RA别墅,意大利 / MORQ

面朝大海,融入自然

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非常感谢 MORQ 予gooood分享以下内容。更多关于他们:MORQ on gooood
Appreciation towards MORQ for providing the following description:

RA别墅是一座夏日住宅。客户将这里作为了他们退休后的修养之地,并希望能够通过这座别墅唤醒他们对于卡拉布里亚(Calabria)的记忆。该别墅不仅与周边的自然环境和谐相处,更充分尊重了当地的建筑传统,为住户提供了一个悠然的生活空间。

本别墅位于卡拉布里亚,周围尽是地中海的景色。从地理上讲,卡拉布里亚位于意大利大陆的最南端,坐落在第勒尼安海(Tyrrhenian)和爱奥尼亚海(Ionian)之间。它是一个细长的半岛,三面环海,其最南端坐落着阿斯普罗山脉(Aspromonte massif)。这种独特的山地结构形成了一系列山脊和向海平面倾斜的平台。本项目的基地就位于这样一个山脊的顶部,高于海平面300米,朝着Squillace海湾形成了一定的向下坡度。置身于此,人们不仅可以俯瞰基地南侧无垠的大海,还可以仰望基地西侧高耸的山峰,更可以坐在基地的古老花岗岩巨石上倾听自我,感知自然。

Villa RA stems from the desire of our clients to return to their roots in Calabria with the project of a summer retreat. They imagined this retreat as a place of respite and reconnection; a place from which to enjoy the virtues of their land in a way that is harmonious with not only the landscape, but also the tradition of living in such a place.

To dwell in Calabria is to firmly locate oneself in the Mediterranean landscape. Calabria is the southernmost part of mainland Italy protruding between the Tyrrhenian and Ionian seas. It is defined through a long and narrow peninsula with the Aspromonte massif in its southernmost tip bordered by the sea on three sides. This unique mountainous structure is full of ridges with terraces slopping down towards the sea. Our client’s site, located atop one of these ridges, degrades towards the Gulf of Squillace, around 300m above sea level. Situated as such, one’s experience is either loftily transported through views down toward the sea in the south and mountains in the west, or it is anchored into the land by the ancient granite boulders protruding from the earth.

▼别墅融于山林,the villa merging into the ridge ©Pep Sau

虽然本项目的日常住户只有两位,但客户仍然希望空间能够宽敞一些,以便于他们与亲人朋友相聚或举办更加大型的活动。因此,设计团队不仅在室内和室外都设置了宽敞的起居空间,还设计了一个自带服务空间的宽敞的户外厨房,配合着卧室套房和佣人房,打造出一个舒适的居住环境。所有的居住空间都享有海景和周边自然环境的景观视野,使得“与自然和谐相处”成为了本别墅的永恒主题。

Whilst the house is primarily designed for two people, our clients also wanted to be able to host and enjoy the pleasures of cooking for friends, family and larger gatherings. As such, the program called for large living areas indoor and outdoor, a generous kitchen with an outdoor service area, an ensuite bedroom, and a quarter for the staff. The desire to connect these spaces to the sea-view and the surrounding landscape was not only set out in the brief, but an innate and ever present aspect of the project.

▼住宅外观局部,partial exterior view of the house ©Givlio Aristide

RA别墅的外观优美,结构紧凑。为了充分尊重场地现状,设计团队还专门创造了一个框景结构。这座别墅始终以建筑与基地环境之间的和谐关系为设计核心,可谓是地中海住宅的典型代表。最终,RA别墅将自身完美地融入了环境,顺理成章地成为了自然景观的一部分。此外在设计过程中,建筑师也没有将目光局限于场地周边,而是充分研究了基地的土地质感,并在此基础上参考了意大利的传统别墅建筑,从而使别墅更具地方特色。

于是就像传统的意大利别墅一样,本项目在空间布局中设置了一条主轴线。这不仅有助于从传统意大利建筑的角度来定义本别墅,更有利于功能空间的组织。南北轴线串联起三个朝向海面高度依次降低的居住区域。别墅的北侧较为封闭,600毫米厚的独立片墙保护着入口露台免受北风的侵袭。这种全封闭式的结构有助于营造出一种安全感,同时也能激发住户的好奇心,吸引他们步入别墅去一探究竟。

▼别墅主入口外观远景,600毫米厚的独立片墙保护着入口露台免受北风的侵袭,distant view of the villa entrance, 600mm thick wall protects the entry patio from the north wind ©Givlio Aristide

▼别墅主入口外观近景,close view of the villa entrance ©Givlio Aristide

Conceived as a “house that looks”, Villa Ra is a compact structure punctuated by openings that frame the landscape. This was our design intention; the idea that generated the project and held it accountable to the site. It is typical of a Mediterranean dwelling, where the understanding of a relationship with the place has a central role in the conception and expression of its outcome. As a result, the new dwelling aims to be part of the landscape as a whole, as opposed to being an unrelated autonomous element. But rather than looking to formally mimic the landscape in order to feel at ease with the site, the project draws from the tradition of the Italian villa and the material tones of the land it sits on.

Like traditional Italian villas, the design is based on an axial organization as its primary ordering system. This helps define the project not only from an architectural sense but also in its programmatic arrangement. The North-South axis organises a series of three spaces, offering differing levels of exposure to the site with a gradual progression towards the sea view. Approaching the house from the northwestern side, its appearance feels rather enclosed; the result of a freestanding, 600mm thick wall protecting the entry patio from the north wind. This perception of an entirely enclosed structure helps to create a sense of discovery, and safety.

▼别墅入口处的厚墙,the thick wall at the entrance ©Givlio Aristide

▼入口细节,entrance details

整个空间的序列从别墅的入口开始:先是一个封闭的入口露台,以便于在景观和建筑空间之间形成一个缓冲区域。紧随其后的是由社交型空间和私密性空间组成的主要生活起居区域。最后则是与起居区域相连的露台空间(portico)。值得一提的是,露台是意大利别墅建筑的典型特征,它在本质上模糊了室内外空间之间的边界,是起居空间和景观空间之间的过渡区。露台空间有两个大开口,其屋顶上也设置着窄缝,配合着阳光形成迷人的光影效果。置身于此,不仅可以免受外界的打扰,充分放松身心,还可以在野草和迷迭香的香气中肆意地欣赏别墅周边壮丽的自然景观和无垠的大海。

▼别墅入口,the entrance of the villa ©Givlio Aristide

▼室内生活起居区,透过落地窗可看到室外露台,the interior living area that opens onto the portico ©Pep Sau

▼室内生活起居区,the interior living area ©Pep Sau

▼起居室局部,partial view of the living area ©Givlio Aristide

The sequence begins within this walled threshold; an enclosed entrance patio that acts as a buffer between the landscape and the built fabric. Following this is the main living area, the primary introduction with the interior world that facilitates both community and intimacy. The living room opens onto the portico, the last defined space along the axis. The portico inherently blurs the delineation between indoor and outdoor; it is a typical feature of the Italian villa, acting as threshold space between the living area and the landscape. The portico has two large openings and two slots to the roof allowing the sun to trace shadows throughout the day. Protected yet exposed, it is a place for relaxation, otium and the enjoyment of all the site’s sensory virtues; from the mingled smells of the wild grass and rosemary to infinite depth of the sea views.

▼模糊了室内外空间边界的露台空间,立面上的大开口提供了景观视野,the portico that blurs the delineation between indoor and outdoor, with a good view provided by its large openings ©Givlio Aristide

▼透过室内起居空间的落地窗看半室外露台上的餐厅空间,viewing the dining area on the portico from the interior living area through the floor-to-ceiling windows ©Givlio Aristide

▼半室外露台上的餐厅空间,屋顶上设有小缝隙以引入自然光线,the dining area on the portico, the portico has two slots to the roof, allowing the sun to trace shadows ©Givlio Aristide

▼露台上的休息空间,the outdoor living area on the portico ©Givlio Aristide

该别墅还有一条次要轴线,即东西方向的轴线。这条轴线起到了从半公共区(即厨房)到公共区(即起居空间)、再到私密区(即卧室等)的空间划分。东西向的轴线与南北向的轴线在住宅中心位置上的中央起居室处相交。

The second axis, this time running East-West, organises a delineation of semi-public to public to private spaces: namely the kitchen, the living room and the sleeping quarters. At the intersection of these two axis lies the central living room at the heart of the house.

▼位于东西向次要轴线上的半公共区 – 厨房,the semi-public kitchen at the second axis running East-West ©Pep Sau

▼厨房,设有大方窗,the kitchen with a large square window ©Pep Sau

▼卧室,the bedroom ©Pep Sau

▼浴室,the bathroom ©Pep Sau

本项目常年受到西北偏北的强风影响,南侧常年有直射光。轴线式的平面布局和各空间的实际进深不仅能很好地应对这一客观环境因素,更能最大限度地提升别墅的环境性能。坚固的墙壁阻挡了强风,在必要的时候,露台空间的大开口不仅可以帮助室内空间进行自然通风,还能限定出一系列框景景观;极厚的墙体有助于保温隔热,从而改善了室内空间的热环境,而较深的开口则有助于保护室内空间免受直射光的过度侵扰。

▼室内走廊,尽头处的落地窗将自然景观引入室内,the interior corridor, the floor-to-ceiling window at the end introduces the natural landscape into the villa ©Givlio Aristide

▼在走廊尽头欣赏自然风景,viewing the nature at the end of the interior corridor ©Givlio Aristide

▼走廊空间,the interior corridor ©Pep Sau

▼别墅细节及其周边的植被,space details and its surrounding vegetation ©Givlio Aristide

The general climatic conditions of the site present strong winds from north-northwest side and direct sun from the south. Both the axial arrangement and physical depth of the construction offer the spaces a deep protective threshold. These attributes work together to create a very deep and passive filter for climate control. Strong winds are thwarted off by the solid walls turning their back to the northwest. However, when required, the large openings facilitate cross- ventilation along the axis of the house, as well as framing the surrounding landscape. The thermal mass of the thick walls mitigates the passing of hot days and cool nights, whilst deep openings prevent an overexposure to the direct sun.

▼通向屋顶的楼梯,the stairs leading up to the roof ©Givlio Aristide

▼楼梯细节,stairs details ©Givlio Aristide

别墅的室内外空间均采用同一种名为Cocciopesto的类似于土壤的灰泥材料,从而在色调上更加融入自然。别墅坐落在一片碎石之上,将自身与自然景观融合得更加彻底。别墅的周围环绕着场地原有的花岗岩巨石和橡树,随后设计团队又在此基础上种植了一系列当地的灌木和野草。仙人掌等引进植被散布在别墅周围的花园中,配合着高大的椰枣树,进一步增强了RA别墅的可见性。

有限的材料色调不仅最大限度地表现出别墅体量的几何性,更在景观和建筑之间建立起视觉和触觉上的连续性。RA别墅充满了活力,虽然在颜色上略显单一,但其色调不仅呼应了阳光和土地,更会随着阳光而发生细微的变化,并通过一系列不断变化的光影效果创造出一种动态感。

▼住宅屋顶,使用类似于土壤的灰泥材料打造而成,在色调上更加融入自然,the roof that is made of a type of plaster chromatically akin to the soil, merging into the site by the tone ©Givlio Aristide

▼别墅屋顶局部,partial view of the villa roof ©Givlio Aristide

The material articulation of the interior and exterior space is resolved within a solid volume; a homogenous architecture of Cocciopesto, a type of plaster chromatically akin to the soil achieved through rigorous sampling and trials. Grounded to the site not only by the tone of the Cocciopesto, the project sits amongst a bed of crushed local stone that bleeds the thresholds further into the landscape. The immediate surroundings of the Villa unfold around existing granite boulders and Oak trees with the addition of indigenous scrubs and wild grass. A more exotic flora with specimens such as the prickly pear cactus’, introduced in the region centuries ago, punctuates the garden areas closest to the villa while high Date Palm trees serve as markers, allowing for the dwelling to be seen from a far.

The limited palette of materials reveals the simple geometry of the building and creates a visual and tactile continuity between landscape and architecture. Monochrome yet vibrant, Villa Ra changes hues during the day, responding to sun and land, revealing movement through shadows and ever changing material nuances.

▼阳光在单色的住宅屋顶上投射下阴影,创造出一种动态感,the sun projects shadows on the monochrome roof, revealing a sense of movement ©Pep Sau (up), ©Givlio Aristide (down)

▼区位图,the situation plan ©MORQ

▼总平面图,site plan ©MORQ

▼首层平面图,ground floor plan ©MORQ

▼北立面图,north elevation ©MORQ

▼南立面图,south elevation ©MORQ

▼剖面图A,section A ©MORQ

▼剖面图B,section B ©MORQ

City: Calabria, Italy
Client: Confidential
Completion date: 07/2018
Built area (mq): 400
Architects: MORQ
Photo credits: Pep Sau and Givlio Aristide

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