在海外专辑第九十一期 – 王娜

第九十一期为您呈现的是毕业于哈佛大学设计学院、目前就职于SWA Group的王娜

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海外存知己,天涯若比邻。
在海外专辑分享海外华人的故事。希望这份分享可以让世界更加海阔天空。
第九十一期为您呈现的是毕业于哈佛大学设计学院、目前就职于SWA Group的王娜。

A bosom friend afar brings distant land near. The Oversea album shares the lives of Chinese living abroad with all. The No.91 episode is about Na Wang who graduated from GSD and is now working for SWA Group.

 

为什么出国?
Why going abroad?

从小的成长环境,让我有机会接触到了室内设计、施工,也算是耳濡目染。之后在北京大学对城市规划的学习综合了地理、生态、经济等多重复合型的知识体系,在几个设计事务所的实习工作接触到了景观设计,还有俞孔坚老师的景观设计课让我对景观产生了更加浓厚的兴趣。而在国内的这些经历,和到国外的游学经历让我更加渴望换一个角度接触更多元的设计理,更多元的社会文化背景。

Grew up in a family with interior design and construction business, I had the opportunity to experience the design field when I was a child. Later on, the study of urban planning in Peking University built up my knowledge of geological, ecological, and economical system about our living environment. Following with the internship experience at a couple design firms, which I was involved with landscape design projects, and the landscape design studio of Prof. Kongjian Yu, I developed my interested in landscape architecture. The experience in China, together with my travelling abroad lead me to exploring more diversified design theories and more diversified social and cultural backgrounds.

 

在国外遇到了什么让你印象最深刻的事情?
What impressed you the most when you are abroad?

有一个有趣的摄影项目,需要自己去联系一家餐厅,跟拍餐厅的营业、运作、后厨操作等全部过程,并形成摄影作品集和纪录片。我选择了哈佛大学附近一家小小的美式快餐店,跟拍了两个月的时间,从第一天紧张、无所适从的尴尬,到后来成了老板很要好的朋友,逐渐熟知每道食物的制作过程,开始聊纪录片的构思。慢慢了解到老板本人虽然经营这家餐厅,但是他自己有个艺术家的梦想,自己做音乐创作、电影剪辑,对生活有着无限的热爱。很多人看上去虽然只是简单质朴的工作,但是人生却格外的丰富多彩。

There was an interesting photography project,  which required each of us to get involved with a local restaurant and document their business. I chose a small American Cafe near Harvard Plaza, and filming their everyday business. From the nervousness of meeting strangers, and taking photos of them, it took me two months to get used to be relax as a photographer, and became good friends with the owner and  even familiar with the production process of their menu. After discussing more about my documentary ideas, I get to know the owner is not only doing his Cafe business, but also has his own dream to be an artist. He tried to do his own music and film his own documentary. The way he treats himself as a normal business owner but live a life full of vigorousness and the love to try new things is so inspiring to me.

 

最想念祖国的什么?
What do you miss the most about China?

生活环境,文化氛围。不论离开家多久,只要一回国,一走上那些走了二十多年的街道,就仿佛自己从未离开过。一种熟悉的亲切的感觉吧。当然,这也包括了在国内有我的亲人、朋友,也是他们构成了我对祖国、对回家这个定义的无限眷恋。

The living environment, and the cultural atmosphere. It is the familiar feeling, at the moment I’m back walking on the old streets that I grew up with, that touched me deeply. A kind of relaxation, as if I’ve always been here. Certainly, this is also related to all my families, friends that are always waiting for me in my hometown. Thus, I’m strongly attached to my hometown.

 

你会回国吗?为什么?
Will you come back China? Why?

这个问题我也一直在寻找答案,当然现在说自己肯定会回国也是为时尚早。毕竟,自己现在工作接触到的很多项目除了美国本地的,有许多项目在中国,无形之中拉近了我和国内的距离。国内设计领域也有着很好的发展前景,越来越多的城市对城市景观设计的关注、对城市空间品质的提升开始了探索。自己的职业规划也在根据实际情况不断调整节奏,会在国外工作一段时间,很大可能最终会回到国内从事设计工作。

I’ve been thinking about this for a long time, and would think it is too early to make up my mind. My current work provide me lots of opportunities with both local and China landscape design projects, which makes me feel connected with China. The domestic design field in China has a promising future. There are more and more cities looking at improving the urban space quality through landscape design. I would work abroad for a couple of years, but eventually want to go back to my hometown as a landscape architect.

 

出国后在不同的背景下再看中国是否看得更清晰,有哪些感触?
Is it more distinct to view China in a different environment after going abroad? Any thought?

不能说更加清晰,只是同一个问题现在看会有多个角度同时出现在脑海里。以前是身在国内的氛围中去看问题,自然多了许多周围潜移默化的影响;现在再看那些影响还是存在的,所以一部分的思考会掺入些许对国内片段式的印象理解,而另一部分则是接触到更多元的文化背景之后的思考。自己对这两者的态度并无太大倾向,只是在看待每个问题的时候有更加理性的和多重的理解。

I can’t say it is more clear, but definitely with more perspectives to the same problem. Before going abroad, the domestic atmosphere and social backgrounds impact is inherent, which makes me seeing things with a default logic. Nowadays, with experience abroad, those impacts are still there, but it combines with diverse perspectives. I’m not treating any voices as pron or con, however, I feel more objective to accept different voices and trying to understand them.

 

你的学校有哪些教育特点?
What makes the curriculum of your school different from other architecture schools?

“思想自由,兼容并包”。北京大学城市规划专业在城市与环境学院,前身是地质地理学科,所以不仅对城市规划、城市设计有着扎实的教学,对环境、地理、生态学等都有着一整套严谨的培养体系;也有景观设计这样的设计课程。学校的双学位选修课和各种社团组织等都提供了各种探寻个人发展的可能性。

哈佛大学设计学院有着相似的培养理念。在这里,专业是一个清晰而又相互交叉的概念。在前几个学期的基础课程中,会接触到十分扎实的景观设计相关的生态植被、地形、设计理念、景观史等知识,同时在之后的课程中,不同专业背景的同学可以选择同一设计课程,也有很多选择其他院系、其他学校课程的机会。在这种丰富且相对自由的设计背景下,设计学院更是一个“兼容并包”的媒介。

“Freedom Ideological System and Incorporate Things of Diverse Nature”, This has been the guiding principle for Peking University. The Urban Planning major at College of Urban and Environmental Science was rooted in geological geography. Thus, it not only has a solid education of urban planning and urban design, but also has a rigorous training system of environment, geography and ecology. There are also design studios such as landscape design.The university’s dual-degree electives and various associations and organizations offer a variety of possibilities for personal development.

Harvard Graduate School of Design (GSD) has the similar education approach.  The definition of major is clear but somehow interweaving with each other. In the first few semesters of required courses, students will be exposed to a very solid knowledge of landscape design related to ecological vegetation, topography and grading, design philosophy, landscape history and so on. Afterwards,  students with different professional backgrounds can choose the same design studio, and there are many opportunities to choose courses of other departments and schools.

 

你现在工作公司的特色和有趣的地方?
What are the characteristics and interesting points of your firm?

在SWA工作的过程中,迅速积累了实际景观设计项目中的工作经验。项目地点从得克萨斯州本地,到中东国家、以及许多中国项目,涉及到多种景观环境;项目内容涉及城市公共景观公园、校园设计、商业景观设计、大型滨水景观设计等;同时也有城市规划、交通干线与景观规划设计的相关项目。总之,SWA是一个能够积累丰富的研究、规划、设计、施工经验的综合性景观公司,而且办公室文化充满活力,鼓励大家发表自己的设计看法、探索不同的设计实践方式,能够在建设实际景观项目的同时延展出对景观设计的一些思考。

With two years working at SWA group, I quickly accumulated experience of practical landscape design. .Project locations range from local Texas to middle eastern countries, together with many Chinese projects. The projects including urban public park, campus design, commercial landscape design, large-scale waterfront landscape design, etc. At the same time, there are also urban planning, transportation master plan related projects. Working at SWA provides me with great opportunities with research, planning, design, and construction. Moreover, office culture is full of vitality, we are encouraged to speak up our ideas, and explore different methods of design practice.

 

最喜欢的艺术家(绘画音乐电影等广泛范围)是谁?给你创作带来了什么影响?
Who is your favorite artist (in wider range such as art, music, movie)? What is the influence?

从四岁开始跟随肖毅先生学习书法,在十几年的专业学习中对书法艺术的不断深入的理解伴随着对中国传统文化的学习,对我的性格、对待艺术的态度都有着潜移默化的影响。从最初的“颜柳欧赵”到“苏黄米蔡”,对不同时期书法家的作品理解,一定程度上延展到对那一时期的文化艺术的了解。对王羲之、米芾两位大家尤为痴迷,书法不仅仅展现文字艺术本体,也反映了人作为主体的精神、气质、学识和修养。现在在国外也是时不时提笔练习,让自己能够通过水墨书画这种独特的媒介得到启发,也能够在每天忙碌的设计工作中找寻一份沉静。

I began to learn Chinese calligraphy from Mr. Xiao yi since four years old. With years of professional study, my in-depth understanding of the art of calligraphy and my learning of traditional Chinese culture have exerted an inherent influence on my personality. The works by different calligraphers in different dynasty throughout history also extent my understanding of the cultural background of each period. I am particularly fascinated by Wang Xizhi, and Mifu, whose calligraphy not only shows the art of writing, but also reflect their spirits and attitudes towards Chinese culture and grand landscape. Living abroad, I still keep practicing calligraphy, trying to calm down from everyday life, and  seeking for inspirations through this unique medium of ink painting and calligraphy.

 

觉得自己的作品集有哪些迷人的特质?
What fascinates viewers the most in your portfolio in your opinion?

自己的作品尝试了多重尺度的项目,从城市规划到小的景观小品。同时在设计理念方面,习惯从一种现状现象中抽离设计的焦点,并让自己的设计能够引导使用者去感受景观环境,和土地形成对话;这一点在实际工作建成项目的设计过程中也有所延续。

My design include projects with varies scales from urban planning to a small landscape structure design. In terms of the design concept, I’ve been looking for social phenomenon of each site, and trying to use landscape design as a media that can guide different stakeholders to experience the space and create conversation with the land.

 

什么时候开始看谷德网的?欢迎你提出建议哦,谢谢。
When did you start to follow gooood? Any suggestions?

2012年左右开始关注,那个时候是对设计领域兴趣开始迅速增长的阶段。很幸运在丰富的设计书籍之外能够有谷德网这样的设计平台给我探索的机会。同时在近几年的各种新增板块,除了对设计项目的关注,也有对设计经验的总结、设计师的访谈,希望能够继续推出更多丰富的板块,从各个角度将设计呈现给更多同行与非专业人士。

Ever since 2012, I start to gain interests in design industry. And really appreciate design website like gooood, that provide all kinds of information. There are more and more new sections of that publish ideas and experience from designers all over the world. Wish there would be more interesting and inspiring panels created for both fellow designers and non-professional.

 

 

 

 

W O R K

 

 

01.

非树状结构城市
A City is not a tree
Instructor: Pablo Pérez-Ramos
Teammate: Lane Rubin

 

项目背景
Project Background

项目位于马萨诸塞州南波士顿。自波士顿创建以来,属于南端的土地一直是波士顿市的一部分,尽管在最初有人定居时周围是大片的滩涂,通过之后逐步的填满沼泽地,社区空间得到了扩展和发展。

The site is located in South Boston, MA. The land belonging to the South End has been part of the city of Boston since its creation, though at the time of first settlement it was much smaller and surrounded by large tidal flats. The neighborhood was expanded and developed by filling in the marshlands.

▼总平面图,overall site plan

 

观察与研究
Observation and Research

1965年,克里斯托弗·亚历山大(Christopher Alexander)写了《城市不是一棵树》(A City is not A Tree),他在书中批评了类似于希伯赛默(Hilberseimer)的城市秩序,这些秩序将城市简化为一个二元分支的集合。1980年,德勒兹和瓜塔里继续批评了树状结构,他们提出根茎作为树的替代:一个横向的、多重的系统,其中“任何点都可以连接到任何其他点”。由此,我们试图用一种非树状结构的方法论创造一个非树状结构的未来城市空间。

In 1965 Christopher Alexander wrote A City is not a Tree, in which he critiqued urban orders like those of Hilberseimer that reduced the city to a collection of dichotomous, branching conditions. In 1980 Deleuze and Guattari continue the critique of the tree in A Thousand Plateaus when they propose the rhizome as an alternative to the tree: as a lateral, multiple system in which “any point can be connected to any other, and must be. This is very different from the tree, which plots a point, fixes and order.”So we pursue this rejection of the tree, both as a generative methodological epistemology and as an essential urban structure. Can we design a city a city which is not a tree, using methods which are not tree-like?

▼树状结构与城市系统结构,tree structure vs. urban system structure

 

设计意向
Design Intention

项目将整个地块转换成了边界最大化的空间,通过柔化的地形边界增强城市空间的弹性,同时由边界空间构成来引导城市空间构成。通过研究场地上的相互作用要素、要素间形成的系统和形态来递归分析。项目提出了横向连续和纵向排布的空间体系与空间形态,以此来容纳丰富的城市职能。由此,树状结构被一种更开放的精确的网状秩序所取代。

The project transformed the entire site into an edge. Embedded in this act of convolution the edge are a diagram of urban organization and a performative will to resiliency and soft edges. Our method worked recursively—with the inevitable degree of path dependency—between forces, interactions, systems, and morphology to develop our hypothesis. Our project proposes that, by developing systems and morphology that allow both sequential and striated occupation of and movement through the landscape of the site, we can create a city which enables variation, adaptation, and diversity of experience. The tree—as a structure of thought and a model of urbanism—is eluded in favour of a more open and yet more precise order.

▼设计体系图,general network

 

设计内容
Design Content

初始地形研究 | INITIAL LANDFORM

通过对波士顿地区沿海沙丘地形海岸的研究,项目提出了将城市边界空间最大化的想法,让内陆空间与水体接触面积最大化。以此来提升应对风暴潮汐和海平面上升的空间弹性。To multiply the surface area of the edge between the land and water, to encourage infiltration and distribution of storm surge and sea-level rise waters.

▼剖面分析图:初始地形(竖向排布的半岛陆地与水道间隔分布),Serial sectional shows profile of landform (peninsulas and channels, etc.)

 

场地要素分析 | FORCES

▼场地上不同要素及其影响力强弱分析,Twelve diagrams that identify the various vectors and intensities on the site

 

场地要素相互作用 | INTERACTIONS

▼场地上相互作用的生态、城市、经济、文化要素
Site diagrams that gained the ability to adapt to additional variables and forces as we developed them, such as: ecological, urban, real estate, cultural forces

▼职能渗透,不同城市功能空间相互融合,水与陆地的边界也是灵活多变的。Program infiltration diagrams reveal the overlapping of these interactions and the fact that the edge between programs, water&land, etc., are not clearly cut lines.

 

系统及形态构建 | SYSTEMS & MORPHOLOGIES

一方面,水岸地形的变化和城市不同功能的分布相互作用,将城市服务型公共职能用地需求与活动类型相对应组合。另一方面,居住功能空间类型研究构建了依地貌和土地价值而定的居住空间形态分布。更靠近内陆的土地空间倾向于公共服务职能,而居住空间更多的分布在每个条形半岛的末端,拥有更好的湾区视野,同时容积率最高、占地面积最小。   

On one hand, the landform and program taxonomy study, reveals morphology of different programs related to all kinds of social activities that would happened on the city land. On the other hand, housing taxonomy study reveals the morphology of major residential space related to the change of the landform and land value. Land which is more close to the inland space, are occupied with more social related programs, while residential space are more to the end of each peninsula, with higher FAR and better view of the bay area.

▼地形和功能,landform & program diagram

▼居住空间形态,housing taxonomy

 

未来城市 | FUTURE CITY

未来城市交通体系:主要以在各个半岛上的南北轴线为街道空间;以桥梁连接横向的跨越半岛的公共空间。同时南北轴线的每条街道与现状的南波士顿城市肌理相衔接。未来城市的建筑是相对开放适应的。在这里建筑的空间组成分布形式只是一个原型框架,而在框架内可以容纳多种可能的住宅和公共建筑类型。整个非树状结构城市的住宅区原型也考虑了不同家庭规模、不同院落公共空间的可能性。而初始的水岸空间地形和半岛之间的水域为市民提供了丰富的水上活动空间。而潮间带不断的冲刷与堆积作用又会逐步改变着初始的水岸空间地形,使得城市驳岸地形不断更新变化。

The future city circulation: Primary north/south axis of roads along each peninsula as STREET; also transverse system, crosses peninsulas in areas where programs are linked together as BRIDGE. The circulation meshes with existing South Boston grid.

The future city architecture is adaptive. It sets a constant frame within which many possible residential and public types are possible. Housing layout along the site cares about family types, density, and courtyard recreational space. What’s more, the sloped area and the channel water space gives people opportunity to inhabit the water with all kinds of programs. The inter-tidal changing zone also provide opportunity in which the sloped land can change over time.

▼未来城市平面图,future city plan

▼整体场地模型,overall site model

▼街道,street

▼桥梁,bridge

▼住宅区,residential

▼水道,channel

▼细节剖面模型,detail section model

 

 

 

 

02.

印象群岛
Archipelagos of Memory
rejuvenating the community based landscape experience
Instructor: Niall Kirkwood; Yoonjin Park; Jungyoon Kim
Project Interview Vidow by Harvard GSD
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D6jbVAQhbF4

 

项目背景
Project Background

在第四纪时期,熔岩在高原地区层状分布堆积,形成地表小型的散布山地,而地表之下则是大面积的熔岩堆积形成的地质层。类比浮出海面的小型群岛,项目将这些散布的山地定义为“群岛高地”。位于韩朝边境的DMZ非军事区宽4km,在战争之后处于严密的军事监管状态,并将朝鲜半岛拦腰截断。位于DMZ内的“群岛高地”在韩国历史上有着重要的战略地位,从古代文化到朝鲜战争再到战后的局势,它们承载着不同时期的历史记忆。而山地群岛作为自然地质要素在地表之下的地质结构是连续的,因此在地表之上,两国之间留存的散布山地景观也成为了朝鲜半岛地理意义上相连、无关于国界的符号象征。

In the Quaternary period, lava layered up a plateau area with small mountain archipelagos above and a large part of the mountains buried below. The DMZ area is a 4 km wide zone in between the two countries’ border. The archipelagos located within the DMZ have always been crucial spots throughout the Korean history. Bearing memories of different ancient times, the memory of the Korean War and that of post-war tension, the archipelagos link the past geologically and symbolically. The Korean Peninsula is thus a geographically connected entity regardless of state boundaries.

 

 

观察与研究
Observation and Research

在第一部分的地图分析中,绘制了位于韩朝边境的DMZ(非军事区,demilitarized zone)周围不同程度人为干扰的空间。通过对战争地、重大历史事件发生地、城市聚落、农田的区位标识,将分布于DMZ空间内的散布山地群岛分成三个受人为干扰的程度。

In the first part of mapping and analysis, we mapped out space near DMZ area with different level of human interference. Such as battles, historical incidences, urban settlements and farmlands, and mark the archipelagos with 3 levels of human interfered condition.

 

设计意向
Design Intention

历史上的各种人为干扰在不同的岛屿上留下了不同程度的印记,设计便针对三种不同的干扰程度为原型进行。在将朝鲜半岛看做地理意义上的一整块土地的基础上,分析城市发展空间现状,不难发现作为重要的平原地带,未来DMZ将为城市发展提供更多延展的空间;而散布的岛屿高地则成为城市中集合休憩观景、交流教育多重功能的公共空间。

Human interventions, such as battles, historical incidences, urban settlements and farmlands, have impacted the land at different levels. The design of alternative nature prototypes is based on a three-level human interfered land. Assuming the unification will take most of the land for urban development, the landscape archipelagos in between will provide the community with a multifunctional space for site-viewing, walking, communication, education, etc.

 

设计内容
Design Content

如地图所示,项目以Cheorwon山谷高原地区的群岛为出发点,希望将社区景观系统扩展到非军事区和腹地的其他地区。

As map shows, the project use the archipelagos at Cheorwon Valley Plateau area as a starting point, and wish to extend the community-based landscape system into other areas of DMZ and the hinterland.

▼场地位置,prototype site locations

▼场地模型,prototype site location model

1:25000平面显示了三种典型群岛的位置:干扰最严重的群岛(有战场、历史事件发生地、大型城市基础设施)、干扰较少的群岛(靠近城区或农田)、干扰最少的群岛(靠近森林和自然水系)。战争期间曾经有一组呈三角形相连的岛屿高地被称为“铁三角”,是重要的战略高地。而印象岛屿选取的三处位置也组成了一组新的“自然三角”。平面图显示了三种类型的岛屿高地特征。

The 1:25000 plan shows the locations of three typical types of archipelagos, the most interfered ones (which have battlefields, incidence, large urban infrastructures), the less human interfered ones (close to urban area or farmland) and the least ones (close to the forest and natural water system). There was a Iron Triangle during Korean War, which links the three crucial locations. The three types of archipelagos form a triangle space as well, which is called the alternative nature triangle. The plan taxonomy and the models illustrate the characteristic of the 3 types archipelagos.

▼平面图,plan taxonomy

▼印象岛屿战略分析,strategy taxonomy

 

构成“自然三角”这一组合的三处高地通过三种设计手段实现观景、漫步、交流与教育的功能。现今的DMZ边界有着绵延几千公里的铁网分割,设计也考虑重新利用这一材料。

Based on the alternative nature triangle, the detail landscape design aims at providing the community with a multifunctional space for site-viewing, walking, communication, and education.

▼3个场地原型的剖面图和植被选择,3 prototypes section & planting selection

▼铁网的再利用,reuse wire fence

▼铁网再利用分析计算,Calculation for reuse the wire fence

类型1的岛屿高地曾经有战争和历史事件发生;重新利用场地上废弃的铁丝网来打造主要的景观廊道结构。而在铁丝网结构上逐渐形成的植物群落演替将逐步销蚀残存的铁网,同时战争的废墟遗迹将被自然植被环绕,构成新的生态空间。

Type 01 has battle fields and incidents, the reutilized wire fences form the main landscape structure, while the succession of species on the structure is generating an alternative nature. The rejuvenated habitat will combine with military remnants, the past is not only frozen at those archipelagos but also evolved to a new program for the community nearby.

▼类型01平面图,Type 01 plan

▼类型01模型, TYPE 01 MODEL

类型2的岛屿临近未来的城市和村庄。将废弃的铁网压实形成岛屿高地上的平台结构或坡地结构,并形成观景的视线高点,远眺周边的群岛。通过视觉的联系让人们理解看似散布的岛屿高地实则是朝鲜半岛地理意义上相连的一种印证。

Type 02 has villages or urban settlements close by, the reutilized wire fences is densed and form sloped or terrace structure for rejuvenating alternative nature. Also, the terrace and sloped dock is 50-100m long and creating this visual connection with other archipelagos.

▼类型02平面图,Type 02 plan

▼类型02模型, TYPE 02 MODEL

类型3的岛屿紧邻天然林地,在这里除了依靠种植搭配来实现自然演替之外,我们还创造了在群岛地表的下嵌式空间,形成了一个倾斜的地质观景沟,下嵌空间立面上将阐释岛屿高地之下相连的玄武岩和花岗岩地质层。Type 03 is close to the natural woodland, here besides the planting structure to initiating the alternative nature, we also create undercut of the land, which forms a sloped geological viewing ditch that reveals the basaltic rocks and granite textures on the façade.

▼类型03平面图,Type 03 plan

▼类型03模型, TYPE 03 MODEL

以上所有的景观干预并非用怀旧的方式停留在DMZ时代,而是通过实体与视觉景观的联系强调土地的连续性。而在这些岛屿高地上的景观演替也将创造这片土地新的记忆。

All those methods are not a nostalgia way of reflecting the DMZ era, but also underlines that land is always continuous regardless of the political border, the alternative nature is initiated on those archipelagos and the memory on the land is still going on.

▼透视图, perspective of geological view

 

 

 

 

03.

关塔那摩 – 流域间的土地
Guantánamo – Land Between Rivers
Instructor: Belinda Tato
Group work

 

项目背景
Project Background

GTMO位于古巴关塔纳摩-瓜索流域的入海口。近年来全球气温上升、干旱加剧增加了资源可持续利用的压力。在这里,控制淡水资源是拥有这片土地控制权至关重要的因素。美国和古巴之间存在争议的关系已经通过水利基础设施的建设和管理得到了体现。尽管该军事基地自1903年就已存在,但20世纪60年代美国当局开始建造一系列的实体边界,形成地理阻隔,提高了关塔那摩的军事化级别。作为回应,卡斯特罗于1964年切断了美国基地的供水管道。流域的军事化严重阻碍了该地区的社会、经济和生态发展。

GTMO is located in an estuary in Cuba’s Guantanamo-Guaso Watershed. Rising global temperatures, increased drought, and the rain shadow cast on the land increase pressure to maintain the resource. Control of the freshwater supply is paramount for maintaining power. The contentious relationship between the US and Cuba has manifested through the creation and management of water infrastructures. While the base has existed since 1903,  the militarization of the watershed was heightened in the 1960s when the US began constructing a series of physical boundaries. In reaction to this, Castro cut the water supply pipe that fed the U.S. base in 1964. This militarization of the watershed has prevented social, economic, and ecological growth in the region.

▼关塔那摩流域图,Guantanamo Map

 

项目意向
Project Intention

一系列的边境围栏、检查站、硬性基础设施、雷区阻隔了河口周围自然、社会要素的流通。

A series of border fences, checkpoints, hard infrastructures, and mine fields on either side of the US boundary prevent free movement across the estuary.

▼GTMO的通道和体块,Access & Blocks at GTMO

 

设计内容
Design Intervention

流域的改变不是基于生态和社会的角度,而是基于政治紧张和民族主义的议程,已经严重破坏了流域的生态活力。项目通过利用流域从最高点到入海口的多重景观治理,激活这一流域生态体系,使流域非军事化,并强化该地区的经济自治。

Alterations of the watershed based not on ecological and social perspective, but on political tension and nationalistic agenda deteriorated the vitality of the watershed. By leveraging the processes occurring across the watershed, from its most high points to the lowest at the bay, we intend to activate this hydro-social region to demilitarize the watershed and empower the region’s economy to strengthen its autonomous identity from the US naval base.

▼时间轴阐述了上游-中游-下游的不同景观干预手段,Timeline shows the process of design interventions of upstream – midstream – downstream

 

上游 | UPSTREAM

大型水坝和水库工程过度建设,流域内的水利工程从未实现预期负荷。大面积的水库增加了地表水的蒸发,造成高达50%的水分流失。考虑到现有的水利工程50年的预期寿命即将接近尾声,进一步投资建设与维护大型水坝并非最优选择。我们建议从不透水的大型水坝和开放的蓄水池,转向成为一个更小的、软质的微型水坝系统。将水体管理使用权交还给农业生产者,是的流域内的农业生产者能够按需调节, 在流入大型水库之前有效的保水、给水。其目的是建立一个局部的、反应灵敏的小型蓄水网络,以抵消大型水利设施溃坝的风险。

The large scale dams and reservoirs are over-engineered, never reaching full capacity. The vast surface area of the reservoirs have also proven inefficient; exposure to sun and wind makes them extremely prone to evaporation, causing up to 50% loss of water. Further investment in maintaining large scale dams is not an option, especially in light of their expected 50-year lifespans, the end of which are fast approaching.  We propose shifting from impermeable dams and open, standing reservoirs, to a system of smaller, softly-engineered micro-dams that allow for downstream flow, and place water management into the hands of local agricultural stakeholders. Situated along flow lines which feed into the existing reservoirs, the micro-dams collect and protect water before it enters the reservoir. The intention is to create a localized and responsive network of small scale water storage that anticipates the failure of the large scale dams.

▼四条主要的河道,Four major rivers at GTMO

▼以Jaibo河为研究原型,阐述设计方案,The project took Jaibo River as a prototype to demonstrate our design intervention

▼Jaibo河平面图,Jaibo River

这些微型水坝很容易由农业利益相关者的小型集体建造和维护,将水的控制权从自上而下转移到地方化。收集的水资源通过植被重建和防风林来降低蒸发和污染。同时,微型水坝允许溢流和更大的渗透性,加强了下游的水流供给。

The micro-dams are easily constructed and maintained by small collectives of agricultural stakeholders, shifting the power dynamic of water control from top-down to localized. The collected water is protected from evaporation and contamination through a vegetated strategy and windbreaks. The micro-dams allow for overflow and greater permeability, strengthening the downstream flows.

▼微型水坝剖面图,Sections of Micro Dams

 

中游 | MIDSTREAM

通过微流域、洪道、渗透井和轮作农业来解决沙漠化进程。试图通过地形和农业实践来减缓、保持和过滤地表径流。通过提取半咸水并向含水层回注淡水,以降低地下水的盐度。

We address the desertification process through micro-basins, flood channels, percolation wells, and rotational agriculture. We seek to slow, hold, and percolate water that falls on the land through incremental changes in the topography and agricultural practices. By extracting brackish water and recharging the aquifers with fresh water, the groundwater’s salinity can be lowered.

▼中游干预,Midstream Intervention

 

下游 | DOWNSTREAM

提出了一个淡水分流策略,通过强化冲击平原的植被修复,促进沉积过程,以打造微观地形。来自上游的沉积物在指定的区域堆积,形成海水蒸发的梯田空间。这些冲积扇空间能够促进盐田经济的发展。

通过以上的流域治理,使得流域边界逐步代替行政边界。

We propose a fresh-water diversion strategy that allows for bolstering the vegetation of the alluvial plain.This will in turn catalyze a sedimentation process that builds up the micro-topography of the landscape. Sediment from upstream accumulates in designated areas to build terraces for saltwater evaporation and new forms of occupation in anticipation of volatile seas. These buffers act not only to protect the land, but also the burgeoning salt economy.

In Cuba, through its system of watershed management, a framework would be established where watershed boundaries supersede municipal boundaries.

▼下游干预,downstream intervention

 

 

 

 

04.

移动的风景
Moving Landscape
再探港口工业用地 – 休斯敦港景观规划设计
Rethinking Port Industrial Land
Port Houston: Moving Landscape
SWA Group group work

 

项目背景
Project Background

随着气候变化对城市海岸线完整性的破坏,以及开发活动越来越多地侵入到原有的单一职能的工业港口,滨水空间已经逐步成为调节城市公共空间格局的重要因素。休斯敦港就是一个典型的例子。休斯顿港需要创新,以实现从单一功能的景观向多功能系统的转变,为城市公共设施提供更多的机会。过去的一个世纪里,休斯敦港一直是休斯敦经济增长的主要动力。该港口长达25英里的海峡蜿蜒穿过加尔维斯顿湾和水牛河口,为150多个私人和公共码头提供服务,为整个德克萨斯州带来了近120万个就业岗位和2650亿美元的经济影响,这相当于德州GDP的近16%。在美国,休斯顿港的进口吨位、国外水运吨位和出口吨位均名列第一。其地理位置集合了石油工业、交通运输和生态资源等多重区位优势,然而港口工业经济职能的背后却是与周边城市界面的断崖式分离。

With climate change straining the integrity of city shorelines and development increasingly encroaching into areas once claimed solely by industry working ports, waterfront land have become an important force in the changing urban terrain. Port of Houston is an example of this new, near, frontier. innovations are desired for Port of Houston to realize the conversion from single-functional landscapes to multi-functional systems that can provide more opportunities for urban public amenities. Port Houston has been a major driver to Houston’s economy growth over the last century.The Port’s 25-mile long channel weaves through Galveston Bay and Buffalo Bayou to service over 150 private and public terminals, bringing with it nearly 1.2 million jobs and $265 billion in economic impact throughout the state of Texas, which represents nearly 16% of the Texas GDP. In the United States, Port Houston is ranked first in terms of imports, foreign waterborne tonnage, and export tonnage. It integrates geographical advantages, such as petroleum industry, transportation and ecological resources. However the port itself is isolated from the surrounding communities.

▼休斯顿港历史,Port of Houston History

▼休斯敦港区域分析,Port Property

 

观察与研究
Observation and Research

休斯敦港沿航道分布在许多封闭的工业园区,使得港口作为一个运作的集合体本身很难与市民产生联系,也很少被人们所熟知。在世界范围内,船舶的体量以前所未有的速度增长,休斯敦港必须紧跟步伐,以抓住后巴拿马时代的机遇,这可能需要不断挖掘扩容船舶航道、扩大集装箱码头。

Port Houston’s scattered clusters of gated and inaccessible industrial complexes along the Houston Ship Channel make the port an agency and operation difficult for local Houstonians to recognize and understand. Worldwide, the size of shipping vessels has grown at an unprecedented rate, Port Houston must strategize to capture opportunities in the post-Panamax era, which will likely require deepening ship channels and enlarging container terminals to accommodate ever-larger ships.

▼从区域水域分析休斯敦港地理位置,Port Houston in the context of regional watersheds

上游水牛河持续的淤泥沉淀堆积使得疏浚工程必须持续进行,这既是为了上游可能减少的洪水,也是为了下游港口的基础设施需求。从而也形成了一系列疏浚堆场岛。

The ongoing flow of silt and its gradual deposition within Buffalo Bayou necessitates the need for constant dredging, both for its flood reduction potential upstream, and its infrastructural requirements at the Port downstream.

▼疏浚地块能力分析,Dredge Parcels Capacity

 

设计意向
Design Intention

休斯敦港景观规划设计旨在利用两大设计框架对休斯敦港这一城市经济基础设施进行城市空间激活与生态修复,实现空间品质提升。城市激活框架实现了在不影响港口基本职能完整性和安全导则的前提下,将港口工业用地提升为城市公共空间中更完整和可见的一部分。而生态修复框架则运用景观设计实现港口航道疏浚堆场的环境治理,强调生态栖息地营建与城市休闲空间相结合,并增强区域防洪抗灾能力。休斯港在工业港口基本职能基础上,成为了城市治理中推动区域活力、增强生态弹性的重要力量。

To address this issue, the landscape design of the Port Houston aims to use two major design frameworks to activate the urban space and restore the ecology, which can improve the spatial quality. The urban activation framework helps to transform port property to a more integral and visible part of the city’s public spaces, without compromising the integrity of the Port’s logistics and strict security protocols. The ecological restoration framework, on the other hand, uses design methods to mitigate the dredging landfill of ship channel, to emphasize the combination of ecological habitat and urban recreation space,  and to increase regional flood protection. Port Houston, beyond its primary function as an economic driver, becomes a more visible and substantial force in urban governance of advancing region’s activation and resilience.

▼从水牛河远眺港口标志性大桥,Port gateway bridge and observation platform view from buffalo bayou

 

设计内容
Design Content

城市激活框架 | Urban Framework

城市激活框架的重点是港口品牌效应建设和在船舶航道伊始的2英里的范围内城市活动空间的引入。该方案强调了I-610入口的港口总部和克林顿大道附近的游客中心的入口体验,通过艺术提升手段将港口边界用地实现从河道和城市界面的景观提升。在港口总部引入城市休闲空间,提升现有的游客中心和科普博物馆空间,并通过立面提升的手段打造沿岸仓储界面的艺术景墙。

The Urban Framework focuses on Port branding and urban design opportunities along the 2-mile stretch of Ship Channel at this location. The proposal highlights gateway experience to Port headquarters at the I-610 entry and the visitor center off Clinton Drive, looks at development opportunities at several waterfront sites, and introduces improvements of the port edges visible from the water and adjacent roadways. Landscape qualities of the main Port campus are enhanced by introducing recreational programming around the main visitor center/Port Museum and an adjacent dredge placement site, as well as “facade treatment” strategy for bulkhead surfaces derived from the aesthetic qualities of the Port’s container yard terminals.

▼潜在的港口品牌打造及地标性景点打造,Potential regional implementation of Port Branding, landmarks and tourism ideas

▼地块1平面图:场地引入城市活动空间,增强与周围城市空间的联通,Site 1 Plan showing site development opportunities and neighbourhood connections

▼艺术提升手段丰富航道起始段城市界面,Facades of the Turning Basin area are enhanced with art and signage

▼设计语言类型,Design language prototype

 

生态修复框架 Ecological Framework

生态修复框架研究了利用疏浚堆场形成的新的土地空间打造生态活动的可能。基于疏浚航道的需要,休斯敦港建立了阿特金森岛(疏浚堆场)示范湿地。湿地的建造有效利用了疏浚产生的泥沙材料。阿特金森岛生态旅游项目提升了休斯敦港对生态问题的关注,并在社区和港口之间建立了交流体验的空间。标志性鸟岛和航道地标的打造提升了休斯敦港的地区性影响力。同时,生态栖息地的修复、湿地与疏浚工程相结合,形成了不断变化的可持续景观。

Ecological Framework examines possibilities of working with land creation processes.  Port Houston established the Atkinson Island Demonstration Marsh in conjunction with the widening and deepening of the Houston Ship Channel. The constructed marsh is a demonstration of the beneficial use of dredged material. The proposal for Atkinson Island Eco-Tourism program expands on Port Houston’s attention to ecological concerns, and on building connections between communities and the Port. The Logo Bird Island, the Ship Channel gateway treatments work together as a landmark framework to make Port Houston and its footprint within the region more legible. Habitat restoration, wetland mitigation, and dredging activities result in a unique and a successionally changing landscape.

▼区域生态恢复和生态旅游理念的实施地点,Potential regional implementation of ecological restoration and ecotourism ideas

▼地块2平面图:阿特金森岛与标志岛,Site 2 Plan showing Atkinson island and port Houston logo island

 

 

 

 

05.

隔绝与连续
SECLUSION and CONNECTION
Summer Retreat in the Mountains, Designed for My Family

从小生活在北京,我们的生活一直充斥着川流不息的交通与高密度的现代化建筑。而一个难得的机会让我和我家人有了远离都市喧嚣的空间。父亲在北京郊区租下了一方山林,并打算在此建造一处私宅,让家人能够回归土地,回归自然山水。设计在保持原有山林景观的基础上,通过对植被的整合并小范围引入新的本土植物,以期实现对原本自然山体的景观提升。

Born in Beijing, our life is always filled with steady stream of vehicles and high modern buildings. Once a valuable experience give us an opportunity away from the hustle and bustle of the big city. My father rent a small mountainous area in the countryside, and built a series serious of houses, which provide our family an opportunity to get back our connection with land, and get more involved with a natural and beautiful environment. The design intended to preserve most part of the mountain space as it is, but leverage the planting layout through introducing more local species as a initiator.

▼建筑选址在相对平坦的一块台地,周围环绕山体,并与农业景观台地相连,The site is located at a relatively flat area, while surrounded with mountains and terraced farmland landscape.

▼运用当地典型的石材构建景观小品,将庭院与山体逐渐融合,The utilize of local boulder generates a natural feeling transforming from the residential courtyard to the mountain space

地块由多样的台地景观组成,通过建筑的排布方式与景观的衔接,希望形成一种隐世与山林的景观联系。居住空间在山体的包围下与外界相对隔绝,而基于当地特质石材的景观设计将建筑与自然结合形成连续性。项目已经建设完成,并且经历了几个阶段的景观改造。在此呈现的是项目建设之初的现场情况。

This site have various terraced terrains. We try to form a seclusion spirit and a thorough connection of the landscape and architectures. And hide the private residence behind screens of landscape and buildings.With the information and statistics of the climate and surroundings, I make the master plan and design the water features. This project already finish construction, and ever since then, it experienced several versions improvements. Thus I decide to illustrate this project through design drawings with photos of the construction site.

▼有效利用山体台地的特质,将主水体景观依地形变化而建
Taking advantage of the terraced landform, the major water feature is also terraced and with local boulders defining the edge

▼主水体景观图纸,Major Water Feature

▼基于当地特质石材的景观设计,Boulder selection for water feature

▼水景建造过程,water feature construction process

这一部分的建筑群起到了迎客与屏障的作用。三栋主体建筑依从北到南的坡地地形分布,构成观景空间。

This part of buildings act as the first screen to form the privacy and let people visiting us have the place to rest and have parties. Three main buildings and the courtyard of this reception and conference center has the downward slope from north to south. And we have a perfect natural view of the mountains between the buildings.

▼主体建筑建造过程,Major residence group under construction

▼以山体为大背景,建筑与周围景观相融合,The architecture and landscape interventions blended into the natural mountain landscape

 

 

 

 

06.

当代西藏 – 短暂的停歇
Tibet Contemporary – Ephemeral Infrastructure
Instructor: Zhang Ke

 

项目背景
Project Background

这是我接触到的最神圣的一个项目所在地。西藏位于喜马拉雅山北侧的青藏高原上,是中国的一个自治区。当代西藏,宗教对人们生活的各个方面都有很强的影响。西藏当地有两大宗教,一是藏传佛教,一是苯教,苯教是佛教产生之前的本土宗教。

This project locates at the most sacred site I’ve ever been – Tibet. TIBET on the lofty Tibetan Plateau on the northern side of the Himalayas is an autonomous region of China. Talking about the contemporary Tibet, religion has a strong influence over all aspects of their lives. There are major religions, one is Chinese Buddhism and the other is Bon religion, which is the indigenous religion before Buddhism.

 

观察与研究
Observation and Research

在浩瀚的山水自然中,宗教和信仰总会以某种形式呈现。一方面,藏族人们的宗教信仰使他们的定居方式以及游牧生活都对自然和土地保持着最低限度的干扰。另一方面,每一个藏族人民都梦想着从家乡出发完成一次上千公里的朝圣。中国佛教和苯教信徒在西藏的朝圣之路和西藏的自然风景形成了一种互动。在朝圣中,他们的灵魂得到净化,而日常生活以天地为家。朝圣者带着生活必需品,在磕长头的朝圣途中停下来休息、进食、扎营过夜。与此同时,旅游业的迅速发展也使越来越多的人沿着类似的朝圣之路骑行和徒步旅行,形成了一种当代的文化朝圣。当旅游与藏民的朝圣之路交汇之时,也形成了不同思想的交流。共同感受着这篇神圣土地带来的身心净化。朝圣者的到来、停留、离开,他们的祈祷、匍匐磕长头, 生命在这里没有终点站,旅程本身每一步都是一个驿站。

In the massive landscape and pure nature, religion and belief always show up in some way. On one hand, local Tibetan people preserve their religion and belief, their settlement and stock farming preserve the nature and minimum manipulation of the land. On the other hand, Starting from their home, Tibetan people dream about having this hundreds of miles pilgrimage [500-1500km]. When Chinese Buddhists and Bonpos pilgrimage in Tibet, they create a pattern of interaction between the pilgrims and the Tibetan landscape. Their spiritual life is purified, while their everyday life is continuing. The pilgrims stops for resting, cooking and eating, also they stops for overnight stay. They bring all of the essential utilities and supports with them. While at the same time, rapidly expanding tourism brings more and more people biking and hiking along the similar path of pilgrimage, they make up a contemporary method of cultural pilgrimage. When the two paths converge, a new engagement between landscape and mindscape appears, centering on a shared sense of greatness that is imme­diate physically while latent mentally. From dawn to dusk, pilgrims come, stay, and leave, and they pray, prostrate, and stride. With no terminal, the journey turns into a restless trip where each step is a station.

 

设计意向
Design Intention

项目着眼于宗教和旅游朝圣者朝圣道路上短暂的停留驿站。通过创造基本的歇脚驿站,让每一处短暂停留的空间与广阔的自然交织。避开主要城市和村庄,短暂停留的驿站分布在高速公路及通行的朝圣之路沿途,满足不同交通方式出行人群的停留需要。驿站建筑类型使用了当地传统的夯土材质及传统的藏民民居格局,使得驿站本身不仅仅是一个物化的休憩空间,也是精神上歇脚的所在。休憩驿站将藏民与游客融合在一起,提供了交流的可能,同时无穷尽的朝圣之旅使得更多的驿站得以建设和延续。

The project looks into the ephemeral infrastructures along pilgrimage paths for religious and tourist pilgrims. Through basic resting space establishment and fundamental structure supply, the ephem­eral infrastructures tapestry the supreme Tibetan landscape, and serving the endless pilgrimage with temporary pause spots. Instead of building permanent infrastructures in major cities and vil­lages, locations of sites form a subsystem weaving through national highways, offering multi-speed transportation attainable coexistence. The building and structure typology is based on local materials and typical forms, which makes a spot not only a physical support infrastructure, but also accumulation of mindscape from normal believ­ers. It is the ephemeral resting space that merges locals with visitors. At the same time, the endless pilgrimage makes the temporary pause spot continue accumulating.

▼朝圣之路,Pilgrimage Path – local & long distance

 

设计内容
Design Content

时间与空间尺度 | Geology & Time Scale

在这一地区有三条主要的朝圣之路,第一条是围绕本日神山的朝圣之路。
第二条是加拉朝圣,沿雅鲁藏布江大峡谷一直到达峡谷最深处的加拉村。
第三条就是沿318国道通往拉萨和凯拉什山。此外,在西藏自治区林芝县的南迦巴瓦山是著名的旅游景点。根据这些路线,该项目旨在为朝圣者和徒步旅行者提供沿途的休憩驿站。

Three major paths make across this area. Pilgrimage around Benri Mountain, the sacred mountain of Bon Religion; Bön is the indigenous religion of Tibet.
Jiala Pilgrimage is the path walking into the Yumlungzangpo Grand Canyon until arrive at the last village – Jiala.
Then the third one is the major path along the national high way 318 to Lhasa and Mount Kailash. Also At the foot of the Mount Namcha Barwa in Nyingchi County of Tibet Autonomous Region, there are popular tourism attractions. According to those paths, the project aimed at infrastructures for both pilgrims and hiking people.

▼主要的朝圣之路,major Pilgrimage Paths

▼驿站分布示意,site locations for ephemeral infrastructure

同时,驿站的设计通过时间尺度揭示了短暂性。有些人来休息,有些人留下来做饭和睡觉。正是这些周期性的到来与离开成就了短暂的相遇。此外,在更大的时间尺度上,驿站本身也在变化,因为建筑材料木材和夯土会随着时间的流逝而变化,材料本身也刻下了时间的维度。

The infrastructure reveals ephemerality through time scale. Some come and take a rest, some stay longer for cooking and sleeping. It is those periodical moments that continuously happen and gone makes the ephemerality, the infrastructure is holder of those moments. Moreover, in a larger time-scale, the ephemeral infrastructure itself is changing, due to building materials, wood and rammed earth may collapse, leaving the structure itself. The infrastructure itself is marking the length of time.

▼驿站选址适应典型的朝圣沿途地形,在此选取了三种典型地形研究,The infrastructure adapts the topographies; there are three typical conditions along the pilgrimage path.

▼驿站选址:山脚下、半山腰、山顶悬崖平台,According to the topography, the projects have multiple locations sitting in between villages and towns, at the nowhere of the mountain. The submontane; the hillside; and the cliff

驿站结构是以简单的几何形体切入自然景观,室内空间约为30平方米,实现的最小空间有效利用。每一个可用空间都是多重功能。公共设施及储物空间靠近入口门廊,方便使用。用餐与休憩空间紧邻观景窗,以传统的藏民起居室空间组合为原型。人行动线以不同地形和建筑的连接方式而变化,可以是与山顶相连的屋顶空间,亦或是建筑下层依山而建的观景平台。

▼三种选址的剖面图,Three site location sections

With simple geometry slice into the landscape, the interior space is around 30 m2, is the epitome of efficiency; every available space is utilized as a combined program space. Trying to compact the storage and other utility and cooking area close to the entry hallway, and release the resting and dining area with viewing windows connected to the nature. Circulation here is dynamic based on the topography. Viewing platform provides more open activities either on the roof or beneath the building.

▼粗略模型,Sketch model

▼细节模型,model

在这个短暂停歇的驿站中,藏民和游客在同一个休息空间,进行类似的日常活动,建立文化和宗教之间的对话。

In this infrastructure the space mix the Tibetan people with tourists at the same resting stop, having similar everyday activities, build the conversation between cultures and religions.

▼平面图和视野分析,Plan+View

▼悬崖路径透视,Perspective – Cliff Path

▼内部透视,Perspective – Inside

▼山下透视,Perspective – Submontane Path

在海外时间:2015.06 – 至今
在海外地点:休斯敦,波士顿
姓名:王娜
籍贯:北京
学校:北京大学、哈佛大学
工作单位:SWA Group
联系方式:nwang@swagroup.com

When: 2015.06 to present
Where: Houston, Boston
Who: Na Wang
From: Beijing
School: Peking University, GSD
Firm: SWA Group
Contact: nwang@swagroup.com

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