▼视频，video © 唐徐国
Form, as one of the most important elements of architecture, is also a direct vehicle for architects to express their design ideas. Many factors combine to drive the generation of architectural form. Given the slow pace of technical innovation in construction in recent years, architectural exploration has consciously moved towards a cultural renovation, contributing to the national strategy of cultural confidence.
▼山涧房外观，Stream House exterior view © 唐徐国
Formal Typology Derived from Shanshui
In ancient China, the literati portrayed and explored their imagination of the ideal world through a variety of artistic means. These included literature, landscape painting and gardens, in which the transition from text to image to space was derived. The relationship between man and nature is a concept that has been greatly weighted in traditional Chinese philosophy. This concept has always been latent in the blood, so much so that the Chinese have an innate sense and appreciation of mountains, rocks, forests and springs, named “shanshui”, which distinguishes them from Westerners.
The “Formal Typology Derived from Shanshui ©右图: 唐铭
▼“模山范水”的设计研究，research on traditional landscape painting ©唐铭
In the research, we extracted the elements of a traditional landscape painting and translate them into an architectural entity adapted to the current construction system. The elements are then combined in accordance with the spatial structure of the landscape painting to reproduce the architectural form in the modern context.
The “Formal Typology Derived from Shanshui” is a fundamental approach to traditional art creation. In 2015, I first realized the potential concept in the design of the Deep³ Courtyard. One year later, when I was teaching graduation design at a university, I guided my group of students to conduct a design research based on the concept. The formative image was the landscape painting – an ideal world refined by art. What we did were to feed back the formal laws of the original natural objects and apply them to the actual physical entity.
▼远观建筑，distant view to the building © 唐徐国
▼沿路望向建筑，view from the road © 唐徐国
The Stream House
▼场地原状，the original site ©来建筑
The typology research finally changed into a real construction in 2018, which is how the Stream House came to be. The site is located in a valley of a mountain stream in Tonglu County, Zhejiang Province, backed by a hillside and facing a stream. The Stream House takes on an irregular form similar to that of a mountain. In contrast to the organization of space, function and circulation, the “mountain” prototype and the shaping of the scene in which people live in the “cave” is the basic concept. In addition, the spatial metaphor carried by the built form is the focus of consideration. The concrete frame structure is the most suitable construction system for the site, resulting in a typological logic of staggered volume relationships.
▼鸟瞰，aerial view © 唐徐国
▼公路视角，view from the road © 苏圣亮
▼建筑日景，exterior view in the daytime © 苏圣亮
The Meaning of “Sanyuan”
▼平面图，plan © 来建筑
The building consists of three volumes, forming three different “mountains” according to the specific needs of the use. Due to the constraints of the red line of the site, the plan is triangular. The front hill is gentle and sprawling horizontally. The back hill rises up to the surface. The side hills lie to one side. In the corner, a circular “moon pond” becomes the functional swimming pool. The three distances correspond to the meaning of “Sanyuan” proposed by the Song literati Guo Xi.
The volumes form three different “mountains”：the front hill, the back hill and the side hill © 唐徐国
Looking across the river, the hills in front and behind frame a “shenyuan (deep and far-reaching)” situation. Looking up from the inner courtyard, the hills behind form a “gaoyuan (high and far-reaching)” view, with an abruptness and a forcefulness to the mountains. Looking across the hills, the three man-made hills and the natural distant hills behind create a “pingyuan (flat and far-reaching)” landscape with the background of sublime mountains, deep streams and dense woods. Between the mountains and streams, a wooden house is seen from a distance, and a waterfall seems to fall into the stream underneath, which is the finishing touch to the painting.
▼河岸视角，view across the river © 唐徐国
▼前山外观，Front Hill exterior view © 唐徐国
▼后山外观，Back Hill exterior view © 唐徐国
▼庭院，courtyard © 苏圣亮
Living in a Cave
To travel by a mountain, to dwell in a cave. After the mountain-like shape has been determined, the void becomes a sheltered space for the body to rest. This means “living in a cave”, a cave in which the tiles are used to create a gesture of dwelling. To make the space even more spectacular, the tiles are reversed inside and outside at the side of the mountain, and the shadows of the trees are cast on the ceiling, creating a kind of interior/exterior replacement. In a trance, one does not know where one is.
▼瀑布细节，water fall detail © 唐铭
▼屋檐细节，details © 苏圣亮
▼屋瓦细节，the tiled roof © 廖启贤
▼室内雅集，lounge © 苏圣亮
▼前山室内，guest room – Front Hill © 唐徐国
▼卧室，bedroom © 苏圣亮
▼侧山室内，guest room – Side Hill © 唐铭
▼侧山室内，guest room – Side Hill © 苏圣亮
▼后山室内，guest room – Back Hill © 唐徐国
▼浴室，bathroom © 唐徐国
▼亭内，pavilion © 苏圣亮
Several years have passed since the Stream House was completed. The simulation and translation of natural objects is a common operation of architects, but it is often mired in formalism. In addition to formal expression, architecture should incorporate artistic cultivation and spiritual connotation, in order to achieve the fullness of emotion that can be read from restrained forms. But in any case, form is the starting point and the eternal language of every architect.
▼户外水池，outdoor pool © 苏圣亮
▼建筑局部，detailed view © 唐铭
▼庭院夜景，courtyard by night © 唐徐国
▼建筑夜景，building by night © 苏圣亮
▼山涧房远观，Stream House distant view © 唐徐国
▼山涧房鸟瞰，Stream House aerial view © 苏圣亮
▼前山首层平面图，Front Hill – 1F floor plan © 来建筑
▼前山立面图，Front Hill – elevation © 来建筑
▼后山首层平面图，Back Hill – 1F floor plan © 来建筑
▼后山立面图，Back Hill – elevation © 来建筑
▼侧山首层平面图，Side Hill – 1F floor plan © 来建筑
▼侧山立面图，Side Hill – elevation © 来建筑
▼墙身大样图，wall detail © 来建筑
Client：Shanjianfang Boutique Hostel
Architects: Atelier LAI
Location: Fuchunjiang, Tonglu, Zhejiang Province, China
Architect in charge: Mado
Typology Reserch design: Ming Tang
Design Team: Ming Tang, Jiachen Xie, Jin Kang, Jun Chen, Song Zhu
Photographs: Shengliang Su, Xuguo Tang
Structural System: Reinforced Concrete Frame
Site Area: 1541m²
Floor Area: 1256m²
Design Period: 2017.01-2018.9
Construction Period: 2017.10-2019.1