that can’t be imitated. Gareth Doherty accentuates this inimitable thinking methodology by intertextuality of two kinds of behavior: speech and design.
其中，Gareth Doherty在本书中带给我们的其中一个启示是：Burle Marx的演讲不确定性和他对色彩关系的演讲不确定性是如出一辙的。看 Burle Marx与色彩关系，可以从他整体的创作机制开始。大自然的不确定性恰恰激发了 Burle Marx 的创造力。他曾说：“完美的作品是不存在的，艺术作品永远都有不确定性。”Burle Marx 将大自然的不可预知性融入到设计作品中，创造出了一种不断变化中的“不完美之美”，如同扎加耶夫斯基说的“赞美这个残缺的世界”。在色彩关系中，Burle Marx也是强调变化的部分，会用对比的色彩，色彩能创造感情，能持续的让园子激发感情，在他的作品中，大面积的单一色彩是产生冲击的重要因素。他在园林中建立复杂的植物群落也是他表达复合型色彩关系的。他用大量的同种植物形成大的色彩区域，如同在大地上而不是在画布上作画，通过运用植物展示色彩的场所精神。他用运用黑、白、棕三色马赛克拼成的抽象图案做路面则是集合颜色总和的一种方式。他的色彩关系是可以制造身处的空间和心理空间的。不带感情的色彩是难容于世的。Gareth Doherty在讲座上提到，Burle Marx个人偏爱用整体树干倾斜的树来布局园林。这制造了阴影与风对话的色彩。
One of the lessons Gareth Doherty brings us in this book is that Burle Marx’s speech uncertainty is the same as his speech uncertainty about color relations. The relation between Burle Marx and color can start from his overall creation mechanism. Nature’s uncertainty is precisely what inspired Burle Marx’s creativity. “There is no such thing as a perfect work,” he once said. “there is always uncertainty in a work of art. “Burle Marx integrated the unpredictability of nature into his design works, creating an ever-changing “beauty of imperfection,” as Adam Zagajewski said, “to praise this broken world. “In the relationship of color, Burle Marx also emphasizes changes. He would use contrasting colors to create emotions, and continuously let the garden stimulate emotions. In his works, the single color of large area is an important factor for impact. He built complex plant communities in the garden and expressed the complex color relationship. He used large amounts of the same plant to form large areas of color, as on the ground rather than on canvas, through the use of plants to display color of the site spirit. Tiling an abstract pattern with black, white and brown mosaics as a pavement is a way to aggregate colors. His color relations can create the space and psychological space. It’s hard to live without emotion. In his lecture, Gareth Doherty noted that Burle Marx’s personal preference was to use trees with sloping trunks to lay out gardens. This creates a dialogue between shadow and wind.
Roberto Burle Marx Lectures这本书收录了十多篇Burle Marx的演讲，其中大部分以前从未用过英文，填补了这一空白。在国际巡回演讲中，他们讨论了景观构成、园林与生态的概念以及园林照明问题。Burle Marx强调造型艺术、空间组织、侧重于色彩和平面构图、植物的多样，他本身不受所谓的当代国内到处流行的地域主义、风格、文化、生态主义、绿道、景观都市主义等的影响，很纯粹的立足于简单的设计。本书的出版揭示了Burle Marx独特的伦理和景观美学，作为“生活中的真正艺术”（the real art in living），而Gareth Doherty的编辑为我们打开了Burle Marx观点的折叠面，那就是，景观中仿生学已经过去了，而自然中的植物开始在景观中模仿人的生活，正在挑战这景观建筑的思考极限。
Roberto Burle Marx Lectures this book contains more than ten Burle Marx Lectures, most of which have never translated into English before, filling this vacancy. In the international lecture tour, they discussed the concept of landscape composition, landscape and ecology, and landscape lighting. Burle Marx emphasizes modeling art, spatial organization, focusing on color and plane composition, and diversity of plants. He himself is not affected by the so-called regionalism, style, culture, ecologism, greenway and landscape urbanism that are all popular in contemporary China. He is purely based on simple design. The publication of the book reveals Burle Marx’s unique ethical and landscape aesthetics, as “the real art of life” (the real art in living), while Gareth Doherty’s edit helps us open Burle Marx’s point on the folding surface, that is, the landscape of bionics has passed, and the natural plants in the landscape began to imitate human life, challenging the limit of landscape architecture thinking.
Roberto Burle Marx Lectures的图片是由巴西具有国际声誉的摄影师Leonardo Finotti为Burle Marx已实现的一些项目拍摄的照片构成的，这些具有高品质的摄影与Gareth Doherty的编著机制形成了互为图底的关系，在信息流中的互文拓展了无限的思考空间，对景观成为无处不在当代艺术的进程出示了高远的影响。
Roberto Burle Marx’s picture of the Lectures are taken by internationally renowned Brazil photographer Leonardo Finotti for Burle Marx’s some implemented project. These high-quality photography and Gareth Doherty’s mechanism commonly form a mutual figure-ground relation, in the flow of intertextuality expand the infinite thinking space, showing profound effect for landscape progressing into ubiquitous contemporary art.
图片由Lars Müller Publishers出版社提供