RURAL HOUSING: EXERCISE I By Communal: Taller de Arquitectura & community of Tepetzintan

Respecting the main spaces of the traditional dwelling.

Project Specs

Location:

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位于普埃布拉山脉东北部的Nahua community of Tepetzintan面临两个问题。首先,这里缺少满足当地环境,气候,风俗和传统的住房。其次,当地大片未开发竹林阻碍了咖啡豆种植业的发展,而被铲除后的土地大面积荒废。如何将这众多问题一次性解决,是该项目所面临的巨大挑战。通过实地考察以及与当地社区的交流,设计师提出将当地现存的两处竹林融入到住宅设计中来,以实验性的方式将住宅与环境融合。项目以当地风俗和家庭传统为设计出发点,在充分了解当地环境,建造系统以及用地方式的基础上,充分了解当地居民所需,为项目成果做出努力。

The Nahua community of Tepetzintan, located in the Northeastern Sierra of Puebla, had two seemingly isolated problems. On the one hand, there was a lack of housing appropriate to the site, the climate and the customs and traditions of the region. In parallel, untapped bamboo which was considered a hindrance to plant milpa and coffee plantations, so it was removed from the plots without any use, how could we connect these challenges? From our visits and dialogues with the community, we propose a housing project that will use the two existing bamboo species in the region to design and build, in a participatory way, a housing exercise. The project started with the knowledge of the customs and traditions of the families, the understanding of the site, the construction systems used and the way of occupying the territory, being a fundamental part of the research process carried out with the inhabitants using survey files.

▼住宅隐藏在自然环境之中,house and landscape

经过研究,设计师最终将方案确定为以满足当地居民所需为基本要求,充分尊重并回应当地传统住宅形式,其功能包括:客厅,神坛,厨房,门廊,卧室,浴室。项目包括对建筑基本功能,包括浴室,房间和厨房空间的维护和加强。同时重新整合并改善了当地水资源的收集,储蓄,及处理程序。此外,设计对住宅的基本生态气候整合也令居住生活更加舒适(整合包括空气对流,室内高度 ,热气拍气孔)。

Once we had a clear diagnosis, we designed a home that would fit the needs of the residents, respecting the main spaces of the traditional dwelling: salon, altar, kitchen, portico, bedrooms and bathroom. The project consisted in consolidating fundamental spaces such as the bathroom, the rooms and the kitchen, as well as in integrating low-cost ecological technologies for the collection, storage and treatment of water. In addition, basic bioclimatic principles were integrated to make the home comfortable (cross ventilation, interior height, hot air exhaust chimneys) throughout the year.

▼以传统住宅为建筑模型,respect the traditional house type

▼内部空间,interior

▼住宅内设有神坛,altar in the house

▼注重内部空气对流,the cross ventilation

项目被定位为“社会保障住房”,因此,教会当地人正确使用竹子建造技术便显得格外重要,他们需要了解相关知识,建造标准和具备重新建造这样一栋住宅的能力。五个技术工作小组在当地成立,工作内容包括从林地取材到结构搭建的全套竹子使用过程。建造系统现场预制,在保证材料的准确性的同时也提高了建造效率。于此同时,项目对建造系统的零件尽量简化以减少建造时间。当地建造以社区活动为单位,除了当地成年人以外,于当地毕业的年轻人也参与到社区活动及建造教学活动中去。场地及竹子由当地人捐赠,石材取自当地,屋顶木板源自回收利用的环保,保温,隔音铝材。这种材质可以维持室内温度,阻止户外真菌及细菌的侵入。

Because the project is governed by “Social Production”, it was of great importance to train the community with the appropriate constructive technique for the use of bamboo, which ensured three main objectives: transfer of knowledge, constructive quality and capacity of Replicate the project. A total of five technical workshops were conducted covering all stages of bamboo management, from forestry to the construction of structures. The construction system used is prefabricated on site and modular, which allows to make efficient the time in work and to manage the materials correctly. In addition, reducing the parts to a minimum allows them to be produced faster. The construction was done through tasks (community work) in which, in addition to the adults, the young people of the local baccalaureate who now train other groups of young people in the nearby communities. The land and bamboo was donated by the people, the stone was obtained from the ground and the lamina used in the roof is an ecological, thermal and acoustic product generated with recycled aluminum, which maintains an appropriate temperature inside the house and avoids the formation of fungi, bacteria and damp.

▼全民参与建造,participation of native residents

   

   

项目于2015年建成,并在项目所建的祭坛举行了盛大的庆祝活动以感谢所有参与者的努力。自此,设计师便与当地社区一起,利用传统建造材料制造低成本,高质量的社区生活。

The project was inaugurated in 2015 with a party where the altar was installed and the effort of the settlers was celebrated. Since then, we have been working together with the community to use traditional building materials that allows to reduce costs, increase square meters and improve the quality of life in the region.

▼功能空间构成,functions

▼结构分析,structure

▼平面图,plan

▼西立面,west facade

▼东立面,east facade

▼剖面图,section

Architect: Communal: Taller de Arquitectura & community of Tepetzintan
Year: 2015
Surface area: 80 m2
Location: community of Tepetzintan, Puebla.
Project photos: Onnis Luque
Process photos: Erwin Jaquez
Acknowledgments: Official selection of Mexico for the pavilion of the Biennial of Venice 2016. Silver medal at the National
Biennial of Architecture in the category “Rural Housing”

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