Nathan Phillips Square Revitalization by PLANT Architect + Perkins+Will + Hoerr Schaudt Landscape Architects + Adrian Blackwell Urban Projects

The exemplary 21st-century public space made of the terraced stage and gardens

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Appreciation towards PLANT Architect +  Perkins+Will Hoerr Schadt Landscape Architects Adrian Blackwell Urban Projects for providing the following description:

由芬兰建筑师威里·欧若威尔(Viljo Revell)设计的多伦多市政厅(Toronto City Hall)和其内森·菲利普斯广场(Nathan Phillips Square,缩写为NPS)共同构成了现代主义的一种标志性综合表达。从历史上看,内森·菲利普斯广场完工于1965年(Revell逝世后一年),其空间布局完全遵循建筑师生前的构想和规划。但随着时间的流逝,这个广场逐渐变得破旧不堪。2006年,多伦多市发起了一个国际竞赛,邀请建筑师们重新对内森·菲利普斯广场进行设计。最终,获胜的方案在设计策略上重新思考了广场的定位,将这个颇具传统雅典政治空间特色的城市广场改造成了一个21世纪公共空间的典范。设计团队一方面对现有元素进行了重新设计和布局,另一方面通过一系列新建的建筑和花园限定出开放式的广场,从而不仅增强了这个标志性城市空间的功能性、通用性和吸引力,更强调了这个具有纪念意义的历史空间与周边环境的联系。

Together, Viljo Revell’s Toronto City Hall and its civic plaza, Nathan Phillips Square (NPS), constitute an integrated, iconic expression of Modernism. Completed in 1965, a year after Revell’s death, the Square was true to the spatial arrangement its architect had envisioned. Over time, however, it became run-down and dysfunctional. In 2006, the City of Toronto launched an international competition to redesign NPS. The winning design strategically rethinks the Square to transform it into an exemplary 21st-century public space, drawing inspiration from Revell’s own references to classical Athenian political spaces. Through the redesign or relocation of existing elements and a new series of buildings and gardens framing the open plaza, the NPS Revitalization enhances the functionality, versatility, and appeal of Toronto’s signature civic space while augmenting this monumental heritage site’s “connectedness” to its surroundings.

▼新建的永久性舞台空间,the new permanent Stage ©Steven Evans

Revell设计的高架人行步道不仅限定出广场的边界,更有助于人们将视线集中在议会厅上。从理论上来讲,这是一种通过外围门廊来定义内部空间的设计手法,类似于雅典的集市,之前从而真正实现过。然而,这种形式构想在改造后的内森·菲利普斯广场中得到了充分的发展和体现。为了增强广场空间的连贯性,设计团队使用了以下四条设计策略:

1. 打开广场——移除广场中心位置上杂乱的建筑物和构筑物等,以容纳各种大型的文化聚会。
2. 在广场的周围创建一系列具有渗透性的功能性景观绿化空间,以限定出广场的边界。
3. 在高架人行步道和广场之间创造具有活力的新连接。
4. 通过新建的体量来连接广场的上下两层空间,以加强各标高平面之间和各区域之间的联系。

Revell’s elevated walkways frame the Square and focus views towards the council chamber. As in the Athenian agora, the threshold of a porch (stoa) at the perimeter defines the interior void. This definition was never fully developed, however, in NPS as built. To strengthen the coherence of the Square, the design team executed four tactical moves:
1. Open the Square – remove clutter at the centre to accommodate all kinds of large cultural gatherings.
2. Create programmed, porous, landscaped “green rooms” around the perimeter to frame the square.
3. Create new activated connections between the raised walkway and the Square.
4. Strengthen links between levels and between zones using new architecture as the bridge to connect the two levels of the square.

▼广场轴测图,axon of the square ©PLANT Architect + Perkins+Will + Hoerr Schaudt Landscape Architects + Adrian Blackwell Urban Projects

主要的建筑体量包括更新改造后的滑板亭(Skate Pavilion)和一个新建的永久性舞台空间(Stage),且舞台空间还配有一个位于停车场下方的工作区。所有的新结构都与人行步道相连,均能满足多种功能需求。退台形式的舞台空间的上方设有玻璃顶棚,从而创造出一个舒适的表演区:当举办小型活动时,表演者可以朝向舞台西侧的台阶进行表演;当举办大型活动时,表演者则面朝东侧,俯瞰着整个广场空间。而在没有演出的时候,这里也可以作为一个非正式的休息空间为人们提供放松的场所。同时,舞台的楼梯也将高架人行步道与广场联系了起来。

Major architectural components include the redesigned Skate Pavilion and creation of a permanent Stage with back-of-house suspended below in the parking garage. All new structures are multi-purpose and connect to the walkways. The glass-canopied, terraced form of the Stage provides covered public space and casual seating when not in use for performances, and its stairs connect the raised walkway to the Square. Small events can take place with performers facing westward toward stairs that double as bleacher seating; for larger events, those on the stage face eastward to overlook the entire Square.

▼退台形式的舞台空间的上方设有玻璃顶棚,创造出一个舒适的公共座椅区,the glass-canopied, terraced form of the Stage provides covered public space and casual seating ©Steven Evans

▼在没有演出的时候,舞台可以作为一个非正式的休息空间,the stage provides casual seating when not in use for performances ©Steven Evans

▼广场上的永久性舞台空间(近景)和滑板亭(远景)夜景,night view of the foreground permanent Stage and background Skate Pavilion on the square ©Steven Evans

广场中心地带的附近原本设置着一个建于1983年的和平花园(Peace Garden)。该花园严重损害了广场空间的开放性和实用性。因此在本项目中,设计团队将这个和平花园移植到了广场的西侧边界上,将广场中心打开,从而为大型活动提供了空间。不仅如此,建筑师还对和平花园进行了扩建和重新设计。其退台式的座椅空间不仅可以隐藏地下车库的排气管,还有助于吸声和重新引导气流。

A Peace Garden added in 1983 near the centre of the Square had compromised the space’s openness and ability to accommodate crowds. Relocating it to the western edge freed up the Square’s centre for larger events. The terraced seating of the redesigned and expanded Peace Garden is a major structure that conceals the underground parking garage’s exhaust duct while muffling its sound and redirecting the airflow.

▼和平花园,退台式的座椅空间不仅可以隐藏地下车库的排气管,还有助于吸声和重新引导气流,the Peace Garden, its terraced seating can conceal the underground parking garage’s exhaust duct and muffle its sound and redirecting the airflow ©Steven Evans

▼和平花园退台式的座椅空间细节,details of the terraced seating of the Peace Garden ©Steven Evans

▼和平花园夜景,the Peace Garden at night ©Steven Evans

其他的设计干预还包括对游乐场的重新设计、一个新建的雕塑花园、以及一个沿着皇后大街的新前院空间等。

Other elements include a playground redesign, a new Sculpture Garden, and a new forecourt along Queen Street.

▼沿着皇后大街的新前院空间,设有步道和座椅空间,the new forecourt along Queen Street with the informal paths by the seating areas ©Steven Evans

在对广场进行更新改造前,市政厅的裙房就是一系列冷硬的空间,而现在它们已经变成了多伦多市内最大的绿色屋顶共享空间。屋顶花园(Podium Roof Garden)中种植着各种可以适应基地气候环境条件的植物,随着季节的变化,人们可以看到花园的颜色从其西南侧的亮黄色和橙色逐渐过渡到其东北侧的深红色和紫色。

Prior to the revitalization, City Hall’s podium was a grim, paved void: it is now Toronto’s largest publicly accessible green roof. The Podium Roof Garden’s plantings, which change seasonally from bright yellows and oranges in the southwest to deep reds and purples in the northeast, were chosen to thrive in the site’s challenging shade and wind conditions.

▼市政厅裙房上绿色屋顶共享空间的秋景,the Podium Roof Garden of the City Hall in fall ©Steven Evans

▼广场总平面图,site plan ©PLANT Architect + Perkins+Will + Hoerr Schaudt Landscape Architects + Adrian Blackwell Urban Projects

DESIGN TEAM: PLANT Architect/Perkins+Will in joint venture with Hoerr Schaudt Landscape Architects and Adrian Blackwell Urban Projects
CLIENT: City of Toronto
PHASE 1 & 2 GENERAL CONTRACTOR: PCL Constructors Canada
PHASE 3 GENERAL CONTRACTOR: Four Seasons Site Development
STRUCTURAL: Blackwell Bowick Engineering
MECHANICAL/ELECTRICAL: Crossey Engineering Ltd.
TEAM: PLANT – Chris Pommer, Lisa Rapoport, Mary Tremain, Elise Shelley, Vanessa Eickhoff, Lisa Dietrich, Eric Klaver, Cleo Buster, Jane Hutton, Heather Asquith, Suzanne Ernst, Jeremy McGregor, Matthew Hartney; STIP / P+W – Andrew Frontini, D’Arcy Arthurs, Linda Neumayer, Vis Sankrithi, Elizabeth Tseronakis, Perry Edwards, Gavin Guthrie; HSLA – Peter Schaudt, John Ridenour, Shawn Weidner, Justin Libra; ABUP – Adrian Blackwell; James Urban; Blanche Lemco van Ginkel.
PHOTOS: Steven Evans Photography unless otherwise noted

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