Mario Cucinella Architects建筑事务所与WASP合作完成了TECLA——技术与黏土项目。这是第一个完全由生土材料通过3D打印制作而成的可持续生态住宅模型。项目极具创造力和先锋性，两家公司从项目伊始便紧密合作，共同完成从设计到施工的全部流程
MCA – Mario Cucinella Architects – and WASP – World’s Advanced Saving Project – have completed TECLA – Technology and Clay -, the first eco-sustainable housing model 3D printed entirely from local raw earth. This genuinely innovative and pioneering approach was conceived from the start as a joint project between the two firms, who worked closely throughout the project’s design and construction.
▼建筑外观，external view of the house ©Iago Corazza
Metaphorically inspired by one of Italo Calvino’s ‘invisible cities’ – the city in continuous construction – the name TECLA evokes the strong link between past and future by combining the matter and spirit of timeless ancient homes with the world of 21st-century technological production.
▼古老材料和现代技术创造的住宅，house combines ancient material and modern technology ©Iago Corazza
“我们愿意将TECLA看作一个新故事的开始。它利用现代科技转化古老的材料，并以此塑造未来，这将是真正非凡的壮举。房子的外观是技术与材料的共同成果，而非仅仅是美学上的尝试。它的形式诚实而真挚。”——Mario Cucinella，Mario Cucinella Architects创始人和创意总监
“We like to think that TECLA is the beginning of a new story. It would be truly extraordinary to shape the future by transforming this ancient material with the technologies we have available today. The aesthetics of this house are the result of a technical and material effort; it was not an aesthetic approach only. It is an honest form, a sincere form. ”——Mario Cucinella – Founder and Creative Director of Mario Cucinella Architects.»
TECLA起源于MCA创始人Mario Cucinella的一个研究项目，在WASP创始人Massimo Moretti的规划下，建筑回应了不断加剧的气候问题，满足了Km0可持续住宅的的需求，并且对人类不得不面对的住房危机——在紧急风险，如大规模移民和自然灾害等情况下尤甚——这一全球性议题给出了自己的答案。
Born from a research project by Mario Cucinella (Founder and Creative Director of Mario Cucinella Architects) and through the vision of Massimo Moretti (Founder of WASP), TECLA responds to the increasingly serious climate emergency, to the need for sustainable homes at Km0 and to the great global issue of the housing emergency that will have to be faced – particularly in the context of urgent crises generated, for example, by large migrations or natural disasters.
▼设计草图，design sketch ©Mario Cucinella Architects
“TECLA shows that a beautiful, healthy, and sustainable home can be built by a machine, giving the essential information to the local raw material. TECLA is the finger that points to the Moon. The Moon is the home, as a birthright, for everybody on the planet. From TECLA on, that’s getting possible.”——Massimo Moretti – WASP Founder
TECLA项目位于意大利拉文那的Massa Lombarda，Mario Cucinella在那里创立了一座可持续发展培训学校，进行生态可持续相关的研究。学校的研究与WASP的3D打印技术一起，使TECLA变为现实。
Located in Massa Lombarda (Ravenna, Italy), TECLA has become a reality thanks to the eco-sustainability research of the SOS – School of Sustainability (training center founded by Mario Cucinella), the pioneering research projects of Mario Cucinella Architects and the collaborative 3D printing technology of WASP.
▼分析图，analysis ©Mario Cucinella Architects
TECLA is an innovative circular economy housing model that brings together research on vernacular construction practices, the study of bioclimatic principles and the use of natural and local materials. It is a nearly zero-emission project: its casing and the use of an entirely local material allows for the reduction of waste and scraps. This and the use of raw earth make TECLA a pioneering example of low-carbon housing.
▼施工过程，construction process ©WASP
在这个项目中，Mario Cucinella Architects不仅在形式美学上探索了住宅的可能解决方案，还将建筑的形态与气候及纬度结合在一起进行了研究。此外，项目所使用的的生土材料回应了当地气候条件，而维护结构中的填充层经过参数优化，可以根据环境需求平衡隔热、保温和通风等功能。
For this project, Mario Cucinella Architects not only explored housing solutions in formal aesthetic terms, it also studied the building’s shape in relation to its climate and latitude. In addition, the composition of the earth mixture responds to local climatic conditions and the filling of the envelope is parametrically optimised to balance thermal mass, insulation and ventilation according to the climate needs.
▼采光、遮阳、通风、排水系统分析，analysis of the lighting, shading, ventilation and drainage system ©Mario Cucinella Architects
TECLA is a composition of two continuous elements that through a sinuous and uninterrupted sine curve culminate in two circular skylights that convey the ‘zenith light’.
▼鸟瞰图，aerial view ©Iago Corazza
The atypical shape, from the geometry to the external ridges, has enabled the structural balance of the construction – both during the 3D printing phase of the envelope and once the covering is completed – giving life to an organic and visually coherent design.
▼连贯有机的外形，organic and visual coherent shape of the house ©Iago Corazza
▼表皮细部，details of the surface ©Iago Corazza
With an area of about 60 square meters, it comprises a living zone with a kitchen and a night zone which includes services. The furnishings – partly printed in local earth and integrated into the raw-earth structure, and partly designed to be recycled or reused – reflect the philosophy of a circular house model.
▼起居空间，living zone ©Iago Corazza
▼建筑内的树木与天窗，tree in the house and the skylight ©Iago Corazza
▼天窗，skylight ©Iago Corazza
▼隐蔽的服务功能，hidden service area ©Iago Corazza
The technological research of WASP, specialised in Km0 3D printing from raw earth, has led to an innovative 3D printing technology called Crane WASP, the first in the world to be modular and multilevel, designed to build construction works collaboratively. TECLA uses two synchronised printer arms simultaneously, thanks to software capable of optimising movements, avoiding collisions and ensuring streamlined operation. Each printer unit has a printing area of 50 square meters which therefore makes it possible to build independent housing modules in a few days.
▼生土墙面细部，details of the walls made of raw earth ©Iago Corazza
TECLA的建造花费了200小时，使用了7000条机器代码，共包含350个12毫米的分层，展开长度为150千米，消耗自然材料60立方米，平均能耗6千瓦。该住宅模型完全为意大利制造，包括Mario Cucinlla Architects和WASP在内，项目所有相关公司均为意大利公司。
In brief: TECLA can be delivered with 200 hours of printing, 7000 machine codes (G-code), 350 12 mm layers, 150 km of extrusion, 60 cubic meters of natural materials for an average consumption of less than 6 kW. The housing model is entirely Made in Italy: in addition to Mario Cucinella Architects and WASP, it sees the participation of Italian-only companies.
▼夜景，night view ©Iago Corazza
▼平面图，plan ©Mario Cucinella Architects
▼剖面图，section ©Mario Cucinella Architects
▼墙体结构，wall structure ©Mario Cucinella Architects
Prototype: TECLA – Technology and Clay Via Castelletto 104/06, Massa Lombarda, Ravenna, Italy
Prototype Typology: 3D Printed Ecosustainable House
Architectural and Furniture Design: Mario Cucinella Architects, Bologna, Italy
Architectural and Furniture Design Team: Mario Cucinella Architects: Mario Cucinella (Founder and creative director), Irene Giglio (project manager), Augusto Barichello
Sustainability Research: SOS – School of Sustainability, Bologna, Italy (Postgraduate Training Center founded by Mario Cucinella): Lorenzo Porcelli, Stefano Rosso, Lori Zillante
Collaborative 3D Printing Technology Project: WASP, Massa Lombarda, Ravenna, Italy
Collaborative 3D Printing Technology Project Info: 200 printing hours, 7000 G-codes, 350/12 mm layers, 150 km of extrusion, 60 cubic meters of natural materials for less than 6 kW of average electricity consumption.
Physical Model: WASP, Massa Lombarda, Ravenna
Photos: Iago Corazza
Video: The Family
Landscape Design: Frassinago, Bologna, Italy
Structural Engineering: Milan Ingegneria, Milan, Italy
Lighting: Lucifero’s, Bologna, Italy
Construction: WASP, Massa Lombarda, Ravenna, Italy; TER Costruzioni, Bologna
Construction supervision: WASP, Massa Lombarda, Ravenna, Italy
Structure infilling material: Local raw soil
Soil quantity per unit: 60 cbm
Infilling blend optimization in 3D printing phase: Mapei, Milano
Infilling biomaterial: Rice House, Andorno Micca, Biella, Italy
Earthen floor: Primat, Occhieppo Inferiore, Biella, Italy
Doors and windows: Capoferri Serramenti, Adrara San Martino, Bergamo, Italy
Wood finishes: Imola Legno, Imola, Bologna, Italy
Table recycled wood: Saib, Caorso, Piacenza, Italy
Seating： Officine Tamborrino, Ostuni, Brindisi, Italy
Fabrics: Orange Fiber, Rovereto, Trento, Italy
Services (M&E): Cefla, Imola, Bologna, Italy
Architecture Design starting date: 05/10/2019
Architecture Design Completion date: 03/01/2021
Site Work starting date: 07/01/2020
Completion date: 03/31/2021
Net Area: 45 sqm
Gross Area: 60 sqm