In order to make more space to accommodate the fast growing number of students, Futian District of Shenzhen City is ushering in a new round of construction of primary and secondary schools. In February 2018, the Futian Authority of Shenzhen Municipal Planning and Land Resources Committee launched an international competition named “8+1 – Futian New Campus Action Plan”, a call to fundamentally rethink the idea of “campus”. The competition invited architects to explore new school typologies that manage to mediate two factors: high-density urban environments and the subtropical climate of Shenzhen. Proposals should address the changing educational system, rethinking what a school is, its norms, and proposing new hybrid typologies in which the function of mediation and sharing between schools and their adjacent communities must be prioritized.
▼从中心公园看向校园西立面，view from central park
Futian School is one of the largest high-schools in Shenzhen, and will host a rising number of sudents from 2,600 to 3,000, providing all students with accomodation within its original site boundary (41,461 sqm), expanding its gross floor area from 33,656 to 100,000 sqm (the FAR will reach 3.87 — this extreme density is 2-3 times more than any ordinary school typology in China), making Futian School the most challenging case among all 9 school projects involved in the competition. The school site is located in the centre of Futian district, facing on its West side the Central Park. In addition to the ultra-high FAR, the site is tightly surrounded by high-rises on the North, East and South sides, making it a complex urban environment.
A 100,000 sqm school campus located in the very center of the dense urban fabric requires a set of crucial design decisions that address strategically the series of relationships involved: the relation between the multiple building volumes, as well as the relation between the campus and its immediate urban context. We decided thus to place the football field in the West half of the site, while the building volumes lay on the East, forming a continuous and smooth skyline with their proximal context. The field is rotated 15 degrees anti-clockwise, an operation that allows the creation, at the South-West corner, of a welcoming spatial interface, a covered plaza open towards the adjacent street. The pitch is elevated 5m above the street level. This other operation elevates the main ground level of the campus, creating a common and covered podium that organizes all the most public facilities of the school such as the indoor and semi-indoor sports fields and an auditorium. The street level at the North-West corner of this podium is used as temporary parking spaces and pick-up points that absorb the heavy traffic load generated by an influx of 3,000 students.
▼体育场看台形成的校园城市界面，the stadium bleachers becomes a part of the urban surface
The dorms, the highest and densest building of the campus, are kept to the South edge to avoid blocking sunlight to the neighboring hospital that sits on the North side of the plot, where the teaching volumes are allocated. The volumes are organized as interconnected finger-like slabs with a North-South orientation, a common typology that minimizes structural costs, maximizing common spaces of mediation (bridges, elevated plazas, sheltered performance alleys). What holds together the slabs is a plugged-in LOOP —— a “social band” designed to organize the campus life, privileging social experiences in spite of what commonly define a campus: social segregation. These volumes subtly fold towards the sports field, generating a series of East-West view corridors that open up towards the Central Park and Futian CBD skyline. This linear arrangement of volumes forms sequences of spaces in-between and activates left-over areas generated by the complicated configuration of the site boundary, which are ultimately used as spatial hybrids to mediate between the buildings and the landscape. An in-depth solar analysis helped us reshaping the volumes and their high peaks. In fact optimizing solar conditions in such a dense campus environment is one of the most arduous challenges, given that every classroom and lab must be granted a minimum of 2 hours light a day during winter time. The organization that results from this set of operations presents series of roof gardens that move from level to level through the continuous LOOP and creates an interactive and dynamic “social jungle”.
Design Concepts and Spatial Strategies
Based on a careful study of the brief, the programs is organized according to set levels of privacy, a strategy that creates macro-zones working on the horizonal and vertical axes. The most public functions that could benefit nearby communities are located in the lower part of the buildings and towards the West side: the sports facilities and the auditorium are hosted within the podium, semi-underground, while the exhibition center and public lobby are public accesses to the sports center. The West is a permeable infrastructural interface that folds upward and presents a welcoming gesture to the street, challenging the traditional school fence that renders impossible any communication between the school and its surroundings. Given the specific circulation requirements of a boarding school, the main entrance is located closer to the lobby of the dorms. The large opening of the massive concrete structure of the elevated sports field provides a canopy to the plaza. This is a way of entering the school which emphasizes a monumental sequence: the space of an (open) community. Such plaza sits at the junction between the lobby of the dorms and the teaching tower, working as a hub that efficiently directs daily commute between the dorm, the classrooms and the canteen.
▼公共裙房，the public podium
60 general classrooms where students stay for more than 50% of everyday time, are granted best solar access and evacuation efficiency, and they are placed all within the first 5 floors to allow students to easily access the open playground. Since it is impossible to avoid high-rise buildings given the site FAR, the roof of the podium is designed to work for fire emergencies, thus reducing the “evacuation height”. A number of flexible teaching spaces are placed in-between general classrooms and labs, providing buffering zones utilizable by both. These spaces sitting at elevated floors are designed with variable classrooms sizes, and provide areas for a potential future expansion of the school.
“Multiple Grounds” is the principle that maximizes the amount of active surfaces, splitting and displacing them on different interrelated and interconnected levels. It is a strategy that works particularly well for a high-density campus, especially with a distributed network of ever changing outdoor spaces and nodal filters that can facilitate the diversification of connections and the typology of enclosures. “Multiplying” is the strategy that smoothens up the transition between the landscape and the building. Given the extreme density of activities on the site, it avoids the creation of a final massing that is oppressive and self-imposing. The zones of the classrooms, dorm and public facilities are connected at the 5-9m podium level and at the 20-25m loop level. These thick connections provide students a number of alternative paths in their daily commuting within the school.
空中活动圈”THE LOOP”不是一个简单的连廊系统，而是一个由楼梯、坡道、大阶梯、架空层，屋面花园、攀岩墙等串联起来的连贯的社交空间体系。它连接了校园中最为公共的使用功能（教学区灵活教室，宿舍共享学习区，露天阶梯教室），这一系列非正式集合空间和创新启发式的学习空间，鼓励师生之间的交流、共享与碰撞随时随地自然的发生。THE LOOP营造了20余处尺度、高低、视野、围合感各不相同的室外和半室外空间，成为学生日常的发现与惊喜的来源。空中活动圈由串联教学区各建筑的水平400m LOOP和宿舍楼垂直200m LOOP组成，并在其间艺术传媒科创中心屋面形成一个厚的连接。它不仅在20m的高空塑造了一个视野极佳的第二地面，也成为宿舍与教学楼之间的“捷径”。它不仅提供了一个新的交通方式，同时也将作为高层建筑的宿舍楼以中央架空层为界划分成上下两个多层建筑，形成一个适合垂直校园体系的交通系统。
The LOOP is not just a simple collection of bridges connecting the school buildings, but rather a distributed system of diverse social spaces taking the shape of seating areas, performance ramps, amphitheaters, roof gardens, climbing walls (etc). It strategically connects all the most public elements of the school (flexible classrooms, open theaters, common study areas), promoting and inspiring spontaneous communication and exchanges between students and the teaching staff. The horizontal loop connects all the teaching towers whilst the vertical loop navigates through this high-rise tower of the dorms. The LOOP works as a shortcut between the dorms and the classrooms, effectively reducing vertical distances, a circulation scheme that works particularly well in such a high-rise school campus.
The football field with the running track is an important symbol of the school history. It is also the largest facility to be shared with the adjacent neighborhood. Rather than passively accepting the fact that it consumes nearly 1/3 of the buildable area, we decided to turn it into the center of the campus, and its seating areas become a smooth surface bridging the level of the running track (+5m) and the elevated ground (+9m), creating a stadium-like enclosure.
▼望向公园的天台，the skydeck with the parkview
Futian Campus attempts at demonstrating a number of design principles inserted in a critical context forged by dramatic density, shaping an environmentally friendly complex open to the city. The high porosity of the massing maximizes natural ventilation and shading, utilizing a passive energy saving strategy that does not need to rely on expensive technologies. The translucent second skin made of louvers and shutters mediates the need of maximum sunlight of the classrooms and shenzhen’s strong solar conditions. A number of covered and semi-covered outdoor spaces are the perfect places for sun shading and rain protection and specifically adjust to Shenzhen’s subtropical climate.
At the campus scale, a 3-dimensional system of green spaces create an interconnected ecological infrastructure. Various sunken gardens increase the permeability of the podium, allowing natural light and ventilation to access underground programs, generating meanwhile ample rain gardens for ground-water recharge. The planting strategy focuses on a careful selection of native local plant communities to lower long-term management costs. Adapting to the different functional requirement of the various locations, the plants selection considers animal food provision, organic farming for education, leisure activities of the students as well as stormwater management. The “greens” are thus beyond a tool for campus beautification. They are instead ecological means that provide environmental benefits as well as being valuable education materials for the students.
Year | 年份: 2018
Location | 地点: Shenzhen, China | 中国，深圳
Status | 状态: competition winner | 竞赛中标
Type | 类型: architecture |建筑
Program | 功能: education | 教育
Size | 规模: 建筑总面积105,263平方米
Client | 业主: Futian Middle School | 福田中学
Team | 团队: Chen Chen （陈忱），Federico Ruberto， Nicola Saladino， Lv Shoutuo（吕守拓），Chen Muzhi（陈牧之），Duan Jintong（段锦童），Wang Yiren（王翊人），Liu Yangyang（刘杨洋），Xu Bingling（徐冰凌），Chen Si（陈思），Chen Yuxuan（陈宇轩），Tan Lu (谭露)
Competition Organizer | 竞赛总策划: Futian Urban Planning, Land and Resources Commission of Shenzhen Municipality | 深圳市规划和国土资源委员会福田管理局
All images belong to reMIX studio | 全部图片版权归属临界工作室