Southampton is an historic port and spa city and the primary departure point for cruise ships sailing from England. Much of the medieval defence walls have remained, but the shoreline has been reclaimed and colonised by port facilities, retail parks and surface car parks, making the city feel increasingly distant from the sea. Watermark WestQuay is a mixed-used scheme sited on reclaimed land just outside the town walls. It creates a new urban precinct that brings citizens and visitors back to the old shoreline, creating a major new public space close to the sea.
▼项目主体一览，project overview ©Benedict Luxmoore
Phase 1 of Watermark WestQuay is the first part of a major redevelopment of a key area within Southampton’s town centre designed by ACME. The new scheme contains a 10-screen multiplex cinema, bowling alley, 24 restaurants and cafés, a double-height winter garden and a new public plaza and esplanade. The cinema floats above the restaurants, cantilevering out up to 26m to protect views from the walls. The new façade for the cinema has been designed as a continuous 14km long band of pipes, echoing the underwater cables that were formerly manufactured there by Pirelli. The pipes form an outer skin for the cinema that gives an impression of weightlessness and movement, and allows for the integration of transparency and lighting to create a floating night-time attraction visible from the city and the incoming cruise liners.
▼项目底层的混凝土部分与上层区分明显，the lower level is distinguished from the upper part by the concrete cladding©Benedict Luxmoore
The lower restaurant level is defined by precast concrete cladding which speaks to the erosion patterns usually found by the sea, with heavy profiling creating horizontal bands that animate the facade and tie into the horizontal language of the pipes above. The major new public square for Southampton is bringing civic life back to the town wall, with auditorium seating, water features and hard and soft finishes providing a range of spaces for a variety of uses, from large boat show events to small festivals and ice skating rings.
▼长向立面一览，the longitudinal elevation©Benedict Luxmoore
The WestQuay master plan addresses Southampton’s historic role as a main thoroughfare for cruise ships and trade. During the course of the twentieth century the shoreline has become distanced from the local population, moving progressively further away from the medieval town walls that historically marked the waterfront, due in part to a series of port facilities and industrial buildings, such as the former Pirelli factory. Phase 1 and 2 of Watermark WestQuay have been designed as the first steps in a plan to reconnect the city to the sea, embracing Southampton’s ancient maritime history. The overall vision of the master plan will ensure that the new development bridges the level change that currently divides the site from the city centre, while maintaining protected views by splitting the scheme into distinct north and south projects.
▼项目与城市、海滨的位置关系，the relationship between the city, the waterfront and the project
一个有城墙的港口 | A PORT WITH WALLS
Southampton used to be an important port and was involved in the trade of French wine and English wool. After the French Raid of 1338 the town’s defences were reinforced. As the town didn’t have enough money to construct full defensive walls, the existing merchant houses facing the West Quay were incorporated into the defensive walls by joining their exterior walls to form an arcade in front of the 12th century Norman houses. Parts of the Town Walls remain today. Originally a walled town on a peninsula surrounded by the water, Southampton’s economic development has centered on its relationship with the harbour. Massive engineering works along the waterfront would transform its identity and relationship with the water permanently. The need to expand its port capacity led to the reclamation of land outside of the old Town Walls.
▼保存下来的古城墙成为设计里重要的元素，the old Town Wall is an important part of the overall design©Jack Hobhouse
密实化的需求 | A NEED FOR DENSIFICATION
While the harbour is active to this day, the City Centre is in need of densification as rival urban centres in the periphery are challenging and compromising Southampton’s status as a prime destination. The opportunity of engaging the reclaimed areas in an urban manner and connecting the City once again to the waterfront exists and should be actively pursued.
▼城墙与建筑间形成一个供人们玩乐的广场，the space in between the old Town Wall and the building is a plaza for people to have fun©Jack Hobhouse
The areas of newly created public realm around the building are open 24 hours a day, ensuring that the scheme is fully integrated into the fabric of the city centre. It centres around a new public plaza, flanked by the Town Walls and a set of tapering steps leading down from the lower promenade, creating a natural auditorium in which to host a range of events. Lined with restaurants that open up onto the square, this flexible space will become a scene of lively activity throughout the summer months.
▼新创建的公共领域的区域每天24小时开放，the areas of newly created public realm around the building are open 24 hours a day©Jack Hobhouse
A water feature provides a focal point and combines fountain jets with a mirror pool, which ebbs and flows much as the tides would have done when this location formed the waters edge, while integrated lighting animates the space during the evening and night. During the winter the space is designed to host an ice rink, Christmas markets and other activities to ensure it remains vibrant with activity year round.
▼水景提供了一个聚焦的点，它将镜面池与喷泉结合起来；a water feature provides a focal point and combines fountain jets with a mirror pool©ACME
Leading south from the Plaza along the foot of the Town Walls is Western Esplanade. This is the first portion of a pedestrian route that will eventually reach all the way to the waterfront when future phases of the master plan are developed. A sinuous planted swale creates pockets of space, which allow people to gather and relax alongside colourful planting composed of wide variety of native species. Uplighting is employed along the Town Wall providing a richly textured backdrop to the scheme at night, while all lighting to the public realm is provided from the building itself and the trees, ensuring the plaza is clutter-free and focusing attention of the ancient Walls.
▼回看广场，looking back at the plaza©Jack Hobhouse
▼绿植为广场提供了有这样的休息区，the trees provide a covered area for people©ACME
Bridging the level difference – celebrating the wall
城市一体化 | URBAN INTEGRATION
A significant level difference of more than seven meters exists between the Old Town – the contemporary city centre – and the reclaimed land West of the Town Walls including the site, historically the waterfront. Historic photos show the Old Town with a gradual connection from Bargate to Western Esplanade via a softly sloping Bargate Street, however this has been lost with recent developments on the reclaimed land at the lower level. These have operated in two distinct ways: at the raised level of the city centre by way of podiums, or at grade with suburban retail and business parks designed for ease of vehicular circulation. This pattern of development has been at the expense of pedestrian connectivity in the city.
▼“上步道”，the upper promenade©ACME
▼从上层步道俯瞰广场，overlook the plaza from the upper promenade©Jack Hobhouse
Watermark WestQuay introduces a new approach by bridging this level difference to bring activity to the lower level where currently there is no natural footfall. The scheme aims to initiate an urban movement aimed towards reconnecting Southampton to its waterfront, and in the process to celebrate the Town Walls by providing pedestrians with a new perspective on and closeness to this significant piece of history.
▼从上层步道可以到达各个餐厅，one can access the restaurants from the ‘Upper Promenade’©Benedict Luxmoore
倾斜的步道 | SLOPING PROMENADES
Taking a cue from the historic sloping connection from Bargate Street, the scheme introduces two sloping promenades, providing a smooth transition from the City Centre and Old Town down to the new Plaza at the heart of the scheme, and beyond to the Waterfront. The ‘Upper Promenade’ takes visitors gradually down from the level of the Old Town to a raised area of public realm connecting to both the Plaza at the foot of the Town Walls and Harbour Parade to the west of the development. Restaurants lining the promenade are accessed from terraces, which overlook the walls.
▼“上步道”将游客从旧城的高度逐渐降低到公共区域的一个被抬高的区域，从这里连接着城墙下的广场和开发方案西侧的港口游行区域；The ‘Upper Promenade’ takes visitors gradually down from the level of the Old Town to a raised area of public realm connecting to both the Plaza at the foot of the Town Walls and Harbour Parade to the west of the development©Benedict Luxmoore
▼从露台上可以俯瞰城墙，也可以从这里到达与步道平行的各个餐馆； the ‘Upper Promenade’ takes visitors gradually down from the level of the Old Town to a raised area of public realm, and restaurants lining the promenade are accessed from terraces, which overlook the walls©Jack Hobhouse
The ‘Lower Promenade’ creates a route via a set of stairs from the Old Town level at Portland Terrace down to the Plaza. Steps peel off from the promenade forming a natural terraced auditorium along the edge of the plaza and restaurants spill out onto terraces, creating a vibrant new public realm with the Town Walls as the focus.
▼“下步道”通过一系列楼梯在处于老城区高度的Portland露台到广场之间创造出一条路线，the ‘Lower Promenade’ creates a route via a set of stairs from the Old Town level at Portland Terrace down to the Plaza©Benedict Luxmoore
▼从步道上慢慢延展出一行台阶，沿着广场的边缘形成了一个自然的梯田；steps peel off from the promenade forming a natural terraced auditorium along the edge of the plaza©Jack Hobhouse
▼上层步道同时也是下方的华盖， the upper promenade becomes the canopy for the lower level©Jack Hobhouse
▼连接停车场和主楼间的桥廊，the bridge that connects the parking lot and the main building©Jack Hobhouse
管子 | PIPES
The site was previously used by Pirelli for the manufacture of underwater cables, massive 76mm thick steel reinforced copper and rubber cables laid across the North Sea and the Atlantic for early telephone communication. The new façade for the cinema has been designed as a continuous 14km long band of 76mm thick steel pipes. The pipes are designed with varying densities to open views from within where possible. Each 6m long section of pipe is unique, and manufactured using computer controlled custom pipe-bending machines, which also print unique id codes and fixing positions onto the pipes to assist with orientation during installation. The pipes are fixed back to a series of secondary structural frames by means of a pin connection, which allows for movement in three directions and in the angle of the pipe. The individual sections are simply push-jointed by means of a spigot connection to form a continuous band wrapping the cinema.
▼面向城市方向的建筑一角，the corner towards the city center©Benedict Luxmoore
悬臂 | CANTILEVER
The ten screen cinema floats above the restaurants, cantilevering out up to 26m to protect views from the walls by means of a series of double height steel trusses located between screens and along the south facade, with concrete cores providing stability. Precast concrete elements were craned in prior to completion of the envelope to form the stadia to auditoriums.
▼伸展出的悬臂结构仿佛迎接着人们的到来，the long overhang seems to welcome visitors©Jack Hobhouse
▼登上阶梯可以看到远处的城市景观，one can overlook the urban landscape after climbing up the stairs©ACME
The sense of movement and strong horizontality of the cinema cladding continues in the plinth, which comprises the lower floors level with the Town Wall. In contrast to the lightness of the stainless steel pipes the plinth is predominantly clad in precast concrete, providing a solidity and warmth, which speaks to the monumentality and historic stonework of the walls.
▼电影院另一侧进入一个小广场，the other side of the cinema leads to a small square©Benedict Luxmoore
▼电影院外表皮充满动感，the skin of the cinema has a strong sense of movement©ACME
On the lower promenade the solidity of the precast cladding is broken by fully glazed, opening shop fronts to the restaurants, inviting pedestrians to enter. Precast concrete pilasters one meter deep provide stop ends to each shop front. In combination with the continuous, sinuous canopy above this allows each tenant to express their individual identity but within the framework of a strong and consistent architectural language appropriate to the context of the historic walls.
▼坚固的预制混凝土包覆层被用玻璃制成的开放式店面打破，the solidity of the precast cladding is broken by fully glazed, opening shop fronts©Benedict Luxmoore
An acid etched Portland mix was chosen as a complimentary foil to the warm hued stone of the Town Walls. The precast cladding is heavily profiled, creating horizontal bands which animate the facade with shadow and ties into the horizontal language of the pipes above. The band heights are based on multiples of the riser height of the Grand Stair, which connects the top of the plinth to the public realm in the SW corner of the building. In this way the facade seamlessly transitions into stair and then facade again as it wraps around the building.
▼预制的包覆层经过刻画，形成水平条带，用阴影让立面变得生动起来，并与上方管子的水平语言联系在一起；the precast cladding is heavily profiled, creating horizontal bands which animate the facade with shadow and ties into the horizontal language of the pipes above©Benedict Luxmoore
▼混凝土包覆表皮细节，detail of the concrete cladding©Jack Hobhouse
▼楼梯与表皮接壤处细节，the detail of the touch point of the concrete cladding and the stairs©Jack Hobhouse
▼楼梯边缘细节，detail of the stair edge©Jack Hobhouse
The various constraints placed on the site posed the design team a challenge as the cinema footprint was too large to fit within the available site area. The proposed solution, to raise the cinema above the restaurant levels and cantilever out above these constraints, made use of the opportunities offered by the spatial configuration of a cinema, which by it’s nature allows for the integration of efficient double and triple height truss elements within auditorium walls and facades.
▼项目夜景，the project at night©Jack Hobhouse
Where possible it was ensured that the cinema grid aligned with the 10 x 10 m retail grid below, with local variations to align with the cinema layout to provide efficiencies in the reinforced concrete frame structure of the lower four levels. The floor of the cinema marks the highest RC floor slab, and needed to be thicker than those below to deal with the large imposed loads from the auditoria seating. It was also important that the steel framed terrace seating structure was acoustically isolated from the concrete structure to ensure that noise and vibration between the cinema auditoria and restaurants below were minimized.
▼夜色下的广场仍然充满活力，the plaza is still vibrant during the night©Jack Hobhouse
To restrain the out of balance forces, the large tension forces generated in the back span of the trusses had to be transferred to the concrete cores. In these locations it was necessary to pre-stress the connections back to the cores; this was achieved with Macalloy bars anchored back to cast-in plates at the rear of the cores, transferring the force to the walls via compression. The stressing took place in a controlled approach, ensuring that stress along the bar was applied to the concrete in the manner designed. The pre-stress applied ensured that the connections to the core walls would not pull away from the walls when the cinema was fully loaded, which was critical in controlling the deflection of the cantilevers.
▼不锈钢管子制成的表皮反射出夕阳的美丽光芒，the skin made of stainless steel reflects the sunset©ACME
Cladding the structure, the double- skin design of the cinema box offered a number of advantages in construction, allowing the thermal and watertight envelope to be a simple, cost efficient box, with the facade composed of vertical full height composite panels. This in turn allowed for rapid construction and an early start on internal works and fitting out, which removed the more complex pipe cladding elements from the programme critical path.
▼步道设计概念，the design concept of the promenade
▼二层平面，plan for the second level
▼三层平面，plan for the third level
▼六层平面，plan for the sixth level
▼东西立面，east and west elevations