TECLA by Mario Cucinella Architects

First 3D printed sustainable housing model made of entire raw earth

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感谢 MC A建筑事务所 予gooood分享以下内容。更多关于他们:Mario Cucinella Architects on gooood
Appreciations towards Mario Cucinella Architects for providing the following description:

Mario Cucinella Architects建筑事务所与WASP合作完成了TECLA——技术与黏土项目。这是第一个完全由生土材料通过3D打印制作而成的可持续生态住宅模型。项目极具创造力和先锋性,两家公司从项目伊始便紧密合作,共同完成从设计到施工的全部流程

MCA – Mario Cucinella Architects – and WASP – World’s Advanced Saving Project – have completed TECLA – Technology and Clay -, the first eco-sustainable housing model 3D printed entirely from local raw earth. This genuinely innovative and pioneering approach was conceived from the start as a joint project between the two firms, who worked closely throughout the project’s design and construction.

▼建筑外观,external view of the house ©Iago Corazza

项目的名字TECLA以隐喻的形式映射了卡尔维诺的“看不见的城市”之一——持续建造中的城市,通过将古代住宅的物质和精神与二十一世纪的技术产物结合在一起,唤起了过去与未来之间的强烈连接。

Metaphorically inspired by one of Italo Calvino’s ‘invisible cities’ – the city in continuous construction – the name TECLA evokes the strong link between past and future by combining the matter and spirit of timeless ancient homes with the world of 21st-century technological production.

▼古老材料和现代技术创造的住宅,house combines ancient material and modern technology ©Iago Corazza

“我们愿意将TECLA看作一个新故事的开始。它利用现代科技转化古老的材料,并以此塑造未来,这将是真正非凡的壮举。房子的外观是技术与材料的共同成果,而非仅仅是美学上的尝试。它的形式诚实而真挚。”——Mario Cucinella,Mario Cucinella Architects创始人和创意总监

“We like to think that TECLA is the beginning of a new story. It would be truly extraordinary to shape the future by transforming this ancient material with the technologies we have available today. The aesthetics of this house are the result of a technical and material effort; it was not an aesthetic approach only. It is an honest form, a sincere form. ”——Mario Cucinella – Founder and Creative Director of Mario Cucinella Architects.»

TECLA起源于MCA创始人Mario Cucinella的一个研究项目,在WASP创始人Massimo Moretti的规划下,建筑回应了不断加剧的气候问题,满足了Km0可持续住宅的的需求,并且对人类不得不面对的住房危机——在紧急风险,如大规模移民和自然灾害等情况下尤甚——这一全球性议题给出了自己的答案。

Born from a research project by Mario Cucinella (Founder and Creative Director of Mario Cucinella Architects) and through the vision of Massimo Moretti (Founder of WASP), TECLA responds to the increasingly serious climate emergency, to the need for sustainable homes at Km0 and to the great global issue of the housing emergency that will have to be faced – particularly in the context of urgent crises generated, for example, by large migrations or natural disasters.

▼设计草图,design sketch ©Mario Cucinella Architects

“TECLA告诉我们一栋美丽、健康且可持续的住宅可以通过机器来建造,只要提供当地原材料的关键信息。TECLA是指向月亮的手指。这个星球上的每个人生来就有以月亮为家的权利。从TECLA开始,这一想法将变为可能。”——Massimo Moretti,WASP创始人

“TECLA shows that a beautiful, healthy, and sustainable home can be built by a machine, giving the essential information to the local raw material. TECLA is the finger that points to the Moon. The Moon is the home, as a birthright, for everybody on the planet. From TECLA on, that’s getting possible.”——Massimo Moretti – WASP Founder

TECLA项目位于意大利拉文那的Massa Lombarda,Mario Cucinella在那里创立了一座可持续发展培训学校,进行生态可持续相关的研究。学校的研究与WASP的3D打印技术一起,使TECLA变为现实。

Located in Massa Lombarda (Ravenna, Italy), TECLA has become a reality thanks to the eco-sustainability research of the SOS – School of Sustainability (training center founded by Mario Cucinella), the pioneering research projects of Mario Cucinella Architects and the collaborative 3D printing technology of WASP.

▼分析图,analysis ©Mario Cucinella Architects

TECLA是一个创新的圆形经济住房模型,将传统建造实践、生态气候原理和当地的天然材料结合在了一起。这是一个接近零排放的项目,它完全由当地生土材料制成,其外形和选材减少了材料的剩余和浪费,使TECLA成为了低碳住房的一个先锋示例。

TECLA is an innovative circular economy housing model that brings together research on vernacular construction practices, the study of bioclimatic principles and the use of natural and local materials. It is a nearly zero-emission project: its casing and the use of an entirely local material allows for the reduction of waste and scraps. This and the use of raw earth make TECLA a pioneering example of low-carbon housing.

▼施工过程,construction process ©WASP

在这个项目中,Mario Cucinella Architects不仅在形式美学上探索了住宅的可能解决方案,还将建筑的形态与气候及纬度结合在一起进行了研究。此外,项目所使用的的生土材料回应了当地气候条件,而维护结构中的填充层经过参数优化,可以根据环境需求平衡隔热、保温和通风等功能。

For this project, Mario Cucinella Architects not only explored housing solutions in formal aesthetic terms, it also studied the building’s shape in relation to its climate and latitude. In addition, the composition of the earth mixture responds to local climatic conditions and the filling of the envelope is parametrically optimised to balance thermal mass, insulation and ventilation according to the climate needs.

▼采光、遮阳、通风、排水系统分析,analysis of the lighting, shading, ventilation and drainage system ©Mario Cucinella Architects

TECLA由两个连续的元素组成,两条弯曲的正弦曲线向上生成建筑,顶部留下两个圆形天窗,为空间投入天光。

TECLA is a composition of two continuous elements that through a sinuous and uninterrupted sine curve culminate in two circular skylights that convey the ‘zenith light’.

▼鸟瞰图,aerial view ©Iago Corazza

从几何形态到外部屋脊,建筑非典型的形状满足了3D打印外壳以及封顶后的结构平衡需求,将有机而又连贯的设计活灵活现地呈现在人们面前.

The atypical shape, from the geometry to the external ridges, has enabled the structural balance of the construction – both during the 3D printing phase of the envelope and once the covering is completed – giving life to an organic and visually coherent design.

▼连贯有机的外形,organic and visual coherent shape of the house ©Iago Corazza

▼表皮细部,details of the surface ©Iago Corazza

项目的建筑面积约为60平米,包含一个带厨房的起居空间,以及一个带服务功能的夜晚休息空间。家具部分由土壤材料打印而成,与生土结构融为一体;部分采用可循环利用的设计,反映出圆形住宅模型背后的理念。

With an area of ​​about 60 square meters, it comprises a living zone with a kitchen and a night zone which includes services. The furnishings – partly printed in local earth and integrated into the raw-earth structure, and partly designed to be recycled or reused – reflect the philosophy of a circular house model.

▼起居空间,living zone ©Iago Corazza

▼建筑内的树木与天窗,tree in the house and the skylight ©Iago Corazza

▼夜晚休息区,night zone ©Iago Corazza

▼天窗,skylight ©Iago Corazza

▼隐蔽的服务功能,hidden service area ©Iago Corazza

WASP的研究专注于Km0生土3D打印,形成了名为Crane WASP的创新3D打印技术。这是世界中首个模块化多层打印技术,可以合作性地完成建造工作。TECLA同时使用了两条打印机械臂,其动作经过软件优化,避免了碰撞的发生,保证操作流畅。每个打印单元可以打印的范围为50平米,能够在短短几天中建造出独立的住宅。

The technological research of WASP, specialised in Km0 3D printing from raw earth, has led to an innovative 3D printing technology called Crane WASP, the first in the world to be modular and multilevel, designed to build construction works collaboratively. TECLA uses two synchronised printer arms simultaneously, thanks to software capable of optimising movements, avoiding collisions and ensuring streamlined operation. Each printer unit has a printing area of ​​50 square meters which therefore makes it possible to build independent housing modules in a few days.

▼生土墙面细部,details of the walls made of raw earth ©Iago Corazza

TECLA的建造花费了200小时,使用了7000条机器代码,共包含350个12毫米的分层,展开长度为150千米,消耗自然材料60立方米,平均能耗6千瓦。该住宅模型完全为意大利制造,包括Mario Cucinlla Architects和WASP在内,项目所有相关公司均为意大利公司。

In brief: TECLA can be delivered with 200 hours of printing, 7000 machine codes (G-code), 350 12 mm layers, 150 km of extrusion, 60 cubic meters of natural materials for an average consumption of less than 6 kW. The housing model is entirely Made in Italy: in addition to Mario Cucinella Architects and WASP, it sees the participation of Italian-only companies.

▼夜景,night view ©Iago Corazza

▼平面图,plan ©Mario Cucinella Architects

▼剖面图,section ©Mario Cucinella Architects

▼墙体结构,wall structure ©Mario Cucinella Architects

Prototype: TECLA – Technology and Clay Via Castelletto 104/06, Massa Lombarda, Ravenna, Italy
Prototype Typology: 3D Printed Ecosustainable House
Architectural and Furniture Design: Mario Cucinella Architects, Bologna, Italy
Architectural and Furniture Design Team: Mario Cucinella Architects: Mario Cucinella (Founder and creative director), Irene Giglio (project manager), Augusto Barichello
Sustainability Research: SOS – School of Sustainability, Bologna, Italy (Postgraduate Training Center founded by Mario Cucinella): Lorenzo Porcelli, Stefano Rosso, Lori Zillante
Collaborative 3D Printing Technology Project: WASP, Massa Lombarda, Ravenna, Italy
Collaborative 3D Printing Technology Project Info: 200 printing hours, 7000 G-codes, 350/12 mm layers, 150 km of extrusion, 60 cubic meters of natural materials for less than 6 kW of average electricity consumption.
Physical Model: WASP, Massa Lombarda, Ravenna
Photos: Iago Corazza
Video: The Family
Landscape Design: Frassinago, Bologna, Italy
Structural Engineering: Milan Ingegneria, Milan, Italy
Lighting: Lucifero’s, Bologna, Italy
Construction: WASP, Massa Lombarda, Ravenna, Italy; TER Costruzioni, Bologna
Construction supervision: WASP, Massa Lombarda, Ravenna, Italy
Structure infilling material: Local raw soil
Soil quantity per unit: 60 cbm
Infilling blend optimization in 3D printing phase: Mapei, Milano
Infilling biomaterial: Rice House, Andorno Micca, Biella, Italy
Earthen floor: Primat, Occhieppo Inferiore, Biella, Italy
Doors and windows: Capoferri Serramenti, Adrara San Martino, Bergamo, Italy
Wood finishes: Imola Legno, Imola, Bologna, Italy
Table recycled wood: Saib, Caorso, Piacenza, Italy
Seating: Officine Tamborrino, Ostuni, Brindisi, Italy
Fabrics: Orange Fiber, Rovereto, Trento, Italy
Services (M&E): Cefla, Imola, Bologna, Italy
Architecture Design starting date: 05/10/2019
Architecture Design Completion date: 03/01/2021
Site Work starting date: 07/01/2020
Completion date: 03/31/2021
Net Area: 45 sqm
Gross Area: 60 sqm

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