战前城市地块的发展是根据18世纪的城市发展概念而来的，这个概念也被称为Stanislawowska轴线。它以法国的空间布局为蓝本，是华沙的主要城市布局之一。这一概念是由国王Stanislaw August Poniatowski提出的，他希望用一系列星形广场，将当时的华沙城与他在Ujazdow的郊区住宅联系起来。根据现有的通往Wola选举场地的国王大道设计了一系列广场，例如Na Rozdro，Zbawiciela、Politechniki或Unii Lubelskiej，然后从每个广场延伸出街道。街道的几何网格——其中一些是在方格内的尖角相交——是这一历史布局中最具特色的元素之一。因此，当地块完全建成时，就形成了狭窄的角落，并定义了广场和街道交叉点的正立面。Koszykowa街是按照这样的城市发展理念规划的。
▼特有的城市规划下的交叉路口使得该项目拥有最醒目的场地位置，the special urban planning makes an eye-catching building site
The pre-war development of the parcels was shaped according to the 18th century concept of urban development, also called the Stanislawowska Axis. It was one of the key urban layouts of Warsaw, modelled on the French spatial arrangements. The concept was laid out by king Stanislaw August Poniatowski， who by means of a series of star-shaped squares wished to connect the then city of Warsaw with his suburban residence in Ujazdow. Based on the existing King’s Road leading to the election grounds of Wola, a series of squares was designed, such as Na Rozdrożu, Zbawiciela, Politechniki or Unii Lubelskiej, along with the streets stretching from each of these squares. A geometrical grid of streets – some of them intersecting at sharp angles within the squares – is one of the most characteristic elements of this historical layout. Thus shaped parcels of land, completely built-up, formed narrow corner plots, defining the frontages of squares and street intersections. Koszykowa Street was planned according to such an urban development concept.
▼狭窄的三角地块挤压出的独特造型，the narrow triangular site squeezes out a unique building form
计划投资建设的场地位于两条街相交拐角处的一块三角形场地，在这里曾经建造了一座1900年前的四层建筑，其竖向立面形成了一个狭窄的角落，有一个类似灯笼的造型特征。从1876年起，这座建筑保留了其原来的形状，但是并没有从后来的战争中幸存下来。这个经过规划发展而形成的场地以其历史背景成为一个对于大都会纪念建筑保护办公室（Metropolitan Monument Conservator Office）的重要场所。有关项目的磋商开始于2011年，文化和民族遗产部长亲自参与其中。三年后，建筑设计在官方的大都会文物保护办公室的建议下完成。虽然城市保护者的工作针对的是城市区域，但其指导方针除了对建筑规模、形状和高度以外，还包括以下条款：“大都会纪念建筑保护办公室还提出，新建筑应该成为Koszykowa和Piekna街道拐角最明显的元素，尽可能的轻盈，且使用尽可能多的玻璃来建造。”
A triangular parcel of land located on the corner of two streets (at the site of the planned investment) used to house a four-storey building erected before 1900, whose rising façades formed a narrow corner with an additional dominant feature in the form of a lantern. The plot has retained its original shape from 1876, however, the building did not survive the war. The site of the planned development, with its historical background, was a place of great importance for the Metropolitan Monument Conservator Office, to be built up with respect for the original urban layout. Consultations began in 2011 and involved the Minister of Culture and National Heritage himself. Three years later, the architectural design was complemented with the official Metropolitan Monument Conservator Office recommendations. Although it is the urban area that falls under the conservator’s protection, the guidelines, apart from strict requirements regarding the building’s size, shape and height, also included the following clause: “The Metropolitan Monument Conservator also recommends that the new building that will become the most noticeable element of the corner of Koszykowa and Piekna Streets, be as “light” and as much glazed as possible”.
▼大楼正面做成倾斜的，为了在规定的条件下争取最大的室内面积；the facade is sloping towards the sky in order to maximizing the floor area while following the restricting conditions
The Decision on Land Development and Management Conditions was written in a similar vein and defined the future building as a construction with the ground floor walls within the boundaries of the investor’s plot and 1.5 m overhangs in the width of the right-of-way of the neighboring streets at the first floor level. The overhangs reiterate the protruding bays and balconies of nearby tenement houses, thus shaping the frontage of both streets. The Decision on Land Development and Management Conditions also specified the maximum height of the façade as 27 m up to the main cornice, i.e. the edge of the rooftop terrace – the upper boundary of the overhang located directly over the pavement. The shape of the plot – 9.90 m maximum width, 3 m wide at the intersection – strongly determined the future design concept. The plot is 35 m long. Local zoning conditions allowed to increase the outline of the building by means of the overhangs at the first floor level, located directly over the pavement. This, however, did not significantly affect the length to width ratio of the planned development.
▼大楼的悬垂结构加上大量玻璃的使用使得整个楼看上去非常轻盈，the overhang structure and the massive use of glazing make the building light
In the course of the designing process further restrictions were imposed on the building form. After an in-depth analysis of the utility infrastructure it turned out that practically every municipal utility system crossed the site of the planned development. Teletechnical infrastructure proved to be the most problematic as it could not be moved. As a result, the ground floor wall had to be pushed 6 m further back from the street intersection, which generated new challenges for the designers – the length of the front overhang had to change from 1.5 m to 7.5 m. In order to maintain vertical clearance at the intersection of the streets, the overhang needed to be appropriately contoured so as not to cause collisions of the vehicles turning either into Piekna Street or Koszykowa Street. The wall at the intersection was sloped, which increased the floor plan proportionally to the height of the building. In the final design the overhang is 4.40 m at the ground floor level, gaining additional 3 m at the top of the slant.
▼大楼附近的建筑景观，the urban fabrics adjacent to the building
Structural columns within the ground floor plan carry the weight of the roof overhang support structures. The issue becomes more complex when it comes to the cantilever at the street intersection: a vertical pillar was used in the corner (10 m from the end of the cantilever) with another one slanting from the edge of the ground floor towards the top of the overhang. The vertical and diagonal pillars are bound together by the consecutive floor slabs. Reinforced concrete slabs on the lower floors are suspended on steel cables installed in the corners of the building. Over the years there have been countless design concept changes and numerous changes to the building’s function; however, a fresh perspective was necessary when approaching the project. Eventually, taking into account the aspect of the building’s functionality, two underground floors were designed to house technical facilities.
▼大楼玻璃立面反射出对面建筑的景象，并与其周围的历史建筑形成鲜明的风格对比；the all-glazing facade reflects the building elevation on its opposite side, while making a strong contrast in style with its surrounding historic building
Part of the -1 floor, together with the ground floor and floors above the ground (except for the top floor) contain commercial space (mixed use office and retail). The top seventh floor is taken up by an apartment with a conservatory in the street intersection area and a spacious rooftop terrace. Small technical space is also located on the roof. The circulation core of the building comprising the elevators is located in the widest part of the plot, by the gable wall. The building core additionally holds most of the technical maintenance facilities. Due to the height restrictions imposed on the building, the concept of dropped ceilings had to be abandoned and all installations spread from hubs in the raised floors.
▼由于场地的限制，大楼前部的悬垂结构最终长度为4.4米，高度为2.55米，形成了一个让路人感到舒适的首层街道空间；due to the site limit, the front overhang reaches a length of 4.4 meters with a height of 2.55 meters, making a comfortable pedestrian space on the ground floor
组织管理建筑工地是一个相当大的挑战，要考虑到人行道上方的悬垂结构，建筑工地在一块很小未开发的地块上，并且夹在另一个工地和Koszykowa街道上的一栋公寓之间。每件事情都需要精确而周密的计划。用混凝土卡车运输到场地上的混凝土必须立刻进行浇灌，因为没有让卡车停靠的空间。施工正式开始于2016年5月，挖了一个两层深，10米长的瘦长形的大坑。地下部分也不能超过地块的边界。设计者的目标是在建筑物内提供尽可能多的空间，因此墙壁的建造需要极为精确。设计者对这个地块的公共基础设施进行全面盘点后，以此作为标准对最初设计进行审阅。地块挖掘后用兵桩墙（soldier pile wall）支撑，不久后将用水泥进行填充，将它变成地下墙体的核心。由于由于一些市政公用事业系统穿越地块的时间与地面工程脱节，挖掘过程中悬挂着的管道和电缆进一步阻碍了施工。
Organizing the construction site proved to be quite a challenge – the overhangs rising over the pavements, the construction site on a small, undeveloped parcel of land, squeezed between another construction site and a tenement house in Koszykowa Street. Everything required a great deal of precision and planning. Concrete delivered to the site in a concrete mixer had to be used immediately, as there was no parking space for the truck. Construction actually started in May 2016 with digging a 2-storey deep and 10 m narrow excavation. The underground part could not exceed the boundaries of the investor’s plot. The objective was to provide as much space inside the building as possible, therefore the construction of walls required a great deal of precision. The original design had to be reviewed following a comprehensive inventory of the utility infrastructure around the plot. The excavation was shored using a soldier pile wall (Berlin wall) with the objective of filling it with concrete later on and making it the core of the underground wall. As some of the municipal utility systems crossing the plot were disconnected in time with the ground works, work on the building was further impeded by the pipes and cables hanging in the excavation.
▼立面使用的玻璃可以让路人看到建筑内部，离悬臂末端10米远的角落使用了一个竖向柱，从首层边缘出发一直到悬臂顶部使用了一个倾斜柱；the frontage glazing allows people to look into the building, in which a vertical pillar was used in the corner (10 m from the end of the cantilever) with another one slanting from the edge of the ground floor towards the top of the overhang
Nevertheless, construction work went smoothly and concrete slab ceilings rose gradually towards the sky. The body of the building acquired shape. Around this stage first elevation mock-ups appeared on the façades, made of glass that was either less or more reflective. The transparency of the glass strongly affected the thermal comfort inside the building, so decisions had to be made very rationally, based on a series of calculations and building expertise. The air pocket between the glass and a reinforced concrete beam separating the storeys was also a problem, as the heated air from inside the building tended to accumulate there. Eventually, a decision was made to choose the type of glass that would allow to see not just the interior of the building, but also street frontages behind it.
For such a complex structure the construction process went relatively fast. Subtle changes in the building form needed to be precisely moulded in concrete. The finished reinforced concrete skeleton ideally filled the empty space. From that moment on the daily progress of the works was not so clearly visible and a long, tedious process of installing glazed elevation began. The aluminium profiles are fastened to perimeter beams of each floor by means of special hooks made of adjustable steel rods. Their even distribution required a great deal of discipline and precision; mistakes would result in an undulating façade.
▼另一侧的街道景象，the street view on the other side
The means of architectural expressions were basically derived from the concept of “lightness” recommended by the Metropolitan Monument Conservator Office. The building form is characterized by an overhang just 2.55 m from the level of the pavement. The resulting structure naturally divides the building into two parts. A monolithic, matt, dark, stone (Brazilian Black Jack slate) core of the staircase spans the building from the ground floor and reaches high above the rooftop. This particular element is closed and opaque in character, and provides a striking contrast with the second, compositionally different part of the building. It also harmoniously separates the designed construction from potential future development on the neighbouring parcel of land.
▼大楼后部，the back of the building
The second part of the building is a glazed overhang divided into 3 segments at the 2nd and 3rd floor level, respectively. It forms a light, translucent element that on the one hand exposes the building’s interior and on the other reflects the surrounding tenement houses and the “Koszyki” Market Hall opposite. Subtle shifts of the glass panels in relation to one another allow the street onlooker to admire the reflections of the local architecture at different angles. Such an approach to elevation design allows the new building to harmoniously complement its demanding surroundings. The design concept brings out the best both in the neighbouring buildings and original local urban layout. The offset glass boxes differ in their external finish, which is particularly visible when looking at the building lit up by the sun from the perspective of street intersections.
▼从街道看大楼后方，能看出立面玻璃经过特别设计，赋予其更多的纹理；looking at the back side of the building from the street, revealing the special design of the facade, which has more texture
▼场地平面，the site plan
▼负2层平面，the -2 floor plan
▼首层平面，the ground floor plan
▼三层平面，plan for the +3 level
▼屋顶平面，plan for the rooftop level
建筑师事务所：Grupa 5 Architekci
项目地点：波兰华沙Piękna 49号 点击跳转到谷歌地图
作者：Roman Dziedziejko，MichałLeszczyński，Krzysztof Mycielski，RafałZelent，RafałGrzelewski
设计团队：Piotr Bzdel，Tomasz Szponar，KrzysztofKamiński
Architect’s Firm: Grupa 5 Architekci
Contact e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Project location: Piękna 49, Warsaw, Poland on google map
Completion Year: 2018
Gross Built Area: 2 100 m2
Authors: Roman Dziedziejko, Michał Leszczyński, Krzysztof Mycielski, Rafał Zelent, Rafał Grzelewski
Design Team: Piotr Bzdel, Tomasz Szponar, Krzysztof Kamiński
Photo credits: Mikołaj Lelewski