上海张庙文化活动中心 / 水石设计

像山一样“兼容而独特”

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01
“不被欢迎”的建筑
An “Unpopular” Architecture

项目场地位于上海宝山区,西临高迎路,与万达广场相对,东侧北侧被高层住宅小区环绕,南面是一座人筑土山,原先是以堆积建筑垃圾为主的堆场,后来为武警上海政治学院的射击场地。项目拟建一座社区级的文化活动中心,建筑功能包括展厅、剧场、图书阅览、社区活动、体育健身、教育培训等。

The project, located in Baoshan District of Shanghai, faces Gaoying Road in the west and is opposite to the Wanda Plaza. It is surrounded in the north and the east by high-rise residential communities. To the south, there lies a heaped-up hill, which was originally a yard for the storage of construction waste, and later turned into a shooting site of the Shanghai Political College of the Armed Police. The project is planned to be a community-level cultural activity center, comprising an exhibition hall, theater, reading room, rooms for community activities, gym, and education and training rooms.

▼项目概览
overall view of the project ©胡义杰

本项目最大的影响因素在于场地东北侧的住宅小区。这块场地虽然一直是社区公共配套用地,但多年以来长期空置,草木丛生,与南面的市政绿带及土山已然融为一体,成为名副其实的城市绿肺。又因为与城市道路联系的可达性较弱,小区居民将其看做自家公园一般,如果在此新建建筑,必然引起居民的关注和不解,设计稍有不慎,就会引来矛盾和冲突。可以说,这里新建任何建筑,都是很大概率不被居民所欢迎的。

The biggest influencing factor of this project is the residential community to the northeast of the site. Although this site has always been planned as a community public supporting land, it has been laid idle for years, where grasses and plants grow thickly and are integrated with the municipal green belt and hill in the south, to become a veritable urban green lung. Because of the poor accessibility to urban roads, the community residents have taken it as their exclusive park. If a new architecture is constructed here, it will surely attract the attention and confusion of the residents. If the design is done with any carelessness, it will lead to contradictions and conflicts. So to speak, any new construction here is most likely to be unpopular with the residents. 

▼远景鸟瞰,建筑与周边环境
distanced area view, the building and its surroundings ©胡义杰

▼顶视图
top view ©胡义杰

 

02
因地制宜的“进化设计”
An “Evolutionary Design” Tailored to Local Conditions

按照规划条件的容积率来测算建筑面积和体量的话,新建建筑将要7层高的高层建筑才能达到指标上限。我们和业主及规划部门反复研究论证,最后决定不以容积率上限作为建设目标,而是因地制宜,力求达到合理的建筑体量和完善的使用功能之间的平衡。

If the floor area and volume are calculated according to the plot ratio of the planning conditions, the new architecture must be a 7-story high-rise to reach the upper limit of the index. After rounds of studies and argumentation with the proprietor and the planning department, we finally decided not to take the upper limit of the plot ratio as the construction goal, but adjusted measures to the local conditions, to achieve a balance between a reasonable building volume and perfect use functions.

▼设计生成
design generation

为了减少建筑体量对住宅区的压迫感,保证空间的通透性,首先我们将功能体块进行分类分割,形成三个较小的功能体块,分别为教育培训馆、文化艺术馆和体育健身馆。同时我们希望进一步弱化建筑形体,将三个体块切成下大上小的山型,以保证住宅区的居民可以透过山与山之间的“山谷”,依旧可以看到南面的山体景观。山型的建筑造型被抽象出坡道、退台和屋顶花园,我们希望用绿化和花园去包裹整个建筑群,从而形成不同层次的绿化景观和休闲空间,让整个建筑群成为一个垂直的绿化公园,和城市绿带及南面的山体融为一体。

To minimize the sense of pressure of the building volume on the residential areas and ensure the permeability of the space, we first classified and divided the functional blocks into three smaller ones, which are respectively the education and training hall, culture and art hall, and sports and fitness hall. We also hope to further weaken the architectural form and cut the three blocks into mountain-shaped ones with a big bottom and small top, to make sure that community residents can still see the mountain landscape in the south through the “valleys” between the mountain-shaped ones. The mountain-shaped architectures are thus abstracted into ramps, terraces and roof gardens. We hope to wrap the whole architectural complex with greening and gardens, so as to form diversified levels of greenery landscape and leisure space, turn the entire building complex into a vertical green park, and integrate it with the urban green belt and the hill to the south.

▼项目外观,三个体块
external view of the project composed of three volumes ©胡义杰

这样一步步的“进化设计”,最终形成远看是山,俯瞰是园的建筑群落形态,与南面山体相呼应,又将对住宅小区的物理和心理影响降低到最小程度。它的形态来源于环境和居民对它的约束,而做出的积极反馈和进化。

Under such a step-by-step “evolutionary design”, there eventually forms an architectural complex that looks like mountains from the distance, and gardens when overlooked, echoing the southern hill, and reducing the physical and psychological impacts on the residential communities to the minimum extent. Its form comes from the restraints of the environment and inhabitants, and is a positive feedback and evolution.

▼建筑与山体呼应
building corresponded with the mountain body ©胡义杰

 

03
可持续运营的功能设置
Function Settings for Sustainable Operations

一座2万平方米左右的文化活动中心,特别是后疫情时代的到来,后期的运营成本必然很高。合理的功能配置,才能使其正常和可持续地运营下去。西侧的一号楼为多功能活动馆,五层空间均为活动教室,未来将引入一定的社会机构联合运营管理,更高效专业地为市民提供服务。退台式的设计,让每层空间都有了户外活动和交流的场所,每层之间有室外楼梯相连,既作为疏散楼梯的用途,人们也可以顺着台阶拾级而上,成为一个漫步行走的通廊。中间的二号楼是文化艺术馆,作为最重要的主体建筑,这栋楼将是完全对市民免费开放的。一层是门厅接待和剧场入口前厅,剧场的舞台、侧台及化妆间等设置在地下一层。二层到五层设置了共享中庭,图书阅览及各类活动室围绕着中庭展开,共享着屋顶射入的阳光,中庭中的大台阶上,可供人们休息交流。东侧的三号楼是体育健身馆,考虑到未来室内空间的灵活性和包容性,每层除了必要的楼电梯及卫生间等辅助空间,均以跨度大,层高高的大空间预留,给各种体育活动带来可能性。

A cultural activity center of about 20,000 square meters is bound to demand high later stage operating costs, especially with the arrival of the post-epidemic era. Reasonable functional configuration will make it go on with normal and sustainable operations. The first building on the west side is a multi-functional activity hall, whose five-floor spaces are all activity classrooms. In the future, some social institutions will be introduced for joint operation and management to provide services to the citizens in a more efficient and professional way. The terrace design allows each floor of the space to have places for outdoor activities and communications. The floors are connected with outdoor stairs, which are used as a channel for evacuation, and a corridor for people to take a walk. The second building in the middle is the culture and art hall. As the most important main building, it will be completely free to the public. On the first floor is the lobby reception and the entrance front hall of the theater. The stage, side stage and dressing rooms of the theater are set on the ground floor. A shared atrium is set up for the second to fifth floors, where the reading room and activity rooms spread around the atrium, sharing the sunlight from the roof. People can rest and communicate on the big steps in the atrium. The third building on the east side is the sports gym. Considering the flexibility and inclusiveness of the indoor space in the future, large space of big span and height is reserved in each floor, in addition to the necessary auxiliary spaces, such as elevators and toilets, bringing high possibilities to various sports activities.

▼文化艺术馆和西侧的多功能活动馆
the culture and art hall and the multi-functional activity hall on the west side ©胡义杰

▼退台
terrace ©胡义杰

▼入口广场
entrance plaza ©胡义杰

▼连接退台的室外楼梯
outdoor staircase connecting the terraces ©胡义杰

▼入口大门由耐候钢板组成
entrance gate made of weathered steel plates ©胡义杰

▼体育健身馆沿街面
street view of the sports gym ©胡义杰

▼从街道通往二层平台的楼梯
staircase connecting the street and the platform on the second floor ©胡义杰

▼连接体育健身馆和文化艺术馆的二层平台
second floor platform connecting the sports gym and the culture and art hall ©胡义杰

▼文化艺术馆共享中庭
shared atrium in the culture and art hall ©胡义杰

▼明亮连续的空间
bright and continuous space ©胡义杰

▼从中庭看向活动空间
view to the activity space from the entrance ©胡义杰

▼仰望天窗
look up at the skylight ©胡义杰

 

04
成本控制下的缓慢建造
Slow Construction under Cost Control

建筑的特殊形态和拆解后增加的外表面面积,必然导致建造成本的大幅提升。为了节省造价,建筑立面选材以经济性作为第一要素。三栋建筑单体的山墙面及屋面构架以实墙为主,并且面积较大,我们使用白色肌理涂料加错缝设计,形成大块面效果。山墙及屋架内侧使用锈红色肌理涂料,既不会显得过于张扬,又与白色形成阴阳两面的对比,丰富了立面色彩。南北两个立面为主要的采光通风面,我们使用窗墙体系,在有效控制玻璃的使用面积的基础上,满足窗地比系数,同时为了局部造型与细节的变化需求,使用了白色穿孔铝板。入口门头作为立面的重点部位处理,我们选用红色耐候钢板,作为点缀。整个项目的建造依然因为资金的原因,推进得异常缓慢,整个工程建造整整花了3年半的时间。

The special form of the buildings and the increased external surface areas after the disassembly inevitably lead to a substantial increase in the construction cost. To save the cost, priority is given to the economy of the building facade materials. The gable walls and roof frames of the three buildings mainly take solid walls, with large areas. We adopt the white texture coating with broken joint design to form a bulk effect. The inner sides of the gable walls and frames use rusty red texture coating, which won’t look too showy, and will form a yin-yangcontrast with the white, to enrich the facade colors. The northern and southern facades are the main lighting and ventilation sides. So we use the window-wall system. On the basis of effectively controlling the glass use areas, we manage to meet the window-floor ratio coefficient. To meet changes of local shapes and details, we apply the white perforated aluminum plates. The entrance gate head is a key part of the facade. We choose the red weather-resistant steel plates, as an ornament. The construction of the whole project is extremely slow, because of lack of funds. It takes three and a half years to complete the whole project.

▼文化艺术馆立面
facade of the culture and art hall ©胡义杰

▼立面材料细部
details of the facade materials ©胡义杰

 

05
“兼容而独特”的定制建筑
“Compatible and Unique” Customized Architecture

城市与环境的复杂多样,让每个建筑都不可能存在于完全一样的场地中,或是完全独立于场地而存在。当建筑置身于场地中,必然会有政策、法规、社会、市民、环境、功能等因素对它提出各种限制和要求,甚至冲突。建筑师要做的不是忽视冲突,而是从冲突中得到养分和灵感,同时融合多种想法,结合多种功能,吸收和整合各种差异的理念,成为专门为特定的环境,特定的人们和需求而设计的“特殊定制”,最终塑造出一个“兼容而独特”的建筑。

The complexity and diversity of the city and environment make it impossible for each building to exist in the same site or completely independent of the site. When a building is placed in a site, there will inevitably be factors, such as policies, regulations, society, citizens, the environment, and functions, which put forward a variety of restrictions and requirements, and even conflicts. What architects have to do is not to ignore the conflict, but to get nutrients and inspiration from the conflict. They need to integrate multiple ideas, incorporate multiple functions, absorb and merge various concepts, and make “tailor-made” designs for specific environments, people and needs, and ultimately create “compatible and unique” buildings.

▼夜景
night view ©胡义杰

▼总平面图
site plan ©水石设计

▼一层平面图
first floor plan ©水石设计

▼二层平面图
second floor plan ©水石设计

▼三层平面图
third floor plan ©水石设计

▼屋顶平面图
roof plan ©水石设计

▼立面
,elevations ©水石设计

▼剖面图
sections ©水石设计

项目名称:上海张庙文化活动中心
项目地址:上海市宝山区通河路590号
建设单位:上海市宝山区人民政府张庙街道办事处
代建单位:上海乾立建设咨询有限公司
用地面积:12 313㎡
建筑面积:19 376㎡
设计时间:2015年-2017年
竣工时间:2021年

设计单位:水石设计
工作内容:多专业一体化设计
设计指导:倪量 卫敏菲

建筑方案设计:米川工作室
主持建筑师:徐晋巍
团队成员:张帅,方雁容,谢庆乐,赵丽锋,杨库,温华广,胡之超,吴结东,张超,李羽,贾改,杨凯悦,赵祯婕,徐海东

施工图设计:水石工程、技术研发中心
施工图负责人:李斌
建筑成员:李斌 程晓燕 丁锋 王培 朱泉林 郑鸣鹤
结构成员:朱华军 杜侠伟 申慧斌 陈伟|
给排水成员:余钢,胡頠,王栋
电气成员:郑垚,徐梦茜,李彦说
暖通成员:殷金,崔骏,孙海校
幕墙成员:刘丽丽,马建波
BIM设计成员:金戈,徐磊

室内设计:米川工作室
室内合作设计单位:上海城乡建筑设计院有限公司
景观设计:米川工作室
景观合作设计单位:上海宝绿园林绿化有限公司
灯光设计施工单位:江苏迪生建设集团有限公司
施工总包单位:上海建工二建集团有限公司
项目摄影:胡义杰

Project name: Shanghai Zhangmiao Cultural Activity Center
Project address: No. 590 Tonghe Road, Baoshan District, Shanghai, China
Development organization: Zhangmiao Sub-district Office, Baoshan District People’s Government, Shanghai, China
Construction agent unit: Shanghai Qianli Construction Consulting Co., Ltd.
Land area: 12,313 m2
Floor area: 19,376 m2
Design time: 2015-2017

Completion time: 2021

Design unit: SHUISHI
Work content: Multi-disciplinary integrated design
Design directors: Ni Liang, Wei Minfei

Architectural design: SHUISHI-Micron Architecture Office
Chief architect: Xu Jinwei 
Team members: Zhang Shuai, Fang Yanrong, Xie Qingle, Zhao Lifeng, Yang Ku, Wen Huaguang, Hu Zhichao, Wu Jiedong, Zhang Chao, Li Yu, Jia Gai, Yang Kaiyue, Zhao Zhenjie, Xu Haidong

Construction drawing design: SHUISHI Engineering, SHUISHI Technology R&D Center
Head of construction drawing: Li Bin 
Building members: Li Bin, Cheng Xiaoyan, Ding Feng, Wang Pei, Zhu Quanlin, Zheng Minghe
Structure members: Zhu Huajun, Du Xiawei, Shen Huibin, Chen Wei
Water supply and drainage members: Yu Gang, Hu Wei, Wang Dong
Electrical engineering members: Zheng Yao, Xu Mengxi, Li Yanshuo
Heating and ventilation members: Yin Jin, Cui Jun, Sun Haixiao
Curtain wall members: Liu Lili, Ma Jianbo
BIM design members: Jin Ge, Xu Lei

Interior design:SHUISHI-Micron Architecture Office
Interior cooperative design unit: Shanghai Urban and Rural Architectural Design Institute Co., Ltd.
Landscape design:SHUISHI-Micron Architecture Office
Landscape cooperative design unit: Shanghai Baolv Public Parks Afforestation Co., Ltd.
Lighting design and construction unit: Jiangsu Disheng Construction Group Co., Ltd.
General construction contract unit: SCG No.2 Construction Group Co., Ltd.
Project photography: Hu Yijie

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