▼东侧鸟瞰，east side bird view
The LianHua Peak Public Restroom Upgrade Project is located at the top of LianHua Hill, on the central axis of Shenzhen Futian Central District. The south side of the project is “Xiao ping Copper Statue Plaza” and the west side is Jingui Road. The north side of the project is separated from the building’s LianHua peak exhibition hall by a small hill. The eastern side is densely landscaped and has a stunning landscape.
▼莲花山顶公共卫生间紧邻小平像广场，与展厅共同组成了山顶建筑群，The LianHua Peak Public Restroom is adjacent to “Xiaoping Statue Square”；together with the exhibition hall, it forms the top of the building complex
The LianHua Peak Public Restroom is an important part of the Shenzhen Lianhua Peak Environmental Improvement Project. Together with the exhibition hall, it forms the top of the building complex, providing visitors with seeing a gallery, resting place and toilet.The public restroom of LianHua Peak is adjacent to “Xiaoping Statue Square”, which is an important and special place. During the peak period, the number of visitors to the Peak Plaza can reach more than 50,000. The total number of tourists is 10 million per year. The upgrade of public restroom must not only meet the needs of adults. It has also been placed on the expectations of the Shenzhen “Public Toilet Revolution” demonstration project. After completion, the public toilet will be built to represent the image of Shenzhen City with advanced design concepts, humanized design details, the highest selection criteria and the best construction level.
▼建成后的公共卫生间成为打造代表深圳城市形象的新名片， the public toilet represents the image of Shenzhen City
Constructing the Architecture Space
隐于山林|Hiding in the mountain
Achieving harmony between architecture and nature is the first principle of our design. In the overall layout, the building uses a rest pavilion to connect the men and women restroom on the north and south wings, and opens the visual corridor of the square along the Jingui Road and the east side mountain. The east side body gently falls on the hillside in the form of a hanging foot, just like a glede perched between the mountains.
▼建筑以休息长廊串联南北两翼的男女卫生间，东侧主体以吊脚楼的方式轻轻落在山坡之上，恰似一只鸢鸟栖息在山林之间， the building uses a rest pavilion to connect the men and women restroom on the north and south wings; the east side body gently falls on the hillside in the form of a hanging foot, just like a glede perched between the mountains
一轴两翼|One axis and two wings
The main function of the public toilet on the top of Lianhua Mountain consists of four parts. The rest pavilion and the vista platform serve as the female main bathroom in the north side of the space main axis, the male bathroom on the south side, the mother and baby room in the middle, the disabled toilet and the third bathroom. .The rest gallery has a guiding role for the whole building. It is both a moving spindle and a landscape main axis. It has both rain and waiting functions. There are spacious rest benches along the north-south main landscape. There are also vending machines and mobile phone charging sockets. , classified garbage collection and other convenient facilities.
▼休息长廊与观景平台作为空间主轴串联起北侧的女卫生间、南侧的男卫生间、中部的母婴室、残疾人卫生间及第三卫生间，the rest pavilion and the vista platform serve as the female main bathroom in the north side of the space main axis, the male bathroom on the south side, the mother and baby room in the middle, the disabled toilet and the third bathroom
因借体宜|Borrowing the landscape
Ji Cheng once mentioned in “Yuanye” that the garden is ingeniously use the concept of taking advantage of ‘original situation” and “Borrow the Landscape”. It means that when designing a garden, it is necessary to make full use of the original landscape situation, and to make appropriate creations by means of the forms of “high” and “correct” in the natural environment. Ji cheng emphasizes that the garden should take full advantage of the natural terrain and shape, and try not to make fundamental changes. Specifically, it is to properly handle the natural resources of trees, water and stone, etc. , the path, etc. make reasonable arrangements.
“Borrowing the landscape” include connotations such as distance, orientation, and seasonality. They borrow mountains and lakes, borrow trees and flowers, and rely on the rainbow flying geese in the sky. Seasonal refers to the solar terms. The difference between the morning, the evening and the spring, summer, autumn and winter is different, and can be borrowed differently. The sunset, the spring and autumn, the summer heat, the winter snow, are all in the range of scenery. How to take advantage of ‘original situation” and “Borrow the Landscape” is what we consider about repeatedly in design process. In the flow space dominated by the rest pavilion, through the limitation and guidance of different interfaces such as solid walls, colonnades, perforated plates and louvers, the space extend and turning, the level and variety of the scenery can be realized, thereby obtaining a smooth and rich sensory experience.
▼剖轴测-如何因借是设计中思考的重点，axonometric diagram-how to “Borrow the Landscape” is what designers consider about repeatedly in design process
借景营园|Bring landscape into the garden
The rest pavilion is arranged in an east-west direction to fully release its viewing properties. The south facing rest seat is facing the small flat square and the south side green small square, with a wide view; the north facing seat is the north side hill, quiet and pleasant; the seat orientation avoids the Jingui Road with a large flow of people on the west side. On the east side, a leisure step waiting area and a vsita platform are set up at the entrance of the Baby’s lounge and Family Restroom. The lush mountain forest on the east side and the row of city views are all in sight. The interior design of the men’s and women’s restrooms also takes into account the use of the landscape. For instance, the layout of the toilets of the women’s toilets fully considers the queuing habits and psychological needs of the people in use, which allows people enjoying the view while waiting in queue.
▼建筑沿金桂路一侧外观，view from Jingui Road
▼南向休息座椅正对小平像广场及南侧绿化小广场，视野开阔，the south facing rest seat is facing the small flat square and the south side green small square, with a wide view
▼休息长廊起始处，starting point of resting pavilion
▼休息长廊东西向布置，可充分释放其观景属性，the rest pavilion is arranged in an east-west direction to fully release its viewing properties
▼东侧在母婴室和家庭卫生间门口设置休闲台阶等候区及观景平台，东侧郁郁葱葱的山林与鳞次栉比的城市远景尽收眼底，on the east side, a leisure step waiting area and a vsita platform are set up at the entrance of the Baby’s lounge and Family Restroom; the lush mountain forest on the east side and the row of city views are all in sight
引景入室|Bring landscape into the interior
▼建筑基底东侧登山路标高较低，无视线干扰，提供了将其自然属性发挥到极致的有利条件，the east side mountaineering road is lower and does not block the view, providing advantage of maximizing its natural attributes
The site not only gives the building a strong “natural attribute”, but also provides the advantage of maximizing its natural attributes: because the east side mountaineering road sign is low, there is no blocking of the view from restroom, the main space of the men’s and women’s restroom is east side arranged and fully open, which allowed the scene introduced into the room. Looking at the distance, the close-up view of the forest and the city’s vision are like a consisting drawing. The beautiful scenery of the mountains and seas is relaxing and eased. The stunning view itself is the most luxurious precious of the LianHua Peak.
▼男女卫生间的主体空间均靠东侧布置并采用全开敞的处理，引景入室，the main space of the men’s and women’s restroom is arranged along east side and fully opened, which allowed the scene introduced into the room
▼洗手间内的景观视野，landscape view inside the restroom
公共与私密|Public and Private
▼视线遮挡分析，sight privacy analysis
The open layout and the flowing space also pose a major challenge to the design, namely how to resolve the contradiction between privacy and publicity. Taking the men’s room as an example, the privacy from strong to weak is the urinal area, the toilet compartment area and the hand washing area. The hand washing area has certain publicity. The design strategy is to block the sight by perforated metal, louvers and stone walls. The calculation just happened to make the private area in the toilet avoid the pedestrian’s sight. At the same time, the urinal area also avoids the sight interference on the east side viewing platform and the side of the ‘Xiao Ping statue square’ on the south side. On this basis, the metal mesh curtain is used to block the occlusion, which further enhances the privacy of the urinal area and reflects the nuanced human care.
▼男厕入口-私密性从强到弱依次为小便斗区、厕格区、洗手区，entrance of men’s room- the privacy from strong to weak is the urinal area, the toilet compartment area and the hand washing area
▼洗手区具有一定公共性，the hand washing area has certain publicity
▼男厕用金属网帘进行区隔遮挡，进一步增强了私密性，the metal mesh curtain is used to block the occlusion, which further enhances the privacy of the urinal area
高差与尺度|Altitude and Scale
▼建筑尺度-建筑以谦虚的姿态融入环境之中，成为自然的一部分，building scale-the building is integrated into the environment with a modest attitude
The main structure of the public toilet sinks 600-900mm lower than the the west side of the square, so that the building volume can obtain a pleasant scale on the side of the square. Through the gap between the ceiling and the restroom, the greenery of the east side of the mountain forest is infiltrated, and the building is integrated into the environment with a modest attitude. Among them, become part of nature. At the same time, the height difference between the promenade and the restroom also distinguishes the public area from the relatively private men’s and women’s restroom area, which serves as a reminder.
▼高差处理-长廊与卫生间之间的高差也将公共区域与相对私密的男女厕所区域显著区分出来，altitude solution-the height difference between the promenade and the restroom also distinguishes the public area from the relatively private men’s and women’s restroom area
保留与重塑|Preserved and Reshape
In the process of reshaping the landscape of the site, the shrubs on the base were regularly cleaned up, and ordinary trees with smaller tree diameters were transplanted to other locations in the park, and three tall trees with beautiful postures were preserved on site. In here, nature is the protagonist of space, and the trees and the corridors are in harmony, witnessing the change of time.
▼在重塑场所景观的过程中三棵姿态优美的高大乔木得以保留，in the process of reshaping the landscape, three tall trees with beautiful postures were preserved on site
▼保留树木与休息长廊，preserved original trees and resting pavilion
千里江山 |”A Thousand Lis of Rivers and Mountain”-Perforated Metal Screen
▼明暗关系提取，extract the light and shade from drawing
▼参数化对应孔洞，generate the circular pattern with parametric design
The public toilets are densely populated along the side of the square. We have placed two rows of perforated metal screens as a privacy barrier. At the same time, the Northern Song Dynasty famous painting ” A Thousand Lis of Rivers and Mountain ” is pixelized in a parametric way, corresponding to the perforation of the perforated plate, to reproduce the style of this millennium masterpiece in an artistic form, giving the leisure square a strong Humanistic atmosphere.
▼男厕千里江山图，“A Thousand Lis of Rivers and Mountain” of men’s room
▼女厕千里江山图背面，back of “A Thousand Lis of Rivers and Mountain” of women’s room
▼女厕千里江山图光影，light and shadow of “A Thousand Lis of Rivers and Mountain” of women’s room
▼女厕千里江山图夜景，“A Thousand Lis of Rivers and Mountain” of women’s room
In the process of continuous progress in urban civilization, the design of public toilets has been enhanced from a single function to art and services. The gross building area of new public restroom is about 950 square meters, the men’s room is equipped with 16 sanitary wares, the female toilet is equipped with 25 sanitary wares, and the proportion of men’s and women’s toilet sanitary wares is 2:3, which greatly improves the peak service capacity and effectively solves the long waiting problem.
At the same time, the design also fully considers the various needs in terms of details: some men and women’s room are equipped with disabled facilities and folding baby seats. The toilets are equipped with vacant reminder lights. In addition to the regular configuration, men and women room There are also ceiling fans, mosquito killers, emergency lighting and other facilities. The bady’s lounge are equipped with pure water machine, warm milk machine, nursing table, double sink for cleansing and separation, child safety seat, etc. The layout of the family room takes into consideration the father’s taking the daughters, the mother with the sons and the adult child to take care of the inconvenience. Multi-faceted households such as parents need toilets. The baby lounge, the disabled room and the family room adopt a translational automatic door, which is convenient for people with baby carriage or wheelchair.
▼残疾人卫生间、第三卫生间入口空间-第三卫生间的布置考虑了父亲带女童、母亲带男童及成年子女照顾行动不便的父母等多层面家庭如厕需求，disabled restroom&unisex restroom entrance-the layout takes situations like father taking daughters, mother with her sons and adult child taking care of the inconvenience into consideration
▼厕格外设有空置提示灯，the toilets are equipped with vacant reminder lights
▼母婴室室内，interior view of baby’s lounge
In the nighttime, the interior lighting uses the combination of top light and U-glass interior wall light. The lighting equipment uses 4000k color temperature to ensure uniform illumination and give a warm and comfortable feeling.
▼保证照度均匀充足，给人以温馨舒适之感，the interior lighting ensures uniform illumination and give a warm and comfortable feeling
Material and Construction
The ground structure of the restroom is built with reinforced concrete structure and the main body is built with steel to minimize the construction period; the outer wall of the main body adopts Portuguese beige sandstone, the ceiling of the rest gallery uses anodized aluminum plate, and the ceiling of men and women’s restroom uses stone honeycomb panel. The toilet compartment adopts a durable special board. The main body of the public toilet is suspended on the east side of the hillside in the manner of a suspended foot building, which minimizes the damage to the environment of the building. The building adopts environmental protection measures such as rainwater collection devices to improve the utilization of water resources.
▼千里江山图节点，detail drawing of“A Thousand Lis of Rivers and Mountain”
Cornice of Resting Pavilion: It is made of anodized aluminum to form a slightly reflective, smooth and clean ceiling surface, creating subtle light and shadow effects and a lively and public atmosphere.
▼休息长廊檐口节点，resting pavilion cornice detail drawing
Restroom Cornice: stone honeycomb panel and stone at the cornice together form a sculptural building cornice, stone honeycomb panel ceiling and stone wall surface are integrated into one, as if the whole stone is carved.
▼卫生间檐口节点，restroom cornice detail drawing
▼休息长廊檐口及卫生间交接细部，resting pavilion cornice and intersection with the restroom
The design takes full advantage of the geographical advantages of public toilets located on the open top of the mountain to achieve maximum natural convection ventilation. Through the evenly distributed opening arrangement, the natural monsoon is introduced, and the cooling of the shade space under the roof is formed a comfortable low-temperature airflow. Even in the hottest summer day, a comfortable temperature can still be maintained in both the restroom and the rest gallery.
The public toilet is 4.5 meters high and has multiple skylights, which ensure the interior space is spacious, bright, refreshing and well ventilated. Unlike enclosed public toilets, it also solves the problem of the dark and damp smell issue. The toilet compartment use attach to the ground design, and the exhaust pipe well is installed in the wall on the back side of the toilet, which can eliminate the odor in the restroom compartment and maintain the air quality of the entire restroom. The air duct well is provided in the wall of the sink area, and the blower draws fresh air to dry the floor the of hand pool area through the air supply louver to avoid slippery ground and eliminate unsafe issue.
▼公共卫生间层高4.5米，上设天窗，室内空间高挑疏朗，明亮清爽，采光通风俱佳，the public toilet is 4.5 meters high and has multiple skylights, which ensure the interior space is spacious, bright, refreshing and well ventilated
设计团队: 李文 何顺鹏 莫穗聪 綦晓
Location: Shen Zhen Fu Tian District Lian Hua Shan Top
Design Instructor: Chen Xiao
Design Principal: Yang Yang
Design Team: Wen Li, Shunpeng He, Suicong Mo, Xiao Qi.
Gross Built Area: 950 ㎡
Structure Materials: Concrete, Steel.
Design Year: 2018
Completed year: 2019
Planning and Schematic Design : ShenZhen Huahui Design.
Construction Drawing: SUIADR
Landscape Design: Beijing Chuanyishance
Interior Design: ShenZhen Huahui Design.
Interior Construction Drawing: HongTao Design
Photo Credits: Chao Zhang.