在北极探险队的帮助下，来自Snøhetta的设计师Asplan Viak 和 Skanska共同设计了世界上第一家自发电酒店“Svart”。它坐落于Svartisen冰川脚下，与横跨挪威北部Meløy的冰川同栖同住。“Svart”是挪威语，意为“黑色”，是挪威人对深蓝色Svartisen和Svartisen的赞颂。因为在古挪威语中，“黑色”和“蓝色”是同一个单词，所以这个单词才用来赞美冰川与自然，以及Svartisen带给挪威人民的自然遗产。与其他大部分当代挪威建筑相比，该酒店每年可降低85%能耗。因此，它成为了世界上第一个自发电酒店建筑，也是世界上最靠北边的自发电建筑。
In collaboration with Arctic Adventure of Norway, Asplan Viak and Skanska, Snøhetta has designed “Svart” the world’s first Powerhouse* hotel, at the foot of the Svartisen glacier that runs through Meløy municipality in northern Norway. The name “Svart”, meaning “black” in Norwegian, is a direct tribute to the deep blue ice of Svartisen and the Svartisen name. As the word for “black” and “blue” are the same in old Norse, the name is a reference to the natural heritage of Svartisen, its precious glacier and its natural surroundings. Compared to an equivalent hotel built in accordance with modern building standards in Norway, the new hotel reduces yearly energy consumption by approximately 85%. The hotel is thus the first of its kind to be built in compliance with the Powerhouse standard and will also become the world’s northernmost Powerhouse building.
“栖身于如此美丽的自然风景中，任何建筑都有义务维系周围的动植物环境。对设计师来说，建造可持续建筑，最小化建筑对北部自然风光的侵扰是他们的使命和职责所在。而一栋节能减排的酒店既能为游客提供生态旅行的目的地，能实现对环境，珍稀物种，清洁水域和Svartisen冰蓝冰川的保护，”Snøhetta的联合创始人Kjetil Trædal Thorsen说道。
“Building in such a precious environment comes with some clear obligations in terms of preserving the natural beauty and the fauna and flora of the site. It was important for us to design a sustainable building that will leave a minimal environmental footprint on this beautiful Northern nature. Building an energy positive and low-impact hotel is an essential factor to create a sustainable tourist destination respecting the unique features of the plot; the rare plant species, the clean waters and the blue ice of the Svartisen glacier,” says Founding Partner at Snøhetta, Kjetil Trædal Thorsen.
A minimal footprint
The circular body of “Svart” extends from the shoreline by the foot of the Almlifjellet mountain and into the clear waters of the Holandsfjorden fjord. The circular shape provides a panoramic view of the fjord and an experience of living in proximity with nature. The construction is inspired local vernacular architecture in the form of the “fiskehjell” (A-shaped wooden structure for drying fish) and the “rorbue” (a traditional type of seasonal house used by fishermen). The rorbue reference translates into the hotel’s supporting structure which is built from weather resistant wooden poles stretching several meters below the surface of the fjord. The poles ensure that the building physically places a minimal footprint in the pristine nature and gives the building an almost transparent appearance.
▼环形的建筑外貌，the circular form of the hotel
The poles of the hotel double as a wooden boardwalk for visitors to stroll in the summer. In the winter, the boardwalk can be used to store boats and kayaks, reducing the need for garages and additional storage space. The height of structure also allows for paddlers to paddle under the hotel corpus. The precious nature surrounding the hotel can only be accessed by boat and there are plans to introduce an energy neutral boat shuttle from the city of Bodø to the hotel.
▼架起的底部结构减少了对环境的干扰，the raised structure minimized the impact to the environment
An energy optimized design
To reach the Powerhouse standard, several cutting-edge design choices have been made. For example, the architects have conducted an extensive mapping of how solar radiation behaves in relation to mountainous context throughout the year to optimize the harvest of energy. The result of the study has been an importance premise for the circular design of the hotel, and both hotel rooms, restaurants and terraces are strategically placed to exploit the Sun’s energy throughout the day and seasons. The hotel’s roof is clad with Norwegian solar panels produced with clean hydro energy reducing the carbon footprint even further. Secluded terraces provide a shadow play in the façade of the hotel while also ensuring privacy. The facades protect against insolation from the sun in the summer when the sun is high in the sky, removing the need for artificial cooling. During the winter months, when the sun is low in the sky, the large windows of the façade allow for a maximum of insolation to exploit the Sun’s natural thermal energy.
Materials with low embodied energy have been used to reach the Powerhouse standard. Embodied energy is the amount of energy that is required to produce, transport, build and replace materials and products that go into a building. Embodied energy is highest in materials produced with energy derived from fossil fuels. The use of wood in construction and cladding minimizes the environmental impact of the building, and typically energy-intensive materials such as structural steel and concrete have been avoided as much as possible.
▼采用蕴藏能量材料，using materials with low embodied energy